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Nanomaterials, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Cover Story The combination of piezoelectric and polymer materials is an effective way to make the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanooctahedra MnFe2O4 onto the Wood Surface with Soft Magnetism, Fire Resistance and Electromagnetic Wave Absorption
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 118; doi:10.3390/nano7060118
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
In this study, nanooctahedra MnFe2O4 were successfully deposited on a wood surface via a low hydrothermal treatment by hydrogen bonding interactions. As-prepared MnFe2O4/wood composite (MW) had superior performance of soft magnetism, fire resistance and electromagnetic wave
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In this study, nanooctahedra MnFe2O4 were successfully deposited on a wood surface via a low hydrothermal treatment by hydrogen bonding interactions. As-prepared MnFe2O4/wood composite (MW) had superior performance of soft magnetism, fire resistance and electromagnetic wave absorption. Among them, small hysteresis loops and low coercivity (<±5 Oe) were observed in the magnetization-field curve of MW with saturation magnetization of 28.24 emu/g, indicating its excellent soft magnetism. The MW also exhibited a good fire-resistant property due to its initial burning time at 20 s; while only 6 s for the untreated wood (UW) in combustion experiments. Additionally, this composite revealed good electromagnetic wave absorption with a minimum reflection loss of −9.3 dB at 16.48 GHz. Therefore, the MW has great potential in the fields of special decoration and indoor electromagnetic wave absorbers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fast Preparation of Porous MnO/C Microspheres as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 121; doi:10.3390/nano7060121
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
Porous MnO/C microspheres have been successfully fabricated by a fast co-precipitation method in a T-shaped microchannel reactor. The structures, compositions, and electrochemical performances of the obtained MnO/C microspheres are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM),
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Porous MnO/C microspheres have been successfully fabricated by a fast co-precipitation method in a T-shaped microchannel reactor. The structures, compositions, and electrochemical performances of the obtained MnO/C microspheres are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, charge-discharge testing, cyclic voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectra. Experimental results reveal that the as-prepared MnO/C, with a specific surface area of 96.66 m2·g−1 and average pore size of 24.37 nm, exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, with a discharge capacity of 655.4 mAh·g−1 after cycling 50 times at 1 C and capacities of 808.3, 743.7, 642.6, 450.1, and 803.1 mAh·g−1 at 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 0.2 C, respectively. Moreover, the controlled method of using a microchannel reactor, which can produce larger specific surface area porous MnO/C with improved cycling performance by shortening lithium-ion diffusion distances, can be easily applied in real production on a large scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Curcuma mangga-Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Characterization, Stability, Cytotoxicity, and Blood Compatibility
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 123; doi:10.3390/nano7060123
Received: 4 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
The utilization of toxic chemicals as reducing and stabilizing agents in the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has increased in vivo toxicity and thus limited its application in clinical settings. Herein, we propose an alternative method of preparing highly stable AuNPs, where non-toxic
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The utilization of toxic chemicals as reducing and stabilizing agents in the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has increased in vivo toxicity and thus limited its application in clinical settings. Herein, we propose an alternative method of preparing highly stable AuNPs, where non-toxic Curcuma mangga (CM) extract was used as a single reducing and stabilizing agent to overcome the aforementioned constraints. The morphological images enunciated that the homogeneously dispersed AuNPs exhibited spherical morphology with an average particle diameter of 15.6 nm. Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and cyclic voltammetry analysis demonstrated that carbonyl groups of terpenoids in CM extract played an important role in the formation and stabilization of AuNPs. Green-synthesized AuNPs were found to have good stability in physiological media after 24 h of dispersion. The AuNPs were also cytocompatible with human colon fibroblast cell (CCD-18Co) and human lung fibroblast cell (MRC-5). Hemocompatibility tests revealed that the AuNPs were blood-compatible, with less than 10% of hemolysis without any aggregation of erythrocytes. The current study suggests potential in employing a CM-extract-based method in the preparation of AuNPs for anticancer diagnosis and therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Silver Nanoparticles in Orthopedic Applications: New Insights on Their Effects on Osteogenic Cells
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 124; doi:10.3390/nano7060124
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
Infections of orthopedic implants are associated with high morbidity. The emergence of antibiotic resistant strains and the tendency of microbes to form biofilms on orthopedic devices prompt the individuation of novel antimicrobial agents. Silver nanoparticles represent an interesting alternative, but their effects on
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Infections of orthopedic implants are associated with high morbidity. The emergence of antibiotic resistant strains and the tendency of microbes to form biofilms on orthopedic devices prompt the individuation of novel antimicrobial agents. Silver nanoparticles represent an interesting alternative, but their effects on bone cells need to be clarified. We focused on osteoblast-like cells and on bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells and found that these cells are rather resistant to the cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration around 25 µg/mL as detected by MTT assay. Within a month of treatment, osteoblast-like cells adapt to the presence of the nanoparticles by upregulating hsp70 as shown by western blot. Hsp70 overexpression correlates with the restoration of normal cell proliferation. No alterations in the extent and time requirements were detected in mesenchymal stem cell induced to differentiate in osteoblasts in the presence of silver nanoparticles. Because the concentrations of silver nanoparticles which show antimicrobial activity are lower than those exerting toxic effects on bone-forming cells in vitro, we suggest that silver nanoparticles might represent a challenging tool to fight infections in orthopedic implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytotoxicity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Simple Technique of Exfoliation and Dispersion of Multilayer Graphene from Natural Graphite by Ozone-Assisted Sonication
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 125; doi:10.3390/nano7060125
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
Owing to its unique properties, graphene has attracted tremendous attention in many research fields. There is a great space to develop graphene synthesis techniques by an efficient and environmentally friendly approach. In this paper, we report a facile method to synthesize well-dispersed multilayer
