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Nanomaterials, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Reinforced Cement Composites
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 407; doi:10.3390/nano7120407
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the effect of uniformly dispersed graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on dynamic mechanical properties of cement based composites prepared with recycled fine aggregate (RFA). Three different amounts of GO, 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.20% in mass of cement,
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This paper presents an experimental investigation on the effect of uniformly dispersed graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on dynamic mechanical properties of cement based composites prepared with recycled fine aggregate (RFA). Three different amounts of GO, 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.20% in mass of cement, were used in the experiments. The visual inspections of GO nanosheets were also carried out after ultrasonication by transmission electron microscope (TEM) atomic force microscope (AFM), and Raman to characterize the dispersion effect of graphite oxide. Dynamic mechanical analyzer test showed that the maximum increased amount of loss factor and storage modulus, energy absorption was 125%, 53%, and 200% when compared to the control sample, respectively. The flexural and compressive strengths of GO-mortar increased up to 22% to 41.3% and 16.2% to 16.4% with 0.20 wt % GO at 14 and 28 days, respectively. However the workability decreased by 7.5% to 18.8% with 0.05% and 0.2% GO addition. Microstructural analysis with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM)/backscattered mode (BSEM) showed that the GO-cement composites had a much denser structure and better crystallized hydration products, meanwhile mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) testing and image analysis demonstrated that the incorporation of GO in the composites can help in refining capillary pore structure and reducing the air voids content. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Preparation and Microstructure of Nanocrystal 3C-SiC/ZrO2 Bilayer Films
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 408; doi:10.3390/nano7120408
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
The nanocrystal 3C-SiC/ZrO2 bilayer films that could be used as the protective coatings of zirconium alloy fuel cladding were prepared on a single-crystal Si substrate. The corresponding nanocrystal 3C-SiC film and nanocrystal ZrO2 film were also dividedly synthesized. The microstructure of
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The nanocrystal 3C-SiC/ZrO2 bilayer films that could be used as the protective coatings of zirconium alloy fuel cladding were prepared on a single-crystal Si substrate. The corresponding nanocrystal 3C-SiC film and nanocrystal ZrO2 film were also dividedly synthesized. The microstructure of nanocrystal films was analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The 3C-SiC film with less than 30 nm crystal size was synthesized by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and annealing. The corresponding formation mechanism of some impurities in SiC film was analyzed and discussed. An amorphous Zr layer about 600 nm in width was first deposited by magnetron sputtering and then oxidized to form a nanocrystal ZrO2 layer during the annealing process. The interface characteristics of 3C-SiC/ZrO2 bilayer films prepared by two different processes were obviously different. SiZr and SiO2 compounds were formed at the interface of 3C-SiC/ZrO2 bilayer films. A corrosion test of 3C-SiC/ZrO2 bilayer films was conducted to qualitatively analyze the surface corrosion resistance and the binding force of the interface. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hierarchical Mn2O3 Microspheres In-Situ Coated with Carbon for Supercapacitors with Highly Enhanced Performances
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 409; doi:10.3390/nano7120409
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
Porous Mn2O3 microspheres have been synthesized and in-situ coated with amorphous carbon to form hierarchical C@Mn2O3 microspheres by first producing MnCO3 microspheres in solvothermal reactions, and then annealing at 500 °C. The self-assembly growth of MnCO
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Porous Mn2O3 microspheres have been synthesized and in-situ coated with amorphous carbon to form hierarchical C@Mn2O3 microspheres by first producing MnCO3 microspheres in solvothermal reactions, and then annealing at 500 °C. The self-assembly growth of MnCO3 microspheres can generate hollow structures inside each of the particles, which can act as micro-reservoirs to store biomass-glycerol for generating amorphous carbon onto the surfaces of Mn2O3 nanorods consisting of microspheres. The C@Mn2O3 microspheres, prepared at 500 °C, exhibit highly enhanced pseudocapacitive performances when compared to the particles after annealed at 400 °C and 600 °C. Specifically, the C@Mn2O3 microspheres prepared at 500 °C show high specific capacitances of 383.87 F g−1 at current density of 0.5 A g−1, and excellent cycling stability of 90.47% of its initial value after cycling for 5000 times. The asymmetric supercapacitors assembled with C@Mn2O3 microspheres after annealed at 500 °C and activated carbon (AC) show an energy density of up to 77.8 Wh kg−1 at power density of 500.00 W kg−1, and a maximum power density of 20.14 kW kg−1 at energy density of 46.8 Wh kg−1. We can attribute the enhanced electrochemical performances of the materials to their three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure in-situ coated with carbon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based Fuel Cells and Supercapacitors)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Eu Doping on Microstructure, Morphology and Methanal-Sensing Performance of Highly Ordered SnO2 Nanorods Array
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 410; doi:10.3390/nano7120410
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
