Special Issue "Nanoparticles in Immunology"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
A/Prof. Dr. Neil M. O'Brien-Simpson

Oral Health CRC, Melbourne Dental School, 720 Swanston Street, The University of Melbourne, Carlton Victoria 3010, Australia
E-Mail
Interests: particle delivery; targeted particle systems; chemical biology; antimicrobial peptides; vaccines; mucosal immunology; T cell immunity; innate immunity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent developments in nanotechnology have led to a wide range of nanomaterials, with the purpose of interacting with the immune system. These novel nanomaterials are designed as carriers for a drug or antigen cargo to stimulate or suppress the immune system, encompass targeting moieties, such as peptides or antibodies, to direct material to certain cells to enhance immunity or imaging of immune system compartments. Furthermore, the inherent properties of nanomaterials are being used, enhanced, or altered to effect routes of application, delivery, and release of cargo.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials will capture the current knowledge in this area, through original research and reviews so as to provide critical dialogue in synthesis of nanomaterials for a specific immunological applications.

Prof. Dr. Neil M. O'Brien-Simpson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • immune response
  • vaccine
  • antigen delivery
  • mucosal immunity
  • immunostimulation
  • adjuvant
  • immune targeting

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle PMA-Induced THP-1 Macrophage Differentiation is Not Impaired by Citrate-Coated Platinum Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(10), 332; doi:10.3390/nano7100332
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
The innate immune system consists of several complex cellular and molecular mechanisms. During inflammatory responses, blood-circulating monocytes are driven to the sites of inflammation, where they differentiate into tissue macrophages. The research of novel nanomaterials applied to biomedical sciences is often limited by
[...] Read more.
The innate immune system consists of several complex cellular and molecular mechanisms. During inflammatory responses, blood-circulating monocytes are driven to the sites of inflammation, where they differentiate into tissue macrophages. The research of novel nanomaterials applied to biomedical sciences is often limited by their toxicity or dangerous interactions with the immune cell functions. Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) have shown efficient antioxidant properties within several cells, but information on their potential harmful role in the monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation process is still unknown. Here, we studied the morphology and the release of cytokines in PMA-differentiated THP-1 pre-treated with 5 nm PtNPs. Although NP endocytosis was evident, we did not find differences in the cellular structure or in the release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared to cells differentiated in PtNP-free medium. However, the administration of PtNPs to previously differentiated THP-1 induced massive phagocytosis of the PtNPs and a slight metabolism decrease at higher doses. Further investigation using undifferentiated and differentiated neutrophil-like HL60 confirmed the harmlessness of PtNPs with non-adherent innate immune cells. Our results demonstrate that citrate-coated PtNPs are not toxic with these immune cell lines, and do not affect the PMA-stimulated THP-1 macrophage differentiation process in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle Biocompatibility of Titania Nanotube Coatings Enriched with Silver Nanograins by Chemical Vapor Deposition
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(9), 274; doi:10.3390/nano7090274
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Bioactivity investigations of titania nanotube (TNT) coatings enriched with silver nanograins (TNT/Ag) have been carried out. TNT/Ag nanocomposite materials were produced by combining the electrochemical anodization and chemical vapor deposition methods. Fabricated coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
[...] Read more.
Bioactivity investigations of titania nanotube (TNT) coatings enriched with silver nanograins (TNT/Ag) have been carried out. TNT/Ag nanocomposite materials were produced by combining the electrochemical anodization and chemical vapor deposition methods. Fabricated coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The release effect of silver ions from TNT/Ag composites immersed in bodily fluids, has been studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The metabolic activity assay (MTT) was applied to determine the L929 murine fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation on the surface of TNT/Ag coatings. Moreover, the results of immunoassays (using peripheral blood mononuclear cells—PBMCs isolated from rats) allowed the estimation of the immunological activity of TNT/Ag surface materials. Antibacterial activity of TNT/Ag coatings with different morphological and structural features was estimated against two Staphylococcus aureus strains (ATCC 29213 and H9). The TNT/Ag nanocomposite layers produced revealed a good biocompatibility promoting the fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. A desirable anti-biofilm activity against the S. aureus reference strain was mainly noticed for these TiO2 nanotube coatings, which contain dispersed Ag nanograins deposited on their surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle Interleukin-10 Conjugation to Carboxylated PVP-Coated Silver Nanoparticles for Improved Stability and Therapeutic Efficacy
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 165; doi:10.3390/nano7070165
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a key anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine and therefore represents a potential therapeutic agent especially in inflammatory diseases. However, despite its proven therapeutic efficacy, its short half-life and proteolytic degradation in vivo combined with its low storage stability have limited its
[...] Read more.