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Owing to its unique properties, graphene has attracted tremendous attention in many research fields. There is a great space to develop graphene synthesis techniques by an efficient and environmentally friendly approach. In this paper, we report a facile method to synthesize well-dispersed multilayer graphene (MLG) without using any chemical reagents or organic solvents. This was achieved by the ozone-assisted sonication of the natural graphite in a water medium. The frequency or number of ozone treatments plays an important role for the dispersion in the process. The possible mechanism of graphene exfoliation and the introduction of functional groups have been postulated. The experimental setup is unique for ozone treatment and enables the elimination of ozone off-gas. The heat generated by the dissipation of ultrasonic waves was used as it is, and no additional heat was supplied. The graphene dispersion was stable, and no evidence of aggregation was observed---even after several months. The characterization results show that well-dispersed MLG was successfully synthesized without any significant damage to the overall structure. The graphene obtained by this method has potential applications in composite materials, conductive coatings, energy storage, and electronic devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide Coatings on High Aspect Ratio Micro-Pillar Arrays for 3D Thin Film Lithium Ion Batteries
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 126; doi:10.3390/nano7060126
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
In this work, we present the electrochemical deposition of manganese dioxide (MnO2) thin films on carbon-coated TiN/Si micro-pillars. The carbon buffer layer, grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), is used as a protective coating for the underlying TiN current
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In this work, we present the electrochemical deposition of manganese dioxide (MnO2) thin films on carbon-coated TiN/Si micro-pillars. The carbon buffer layer, grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), is used as a protective coating for the underlying TiN current collector from oxidation, during the film deposition, while improving the electrical conductivity of the stack. A conformal electrolytic MnO2 (EMD) coating is successfully achieved on high aspect ratio C/TiN/Si pillar arrays by tailoring the deposition process. Lithiation/Delithiation cycling tests have been performed. Reversible insertion and extraction of Li+ through EMD structure are observed. The fabricated stack is thus considered as a good candidate not only for 3D micorbatteries but also for other energy storage applications. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Heteromer Nanostars by Spontaneous Self-Assembly
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 127; doi:10.3390/nano7060127
Received: 23 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
Heteromer star-shaped nanoparticles have the potential to carry out therapeutic agents, improve intracellular uptake, and safely release drugs after prolonged periods of residence at the diseased site. A one-step seed mediation process was employed using polylactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA),
[...] Read more.
Heteromer star-shaped nanoparticles have the potential to carry out therapeutic agents, improve intracellular uptake, and safely release drugs after prolonged periods of residence at the diseased site. A one-step seed mediation process was employed using polylactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), silver nitrate, and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC). Mixing these reagents followed by UV irradiation successfully produced heteromer nanostars containing a number of arm chains attached to a single core with a high yield. The release of THPC from heteromer nanostars was tested for its potential use for breast cancer treatment. The nanostars present a unique geometrical design exhibiting a significant intracellular uptake by breast cancer cells but low cytotoxicity that potentiates its efficacy as drug carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle Formation of Conductive DNA-Based Nanowires via Conjugation of dsDNA with Cationic Peptide
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 128; doi:10.3390/nano7060128
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
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Abstract
A novel conductive DNA-based nanomaterial, DNA-peptide wire, composed of a DNA core and a peripheral peptide layer, is presented. The electrical conductivity of the wire is found to be at least three orders in magnitude higher than that of native double-stranded DNA (dsDNA).
[...] Read more.
A novel conductive DNA-based nanomaterial, DNA-peptide wire, composed of a DNA core and a peripheral peptide layer, is presented. The electrical conductivity of the wire is found to be at least three orders in magnitude higher than that of native double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). High conductivity of the wires along with a better resistance to mechanical deformations caused by interactions between the substrate and electrode surface make them appealing for a wide variety of nanoelectronic and biosensor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA-Based Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle The Development of Non-Enzymatic Glucose Biosensors Based on Electrochemically Prepared Polypyrrole–Chitosan–Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite Films
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 129; doi:10.3390/nano7060129
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 21 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
The performance of a modified electrode of nanocomposite films consisting of polypyrrole–chitosan–titanium dioxide (Ppy-CS-TiO2) has been explored for the developing a non-enzymatic glucose biosensors. The synergy effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and conducting polymer on the current responses of the
[...] Read more.
The performance of a modified electrode of nanocomposite films consisting of polypyrrole–chitosan–titanium dioxide (Ppy-CS-TiO2) has been explored for the developing a non-enzymatic glucose biosensors. The synergy effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and conducting polymer on the current responses of the electrode resulted in greater sensitivity. The incorporation of TiO2 NPs in the nanocomposite films was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. FE-SEM and HR-TEM provided more evidence for the presence of TiO2 in the Ppy-CS structure. Glucose biosensing properties were determined by amperommetry and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The interfacial properties of nanocomposite electrodes were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The developed biosensors showed good sensitivity over a linear range of 1–14 mM with a detection limit of 614 μM for glucose. The modified electrode with Ppy-CS nanocomposite also exhibited good selectivity and long-term stability with no interference effect. The Ppy-CS-TiO2 nanocomposites films presented high electron transfer kinetics. This work shows the role of nanomaterials in electrochemical biosensors and describes the process of their homogeneous distribution in composite films by a one-step electrochemical process, where all components are taken in a single solution in the electrochemical cell. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Improving the Power Conversion Efficiency of Carbon Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells by Growing the Dots on a TiO2 Photoanode In Situ
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 130; doi:10.3390/nano7060130
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are highly promising since they can potentially solve global energy issues. The development of new photosensitizers is the key to fully realizing perspectives proposed to DSSCs. Being cheap and nontoxic, carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged as attractive candidates
[...] Read more.
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are highly promising since they can potentially solve global energy issues. The development of new photosensitizers is the key to fully realizing perspectives proposed to DSSCs. Being cheap and nontoxic, carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged as attractive candidates for this purpose. However, current methodologies to build up CQD-sensitized solar cells (CQDSCs) result in an imperfect apparatus with extremely low power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Herein, we present a simple strategy of growing carbon quantum dots (CQDs) onto TiO2 surfaces in situ. The CQDs/TiO2 hybridized photoanode was then used to construct solar cell with an improved PCE of 0.87%, which is higher than all of the reported CQDSCs adopting the simple post-adsorption method. This result indicates that an in situ growing strategy has great advantages in terms of optimizing the performance of CQDSCs. In addition, we have also found that the mechanisms dominating the performance of CQDSCs are different from those behind the solar cells using inorganic semiconductor quantum dots (ISQDs) as the photosensitizers, which re-confirms the conclusion that the characteristics of CQDs differ from those of ISQDs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Glutathione-Mediated Cu(I)/Cu(II) Complexes: Valence-Dependent Effects on Clearance and In Vivo Imaging Application
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 132; doi:10.3390/nano7060132
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 20 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
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Abstract
Contrast imaging agents need to be cleared in a reasonable time (less than 72 h), so it is quite urgent to understand the structure, biocompatibility, and metabolism features of imaging agents. In this work, luminescent Cu(I)-GSH complex and their derivative oxidized Cu(II)-GSSG complex
[...] Read more.
Contrast imaging agents need to be cleared in a reasonable time (less than 72 h), so it is quite urgent to understand the structure, biocompatibility, and metabolism features of imaging agents. In this work, luminescent Cu(I)-GSH complex and their derivative oxidized Cu(II)-GSSG complex have been easily synthesized. Through systematically probing the renal clearance and biodistribution of the as-prepared copper complexes, we found that Cu(I)-GSH complex revealed much more efficient renal clearance and remarkably lower liver accumulation than that of their oxidation states, which could be due to strong protein binding of partial forms of Cu(II)-GSSG complex. Besides, we also attempted to incorporate radioactive copper-64 into Cu(I)-GSH complex for the synthesis of radioactive contrast agent. Indeed, the as-prepared radioactive Cu(I)-GSH complex also showed consistent high efficiency renal excretion, allowing them to be potential PET imaging agents in clinical translation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Parameters for Fabricating Nano-Au Colloids through the Electric Spark Discharge Method with Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 133; doi:10.3390/nano7060133
Received: 2 April 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the Electric Spark Discharge Method (ESDM) was employed with micro-electrical discharge machining (m-EDM) to create an electric arc that melted two electrodes in deionized water (DW) and fabricated nano-Au colloids through pulse discharges with a controlled on–off duration (TON
[...] Read more.
In this study, the Electric Spark Discharge Method (ESDM) was employed with micro-electrical discharge machining (m-EDM) to create an electric arc that melted two electrodes in deionized water (DW) and fabricated nano-Au colloids through pulse discharges with a controlled on–off duration (TON–TOFF) and a total fabrication time of 1 min. A total of six on–off settings were tested under normal experimental conditions and without the addition of any chemical substances. Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Zetasizer Nano measurements, and scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray (SEM–EDX) analyses suggested that the nano-Au colloid fabricated at 10–10 µs (10 µs on, 10 µs off) had higher concentration and suspension stability than products made at other TON–TOFF settings. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the colloid was 549 nm on the first day of fabrication and stabilized at 532 nm on the third day. As the TON–TOFF period increased, the absorbance (i.e., concentration) of all nano-Au colloids decreased. Absorbance was highest at 10–10 µs. The SPR peaks stabilized at 532 nm across all TON–TOFF periods. The Zeta potential at 10–10 µs was −36.6 mV, indicating that no nano-Au agglomeration occurred and that the particles had high suspension stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing the Removal of Rhodamine B in Aqueous Solutions by Reduced Graphene Oxide-Supported Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron (nZVI/rGO) Using an Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA)
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 134; doi:10.3390/nano7060134
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
Rhodamine B (Rh B) is a toxic dye that is harmful to the environment, humans, and animals, and thus the discharge of Rh B wastewater has become a critical concern. In the present study, reduced graphene oxide-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI/rGO) was used
[...] Read more.