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a key anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine and therefore represents a potential therapeutic agent especially in inflammatory diseases. However, despite its proven therapeutic efficacy, its short half-life and proteolytic degradation in vivo combined with its low storage stability have limited its therapeutic use. Strategies have been developed to overcome most of these shortcomings, including in particular bioconjugation with stabilizing agents such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly (vinylpyrolidone) (PVP), but so far these have had limited success. In this paper, we present an alternative method consisting of bioconjugating IL-10 to PVP-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag-PVPs) in order to achieve its storage stability by preventing denaturation and to improve its anti-inflammatory efficacy. Silver nanoparticles capped with a carboxylated PVP were produced and further covalently conjugated with IL-10 protein by carbodiimide crosslinker chemistry. The IL-10 conjugated Ag-PVPs exhibited increased stability and anti-inflammatory effectiveness in vitro. This study therefore provides a novel approach to bioconjugating PVP-coated silver nanoparticles with therapeutic proteins, which could be useful in drug delivery and anti-inflammatory therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Nanovectors for the Development of DNA Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccines
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(2), 30; doi:10.3390/nano7020030
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract
DNA vaccines offer cost, flexibility, and stability advantages, but administered alone have limited immunogenicity. Previously, we identified optimal configurations of magnetic vectors comprising superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), polyethylenimine (PEI), and hyaluronic acid (HA) to deliver malaria DNA encoding Plasmodium yoelii (Py) merozoite
[...] Read more.
DNA vaccines offer cost, flexibility, and stability advantages, but administered alone have limited immunogenicity. Previously, we identified optimal configurations of magnetic vectors comprising superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), polyethylenimine (PEI), and hyaluronic acid (HA) to deliver malaria DNA encoding Plasmodium yoelii (Py) merozoite surface protein MSP119 (SPIONs/PEI/DNA + HA gene complex) to dendritic cells and transfect them with high efficiency in vitro. Herein, we evaluate their immunogenicity in vivo by administering these potential vaccine complexes into BALB/c mice. The complexes induced antibodies against PyMSP119, with higher responses induced intraperitoneally than intramuscularly, and antibody levels further enhanced by applying an external magnetic field. The predominant IgG subclasses induced were IgG2a followed by IgG1 and IgG2b. The complexes further elicited high levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and moderate levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17 antigen-specific splenocytes, indicating induction of T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cell mediated immunity. The ability of such DNA/nanoparticle complexes to induce cytophilic antibodies together with broad spectrum cellular immunity may benefit malaria vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Immunology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Nanoparticle-Based Delivery of Anaplasma marginale Membrane Proteins; VirB9-1 and VirB10 Produced in the Pichia pastoris Expression System
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(11), 201; doi:10.3390/nano6110201
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 5 November 2016
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Abstract
Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are immunogenic components of the outer membrane type IV
[...] Read more.
Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are immunogenic components of the outer membrane type IV secretion system that have been identified as candidate antigens for vaccines targeting of A. marginale. Soluble VirB9-1 and VirB10 were successfully expressed using Pichia pastoris. When formulated with the self-adjuvanting silica vesicles, SV-100 (diameter: 50 nm, and pore entrance size: 6 nm), 200 µg of VirB9-1 and VirB10 were adsorbed per milligram of nanoparticle. The VirB9-1 and VirB10, SV-100 formulations were shown to induce higher antibody responses in mice compared to the QuilA formulations. Moreover, intracellular staining of selected cytokines demonstrated that both VirB9-1 and VirB10 formulations induced cell-mediated immune responses in mice. Importantly, the SV-100 VirB9-1 and VirB10 complexes were shown to specifically stimulate bovine T-cell linages derived from calves immunised with A. marginale outer membrane fractions, suggesting formulations will be useful for bovine immunisation and protection studies. Overall this study demonstrates the potential of self-adjuvanting silica vesicle formulations to address current deficiencies in vaccine delivery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle Pregnancy Vaccination with Gold Glyco-Nanoparticles Carrying Listeria monocytogenes Peptides Protects against Listeriosis and Brain- and Cutaneous-Associated Morbidities
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(8), 151; doi:10.3390/nano6080151
Received: 16 July 2016 / Revised: 26 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Listeriosis is a fatal infection for fetuses and newborns with two clinical main morbidities in the neonatal period, meningitis and diffused cutaneous lesions. In this study, we vaccinated pregnant females with two gold glyconanoparticles (GNP) loaded with two peptides, listeriolysin peptide 91–99 (LLO
[...] Read more.