Rhodamine B (Rh B) is a toxic dye that is harmful to the environment, humans, and animals, and thus the discharge of Rh B wastewater has become a critical concern. In the present study, reduced graphene oxide-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI/rGO) was used to treat Rh B aqueous solutions. The nZVI/rGO composites were synthesized with the chemical deposition method and were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, N2-sorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The effects of several important parameters (initial pH, initial concentration, temperature, and contact time) on the removal of Rh B by nZVI/rGO were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network hybridized with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). The results suggest that the ANN-GA model was more accurate than the RSM model. The predicted optimum value of Rh B removal efficiency (90.0%) was determined using the ANN-GA model, which was compatible with the experimental value (86.4%). Moreover, the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm equations were applied to fit the adsorption equilibrium data, and the Freundlich isotherm was the most suitable model for describing the process for sorption of Rh B onto the nZVI/rGO composites. The maximum adsorption capacity based on the Langmuir isotherm was 87.72 mg/g. The removal process of Rh B could be completed within 20 min, which was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Functionalizing Graphene Oxide with Alkylamine by Gamma-ray Irradiation Method
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 135; doi:10.3390/nano7060135
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
A gamma-ray irradiation technique was used to functionalize graphene oxide (GO) with alkylamines of various alkyl chain lengths. Functionalization of the alkyl chains onto the GO was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction
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A gamma-ray irradiation technique was used to functionalize graphene oxide (GO) with alkylamines of various alkyl chain lengths. Functionalization of the alkyl chains onto the GO was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FTIR of the functionalized GO showed the appearance of significant peaks around 2960–2850 cm−1 (–CH2) which came from long alkyl chains, together with a peak around 1560–1450 cm−1, indicating the formation of C–NH–C. XRD showed an additional diffraction peak at a lower 2θ angle, indicating that the intercalation of the alkylamine was successful. The effects on the morphological and thermal properties of GO functionalized with alkyl chains of various lengths were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed an increase in surface roughness when the alkyl chain length was increased. The addition of alkyl chains on GO surfaces significantly improved the thermal stability of the GO, suggesting that these surfaces have great potential for use as a hydrophobic material in industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Shaped Ag Nanoparticles in the Plasmonic Layer of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Increased Power Conversion Efficiency
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 136; doi:10.3390/nano7060136
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 4 June 2017
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Abstract
The use of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is widespread owing to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low cost of manufacturing. We prepared multi-shaped Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and introduced them into DSSCs to further enhance their PCE. The maximum absorption wavelength of
[...] Read more.
The use of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is widespread owing to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low cost of manufacturing. We prepared multi-shaped Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and introduced them into DSSCs to further enhance their PCE. The maximum absorption wavelength of the multi-shaped Ag NPs is 420 nm, including the shoulder with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 121 nm. This is a broad absorption wavelength compared to spherical Ag NPs, which have a maximum absorption wavelength of 400 nm without the shoulder of 61 nm FWHM. Therefore, when multi-shaped Ag NPs with a broader plasmon-enhanced absorption were coated on a mesoporous TiO2 layer on a layer-by-layer structure in DSSCs, the PCE increased from 8.44% to 10.22%, equivalent to an improvement of 21.09% compared to DSSCs without a plasmonic layer. To confirm the plasmon-enhanced effect on the composite film structure in DSSCs, the PCE of DSSCs based on the composite film structure with multi-shaped Ag NPs increased from 8.58% to 10.34%, equivalent to an improvement of 20.51% compared to DSSCs without a plasmonic layer. This concept can be applied to perovskite solar cells, hybrid solar cells, and other solar cells devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Removal of Carmine from Aqueous Solution by Carbonated Hydroxyapatite Nanorods
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 137; doi:10.3390/nano7060137
Received: 2 April 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 5 June 2017
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Abstract
In this study, carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanorods were prepared by a novel hydrothermal method. The crystallinity and chemical structure of synthesized CHA nanorods was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Carmine was
[...] Read more.
In this study, carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanorods were prepared by a novel hydrothermal method. The crystallinity and chemical structure of synthesized CHA nanorods was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Carmine was selected as representative organic dyes to study the adsorption capacities of CHA nanorods. Mechanistic studies of carmine adsorption by CHA nanorods show that the adsorption processes both follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and fit the Langmuir isotherm model well. The CHA nanorods exhibited a high adsorption capacity of 85.51 mg/g for carmine at room-temperature. The experimental results prove that CHA nanorods can be promising absorbents for removing organic dye pollutants in wastewater from paper and textile plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Water Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Designed Synthesis of Nanostructured Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Based Drug Nanocarrier for Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery toward the Treatment of Human Epidermoid Carcinoma
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 138; doi:10.3390/nano7060138
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on hydroxyapatite nanorod based nanostructures (Fe3O4/HAp) were synthesized using hydrothermal techniques at 180 °C for 12 h and were used as drug delivery nanocarriers for cancer cell therapeutic applications. The synthesized Fe3
[...] Read more.
Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on hydroxyapatite nanorod based nanostructures (Fe3O4/HAp) were synthesized using hydrothermal techniques at 180 °C for 12 h and were used as drug delivery nanocarriers for cancer cell therapeutic applications. The synthesized Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The morphologies of the Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites show 15 nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in the form of rods. The BET result shows that the synthesized samples have a high specific surface area of 80 m2 g−1 with mesoporous structures. Magnetic measurements revealed that the sample has high saturation magnetization of 18 emu/g with low coercivity. The Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites had a large specific surface area (SSA), high mesoporous volume, and good magnetic property, which made it a suitable nanocarrier for targeted drug delivery systems. The chemotherapeutic agent, andrographolide, was used to investigate the drug delivery behavior of the Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites. The human epidermoid skin cancer cells (A431) were used as the model targeting cell lines by treating with andrographolide loaded Fe3O4/HAp nanosystems and were further evaluated for their antiproliferative activities and the induction of apoptosis. Also, the present nanocomposite shows better biocompatibility, therefore it can be used as suitable drug vehicle for cancer therapy applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biogenic Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles Using a Biosurfactant Extracted from Corn and Their Antimicrobial Properties
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 139; doi:10.3390/nano7060139
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
A new and promising biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor has been used for the green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) in a one-step procedure induced by temperature. Most of the biosurfactants proposed in the literature are produced by pathogenic microorganisms;
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A new and promising biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor has been used for the green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) in a one-step procedure induced by temperature. Most of the biosurfactants proposed in the literature are produced by pathogenic microorganisms; whereas the biosurfactant used in the current work was extracted from a liquid stream, fermented spontaneously by lactic acid bacteria, which are “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) microorganisms. The reduction of a gold precursor in the presence of a biosurfactant gives rise to a mixture of nanospheres and nanoplates with distinct optical features. Moreover, the growth of nanoplates can be promoted by increasing the reaction temperature to 60 °C. In the case of silver, the biosurfactant just induces the formation of pseudo-spherical NPs. The biosurfactant plays a key role in the reduction of the metal precursor, as well as in the stabilization of the resulting NPs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the resulting silver colloids has been analyzed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The biosurfactant stabilized NPs slightly increased the inhibition of E. coli in comparison with citrate stabilized Ag NPs. The use of this biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor for the synthesis of metal NPs contributes to enhancing the application of green technologies and increasing the utilization of clean, non-toxic and environmentally safe production processes. Therefore, it can help to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency in the field of nanomaterials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Facile Synthesis of Flower-Like Copper-Cobalt Sulfide as Binder-Free Faradaic Electrodes for Supercapacitors with Improved Electrochemical Properties
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 140; doi:10.3390/nano7060140
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
Supercapacitors have been one of the highest potential candidates for energy storage because of their significant advantages beyond rechargeable batteries in terms of large power density, short recharging time, and long cycle lifespan. In this work, Cu–Co sulfides with uniform flower-like structure have
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Supercapacitors have been one of the highest potential candidates for energy storage because of their significant advantages beyond rechargeable batteries in terms of large power density, short recharging time, and long cycle lifespan. In this work, Cu–Co sulfides with uniform flower-like structure have been successfully obtained via a traditional two-step hydrothermal method. The as-fabricated Cu–Co sulfide vulcanized from precursor (P–Cu–Co sulfide) is able to deliver superior specific capacitance of 592 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 and 518 F g−1 at 10 A g−1 which are surprisingly about 1.44 times and 2.39 times higher than those of Cu–Co oxide electrode, respectively. At the same time, excellent cycling stability of P–Cu–Co sulfide is indicated by 90.4% capacitance retention at high current density of 10 A g−1 after 3000 cycles. Because of the introduction of sulfur during the vulcanization process, these new developed sulfides can get more flexible structure and larger reaction surface area, and will own richer redox reaction sites between the interfaces of active material/electrolyte. The uniform flower-like P–Cu–Co sulfide electrode materials will have more potential alternatives for oxides electrode materials in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structural Inheritance and Redox Performance of Nanoporous Electrodes from Nanocrystalline Fe85.2B10-14P0-4Cu0.8 Alloys
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 141; doi:10.3390/nano7060141
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
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Abstract
Nanoporous electrodes have been fabricated by selectively dissolving the less noble α-Fe crystalline phase from nanocrystalline Fe85.2B14–xPxCu0.8 alloys (x= 0, 2, 4 at.%). The preferential dissolution is triggered by the weaker electrochemical stability
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Nanoporous electrodes have been fabricated by selectively dissolving the less noble α-Fe crystalline phase from nanocrystalline Fe85.2B14–xPxCu0.8 alloys (x= 0, 2, 4 at.%). The preferential dissolution is triggered by the weaker electrochemical stability of α-Fe nanocrystals than amorphous phase. The final nanoporous structure is mainly composed of amorphous residual phase and minor undissolved α-Fe crystals and can be predicted from initial microstructure of nanocrystalline precursor alloys. The structural inheritance is proved by the similarity of the size and outlines between nanopores formed after dealloying in 0.1 M H2SO4 and α-Fe nanocrystals precipitated after annealing of amorphous Fe85.2B14−xPxCu0.8 (x = 0, 2, 4 at.%) alloys. The Redox peak current density of the nanoporous electrodes obtained from nanocrystalline Fe85.2B10P4Cu0.8 alloys is more than one order higher than those of Fe plate electrode and its counterpart nanocrystalline alloys due to the large surface area and nearly-amorphous nature of ligaments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Theoretical Study of the BaTiO3 Powder’s Volume Ratio’s Influence on the Output of Composite Piezoelectric Nanogenerator
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 143; doi:10.3390/nano7060143
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