Listeriosis is a fatal infection for fetuses and newborns with two clinical main morbidities in the neonatal period, meningitis and diffused cutaneous lesions. In this study, we vaccinated pregnant females with two gold glyconanoparticles (GNP) loaded with two peptides, listeriolysin peptide 91–99 (LLO91–99) or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1–22 peptide (GAPDH1–22). Neonates born to vaccinated mothers were free of bacteria and healthy, while non-vaccinated mice presented clear brain affections and cutaneous diminishment of melanocytes. Therefore, these nanoparticle vaccines are effective measures to offer pregnant mothers at high risk of listeriosis interesting therapies that cross the placenta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Immunology)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Pro-Inflammatory Versus Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Dendrimers: The Two Faces of Immuno-Modulatory Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(9), 251; doi:10.3390/nano7090251
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Dendrimers are soft matter, hyperbranched, and multivalent nanoparticles whose synthesis theoretically affords monodisperse compounds. They are built from a core on which one or several successive series of branches are engrafted in an arborescent way. At the end of the synthesis, the tunable
[...] Read more.
Dendrimers are soft matter, hyperbranched, and multivalent nanoparticles whose synthesis theoretically affords monodisperse compounds. They are built from a core on which one or several successive series of branches are engrafted in an arborescent way. At the end of the synthesis, the tunable addition of surface groups gives birth to multivalent nano-objects which are generally intended for a specific use. For these reasons, dendrimers have received a lot of attention from biomedical researchers. In particular, some of us have demonstrated that dendrimers can be intrinsically drug-candidate for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, amongst others, using relevant preclinical animal models. These anti-inflammatory dendrimers are innovative in the pharmaceutical field. More recently, it has appeared that some dendrimers (even among those which have been described as anti-inflammatory) can promote inflammatory responses in non-diseased animals. The main corpus of this concise review is focused on the reports which describe anti-inflammatory properties of dendrimers in vivo, following which we review the few recent articles that show pro-inflammatory effects of our favorite molecules, to finally discuss this duality in immuno-modulation which has to be taken into account for the preclinical and clinical developments of dendrimers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Immunology)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of the paper: Review
Tentative title: The interplay between nanoparticles and neutrophils
Authors: Min-Hsien Lin, Chi-Feng Hung, Zih-Chan Lin, Jia-You Fang
Affiliations: Chang Gung University
Abstract: Inflammation is an immune response that indicates several pathophysiological conditions, including pathogen infection, tissue injury, and tumor growth, in human diseases. During the processes of infection, tumor growth and autoimmune responses, tissue-associated immune cells distributed in the body play a central role in the onset of inflammation and are actively involved in maintaining homeostasis. Nanoparticles for medical use are becoming an important material for application in diverse areas, including oncology, diagnosis and drug delivery. The research involved in nanomedicine is currently focused on the beneficial application for clinical practicability; however, the toxicity of nanoparticles is not usually taken into consideration. Most of the nanoparticles for diagnosis/therapy are administered via a parenteral route into the circulation. Neutrophils are the majority of blood cells in circulation. In response to foreign stimulation, the neutrophils can react first. Overexpressed activation of neutrophils can elicit tissue and organ damage, leading to pathogenesis and some diseases. This review describes the interactions between various nanoparticles and neutrophils. In this review, we principally focus on the effect of nanoparticles on the neutrophil-elicited inflammation and immunomodulation. The benefits of nanoparticles for neutrophil-related disorders are also discussed. The review ends by anticipating future developments and trends of nanoparticles for immune diseases.
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