The combination of the piezoelectric materials and polymer is an effective way to make the piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) possess both the polymer’s good flexibility and ferroelectric material’s high piezoelectric coefficient. The volume ratio of ferroelectric material in the composite is an important factor
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The combination of the piezoelectric materials and polymer is an effective way to make the piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) possess both the polymer’s good flexibility and ferroelectric material’s high piezoelectric coefficient. The volume ratio of ferroelectric material in the composite is an important factor that determines the PENG’s output performance. In this paper, the BaTiO3/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite PENG was demonstrated as having an optimal volume ratio (46%) at which the PENG can output its highest voltage, and this phenomenon can be ascribed to the trade-off between the composite PENG’s top electrode charge and its capacitance. These results are of practical importance for the composite PENG’s performance optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanogenerators and Self-Powered Nanosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Optimized Photodynamic Therapy with Multifunctional Cobalt Magnetic Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 144; doi:10.3390/nano7060144
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been adopted as a minimally invasive approach for the localized treatment of superficial tumors, representing an improvement in the care of cancer patients. To improve the efficacy of PDT, it is important to first select an optimized nanocarrier and
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been adopted as a minimally invasive approach for the localized treatment of superficial tumors, representing an improvement in the care of cancer patients. To improve the efficacy of PDT, it is important to first select an optimized nanocarrier and determine the influence of light parameters on the photosensitizing agent. In particular, much more knowledge concerning the importance of fluence and exposure time is required to gain a better understanding of the photodynamic efficacy. In the present study, we synthesized novel folic acid-(FA) and hematoporphyrin (HP)-conjugated multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs), which were characterized as effective anticancer reagents for PDT, and evaluated the influence of incubation time and light exposure time on the photodynamic anticancer activities of CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs in prostate cancer cells (PC-3 cells). The results indicated that the same fluence at different exposure times resulted in changes in the anticancer activities on PC-3 cells as well as in reactive oxygen species formation. In addition, an increase of the fluence showed an improvement for cell photo-inactivation. Therefore, we have established optimized conditions for new multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles with direct application for improving PDT for cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Toxicity and Functionalization of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Microgroove and Collagen-poly(ε-caprolactone) Nanofiber Mesh Coating Improves the Mechanical Stability and Osseointegration of Titanium Implants
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 145; doi:10.3390/nano7060145
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
The effect of depositing a collagen (CG)-poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofiber mesh (NFM) at the microgrooves of titanium (Ti) on the mechanical stability and osseointegration of the implant with bone was investigated using a rabbit model. Three groups of Ti samples were produced: control Ti
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The effect of depositing a collagen (CG)-poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofiber mesh (NFM) at the microgrooves of titanium (Ti) on the mechanical stability and osseointegration of the implant with bone was investigated using a rabbit model. Three groups of Ti samples were produced: control Ti samples where there were no microgrooves or CG-PCL NFM, groove Ti samples where microgrooves were machined on the circumference of Ti, and groove-NFM Ti samples where CG-PCL NFM was deposited on the machined microgrooves. Each group of Ti samples was implanted in the rabbit femurs for eight weeks. The mechanical stability of the Ti/bone samples were quantified by shear strength from a pullout tension test. Implant osseointegration was evaluated by a histomorphometric analysis of the percentage of bone and connective tissue contact with the implant surface. The bone density around the Ti was measured by micro–computed tomography (μCT) analysis. This study found that the shear strength of groove-NFM Ti/bone samples was significantly higher compared to control and groove Ti/bone samples (p < 0.05) and NFM coating influenced the bone density around Ti samples. In vivo histomorphometric analyses show that bone growth into the Ti surface increased by filling the microgrooves with CG-PCL NFM. The study concludes that a microgroove assisted CG-PCL NFM coating may benefit orthopedic implants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Highly Sensitive Magnetic-SERS Dual-Function Silica Nanoprobes for Effective On-Site Organic Chemical Detection
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 146; doi:10.3390/nano7060146
Received: 13 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
We report magnetic silver nanoshells (M-AgNSs) that have both magnetic and SERS properties for SERS-based detection. The M-AgNSs are composed of hundreds of Fe3O4 nanoparticles for rapid accumulation and bumpy silver shell for sensitive SERS detection by near-infrared laser excitation.
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We report magnetic silver nanoshells (M-AgNSs) that have both magnetic and SERS properties for SERS-based detection. The M-AgNSs are composed of hundreds of Fe3O4 nanoparticles for rapid accumulation and bumpy silver shell for sensitive SERS detection by near-infrared laser excitation. The intensity of the SERS signal from the M-AgNSs was strong enough to provide single particle-level detection. We obtained much stronger SERS signal intensity from the aggregated M-AgNSs than from the non-aggregated AgNSs. 4-Fluorothiophenol was detected at concentrations as low as 1 nM, which corresponds to 0.16 ppb. The limit of detection for tetramethylthiuram disulfide was 10 μM, which corresponds to 3 ppm. The M-AgNSs can be used to detect trace amounts of organic molecules using a portable Raman system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for SERS Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle ZnO Nano-Rod Devices for Intradermal Delivery and Immunization
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 147; doi:10.3390/nano7060147
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin. However, these
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Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin. However, these methods are invasive and/or affect the skin integrity. Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips. The nano-rods’ length and diameter were found to depend on the temperature, time, quality of sputtered silicon chips, etc. Vertically aligned ZnO nano-rods with lengths of 30–35 µm and diameters of 200–300 nm were selected for in vitro human skin permeation studies using Franz cells with Albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) absorbed on the nano-rods. Fluorescence and confocal studies on the skin samples showed FITC penetration through the skin along the channels formed by the nano-rods. Bradford protein assay on the collected fluid samples indicated a significant quantity of Albumin-FITC in the first 12 h. Low antibody titres were observed with immunisation on Balb/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen coated on the nano-rod chips. Nonetheless, due to the reduced dimensions of the nano-rods, our device offers the additional advantage of excluding the simultaneous entrance of microbial pathogens. Taken together, these results showed that ZnO nano-rods hold the potential for a safe, non-invasive, and painless intradermal drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Mediated Cell and Tissue Stimulation)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Potential and Antibacterial Efficiency of Caffeic Acid-Functionalized ZnO Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 148; doi:10.3390/nano7060148
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
We report a novel zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle with antioxidant properties, prepared by immobilizing the antioxidant 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid (caffeic acid, CA) on the surfaces of micro-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-treated ZnO nanoparticles. The microstructure and physical properties of ZnO@CA nanoparticles were characterized by
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We report a novel zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle with antioxidant properties, prepared by immobilizing the antioxidant 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid (caffeic acid, CA) on the surfaces of micro-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-treated ZnO nanoparticles. The microstructure and physical properties of ZnO@CA nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy, and steady state spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activity of ZnO@CA nanoparticles was evaluated using an ABTS (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay. ZnO@CA nanoparticles exhibited robust antioxidant activity. Moreover, ZnO@CA nanoparticles showed strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) including resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). Although Gram-negative bacteria appeared to be more resistant to ZnO@CA nanoparticles than Gram-positive bacteria, the antibacterial activity of ZnO@CA nanoparticles was dependent on particle concentration. The antioxidant and antibacterial activity of ZnO@CA may be useful for various biomedical and nanoindustrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Toxicity and Functionalization of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Recyclable Cu-MOF-74 Catalyst for the Ligand-Free O-Arylation Reaction of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde and Phenol
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 149; doi:10.3390/nano7060149
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
The activity and recyclability of Cu-MOF-74 as a catalyst was studied for the ligand-free C–O cross-coupling reaction of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (NB) with phenol (Ph) to form 4-formyldiphenyl ether (FDE). Cu-MOF-74 is characterized by having unsaturated copper sites in a highly porous metal-organic framework. The
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The activity and recyclability of Cu-MOF-74 as a catalyst was studied for the ligand-free C–O cross-coupling reaction of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (NB) with phenol (Ph) to form 4-formyldiphenyl ether (FDE). Cu-MOF-74 is characterized by having unsaturated copper sites in a highly porous metal-organic framework. The influence of solvent, reaction temperature, NB/Ph ratio, catalyst concentration, and basic agent (type and concentration) were evaluated. High conversions were achieved at 120 °C, 5 mol % of catalyst, NB/Ph ratio of 1:2, DMF as solvent, and 1 equivalent of K2CO3 base. The activity of Cu-MOF-74 material was higher than other ligand-free copper catalytic systems tested in this study. This catalyst was easily separated and reused in five successive runs, achieving a remarkable performance without significant porous framework degradation. The leaching of copper species in the reaction medium was negligible. The O-arylation between NB and Ph took place only in the presence of Cu-MOF-74 material, being negligible without the solid catalyst. The catalytic advantages of using nanostructured Cu-MOF-74 catalyst were also proven. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Metal-Organic Frameworks)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Ce- and La-Doped Li4Ti5O12 Nanosheets and Their Electrochemical Performance in Li Half Cell and Li4Ti5O12/LiFePO4 Full Cell Batteries
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 150; doi:10.3390/nano7060150
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
This work reports on the synthesis of rare earth-doped Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets with high electrochemical performance as anode material both in Li half and Li4Ti5O12/LiFePO4 full cell batteries. Through the combination of
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This work reports on the synthesis of rare earth-doped Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets with high electrochemical performance as anode material both in Li half and Li4Ti5O12/LiFePO4 full cell batteries. Through the combination of decreasing the particle size and doping by rare earth atoms (Ce and La), Ce and La doped Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets show the excellent electrochemical performance in terms of high specific capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate performance in half cells. Notably, the Ce-doped Li4Ti5O12 shows good electrochemical performance as anode in a full cell which LiFePO4 was used as cathode. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to doping as well as the nanosized particle, which facilitates transportation of the lithium ion and electron transportation. This research shows that the rare earth doped Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets can be suitable as a high rate performance anode material in lithium-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterials for Energy Storage and Conversions)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Magnetic Nanoparticles for Antibiotics Detection
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 119; doi:10.3390/nano7060119
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
Widespread use of antibiotics has led to pollution of waterways, potentially creating resistance among freshwater bacterial communities. Microorganisms resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics (superbug) have dramatically increased over the last decades. The presence of antibiotics in waters, in food and beverages in both
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Widespread use of antibiotics has led to pollution of waterways, potentially creating resistance among freshwater bacterial communities. Microorganisms resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics (superbug) have dramatically increased over the last decades. The presence of antibiotics in waters, in food and beverages in both their un-metabolized and metabolized forms are of interest for humans. This is due to daily exposure in small quantities, that, when accumulated, could lead to development of drug resistance to antibiotics, or multiply the risk of allergic reaction. Conventional analytical methods used to quantify antibiotics are relatively expensive and generally require long analysis time associated with the difficulties to perform field analyses. In this context, electrochemical and optical based sensing devices are of interest, offering great potentials for a broad range of analytical applications. This review will focus on the application of magnetic nanoparticles in the design of different analytical methods, mainly sensors, used for the detection of antibiotics in different matrices (human fluids, the environmental, food and beverages samples). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessReview Trigger-Responsive Gene Transporters for Anticancer Therapy
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 120; doi:10.3390/nano7060120
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
In the current era of gene delivery, trigger-responsive nanoparticles for the delivery of exogenous nucleic acids, such as plasmid DNA (pDNA), mRNA, siRNAs, and miRNAs, to cancer cells have attracted considerable interest. The cationic gene transporters commonly used are typically in the form
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In the current era of gene delivery, trigger-responsive nanoparticles for the delivery of exogenous nucleic acids, such as plasmid DNA (pDNA), mRNA, siRNAs, and miRNAs, to cancer cells have attracted considerable interest. The cationic gene transporters commonly used are typically in the form of polyplexes, lipoplexes or mixtures of both, and their gene transfer efficiency in cancer cells depends on several factors, such as cell binding, intracellular trafficking, buffering capacity for endosomal escape, DNA unpacking, nuclear transportation, cell viability, and DNA protection against nucleases. Some of these factors influence other factors adversely, and therefore, it is of critical importance that these factors are balanced. Recently, with the advancements in contemporary tools and techniques, trigger-responsive nanoparticles with the potential to overcome their intrinsic drawbacks have been developed. This review summarizes the mechanisms and limitations of cationic gene transporters. In addition, it covers various triggers, such as light, enzymes, magnetic fields, and ultrasound (US), used to enhance the gene transfer efficiency of trigger-responsive gene transporters in cancer cells. Furthermore, the challenges associated with and future directions in developing trigger-responsive gene transporters for anticancer therapy are discussed briefly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Gene Therapy)
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Open AccessReview A Review of the Structure, Preparation, and Application of NLCs, PNPs, and PLNs
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 122; doi:10.3390/nano7060122
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) that retain the characteristics of the SLN, improve drug stability and loading capacity, and prevent drug leakage. Polymer nanoparticles (PNPs) are an important component of drug delivery. These nanoparticles can effectively direct drug
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Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) that retain the characteristics of the SLN, improve drug stability and loading capacity, and prevent drug leakage. Polymer nanoparticles (PNPs) are an important component of drug delivery. These nanoparticles can effectively direct drug delivery to specific targets and improve drug stability and controlled drug release. Lipid–polymer nanoparticles (PLNs), a new type of carrier that combines liposomes and polymers, have been employed in recent years. These nanoparticles possess the complementary advantages of PNPs and liposomes. A PLN is composed of a core–shell structure; the polymer core provides a stable structure, and the phospholipid shell offers good biocompatibility. As such, the two components increase the drug encapsulation efficiency rate, facilitate surface modification, and prevent leakage of water-soluble drugs. Hence, we have reviewed the current state of development for the NLCs’, PNPs’, and PLNs’ structures, preparation, and applications over the past five years, to provide the basis for further study on a controlled release drug delivery system. Full article
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Open AccessReview Nanofluid Types, Their Synthesis, Properties and Incorporation in Direct Solar Thermal Collectors: A Review
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 131; doi:10.3390/nano7060131
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
The global demand for energy is increasing and the detrimental consequences of rising greenhouse gas emissions, global warming and environmental degradation present major challenges. Solar energy offers a clean and viable renewable energy source with the potential to alleviate the detrimental consequences normally
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The global demand for energy is increasing and the detrimental consequences of rising greenhouse gas emissions, global warming and environmental degradation present major challenges. Solar energy offers a clean and viable renewable energy source with the potential to alleviate the detrimental consequences normally associated with fossil fuel-based energy generation. However, there are two inherent problems associated with conventional solar thermal energy conversion systems. The first involves low thermal conductivity values of heat transfer fluids, and the second involves the poor optical properties of many absorbers and their coating. Hence, there is an imperative need to improve both thermal and optical properties of current solar conversion systems. Direct solar thermal absorption collectors incorporating a nanofluid offers the opportunity to achieve significant improvements in both optical and thermal performance. Since nanofluids offer much greater heat absorbing and heat transfer properties compared to traditional working fluids. The review summarizes current research in this innovative field. It discusses direct solar absorber collectors and methods for improving their performance. This is followed by a discussion of the various types of nanofluids available and the synthesis techniques used to manufacture them. In closing, a brief discussion of nanofluid property modelling is also presented. Full article
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Open AccessReview Review of SERS Substrates for Chemical Sensing
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 142; doi:10.3390/nano7060142
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
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Abstract
The SERS effect was initially discovered in the 1970s. Early research focused on understanding the phenomenon and increasing enhancement to achieve single molecule detection. From the mid-1980s to early 1990s, research started to move away from obtaining a fundamental understanding of the phenomenon
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The SERS effect was initially discovered in the 1970s. Early research focused on understanding the phenomenon and increasing enhancement to achieve single molecule detection. From the mid-1980s to early 1990s, research started to move away from obtaining a fundamental understanding of the phenomenon to the exploration of analytical applications. At the same time, significant developments occurred in the field of photonics that led to the advent of inexpensive, robust, compact, field-deployable Raman systems. The 1990s also saw rapid development in nanoscience. This convergence of technologies (photonics and nanoscience) has led to accelerated development of SERS substrates to detect a wide range of chemical and biological analytes. It would be a monumental task to discuss all the different kinds of SERS substrates that have been explored. Likewise, it would be impossible to discuss the use of SERS for both chemical and biological detection. Instead, a review of the most common metallic (Ag, Cu, and Au) SERS substrates for chemical detection only is discussed, as well as SERS substrates that are commercially available. Other issues with SERS for chemical detection have been selectivity, reversibility, and reusability of the substrates. How these issues have been addressed is also discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for SERS Applications)
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