Layered Eu-doped SnO2 ordered nanoarrays constructed by nanorods with 10 nm diameters and several hundred nanometers length were synthesized by a substrate-free hydrothermal route using alcohol and water mixed solvent of sodium stannate and sodium hydroxide at 200 °C. The Eu dopant
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Layered Eu-doped SnO2 ordered nanoarrays constructed by nanorods with 10 nm diameters and several hundred nanometers length were synthesized by a substrate-free hydrothermal route using alcohol and water mixed solvent of sodium stannate and sodium hydroxide at 200 °C. The Eu dopant acted as a crystal growth inhibitor to prevent the SnO2 nanorods growth up, resulting in tenuous SnO2 nanorods ordered arrays. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the tetragonal rutile-type structure with a systematic average size reduction and unit cell volume tumescence, while enhancing the residual strain as the Eu-doped content increases. The surface defects that were caused by the incorporation of Eu ions within the surface oxide matrix were observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The results of the response properties of sensors based on the different levels of Eu-doped SnO2 layered nanoarrays demonstrated that the 0.5 at % Eu-doped SnO2 layered nanorods arrays exhibited an excellent sensing response to methanal at 278 °C. The reasons of the enhanced sensing performance were discussed from the complicated defect surface structure, the large specific surface area, and the excellent catalytic properties of Eu dopant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Stability and Synergistic Effect of Polyaniline/TiO2 Photocatalysts in Degradation of Azo Dye in Wastewater
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 412; doi:10.3390/nano7120412
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
The polyaniline/TiO2 (PANI/TiO2) composite photocatalysts were prepared by the in situ chemical oxidation of aniline (An) in the presence of TiO2 particles. For this purpose, photocatalysts with different amounts of PANI polymer were prepared and analysed. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR)
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The polyaniline/TiO2 (PANI/TiO2) composite photocatalysts were prepared by the in situ chemical oxidation of aniline (An) in the presence of TiO2 particles. For this purpose, photocatalysts with different amounts of PANI polymer were prepared and analysed. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated successful synthesis of the PANI polymer and its conductivity was also determined. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explain the impact of the aniline amount on the aggregation process during the synthesis of the composites. The smallest size of aggregates was obtained for the photocatalysts with 15% of PANI (15PANI/TiO2) due to the formation of homogenous PANI. The photocatalytic activity of studied PANI/TiO2 photocatalysts was validated by monitoring the discoloration and mineralization of Reactive Red azo dye (RR45) in wastewater. The 15PANI/TiO2 sample presented the highest photocatalytic efficiency under ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, in comparison to pure TiO2. This was explained by the formation of uniformly dispersed PANI on the TiO2 particles, which was responsible for the synergistic PANI-TiO2 effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Nanosciences, Computational Chemistry, and Data Analysis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Carbon Nanofiber Cement Sensors to Detect Strain and Damage of Concrete Specimens Under Compression
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 413; doi:10.3390/nano7120413
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
Cement composites with nano-additions have been vastly studied for their functional applications, such as strain and damage sensing. The capacity of a carbon nanofiber (CNF) cement paste has already been tested. However, this study is focused on the use of CNF cement composites
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Cement composites with nano-additions have been vastly studied for their functional applications, such as strain and damage sensing. The capacity of a carbon nanofiber (CNF) cement paste has already been tested. However, this study is focused on the use of CNF cement composites as sensors in regular concrete samples. Different measuring techniques and humidity conditions of CNF samples were tested to optimize the strain and damage sensing of this material. In the strain sensing tests (for compressive stresses up to 10 MPa), the response depends on the maximum stress applied. The material was more sensitive at higher loads. Furthermore, the actual load time history did not influence the electrical response, and similar curves were obtained for different test configurations. On the other hand, damage sensing tests proved the capability of CNF cement composites to measure the strain level of concrete samples, even for loads close to the material’s strength. Some problems were detected in the strain transmission between sensor and concrete specimens, which will require specific calibration of each sensor one attached to the structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Toxicity Assessment of Carbon Nanomaterials in Zebrafish during Development
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 414; doi:10.3390/nano7120414
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract
Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) are increasingly employed in nanomedicine as carriers for intracellular transport of drugs, imaging probes, and therapeutics agents, thanks to their unique optical and physicochemical properties. However, a better understanding about the effects of CNMs on a vertebrate model at the
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Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) are increasingly employed in nanomedicine as carriers for intracellular transport of drugs, imaging probes, and therapeutics agents, thanks to their unique optical and physicochemical properties. However, a better understanding about the effects of CNMs on a vertebrate model at the whole animal level is required. In this study, we compare the toxicity of oxidized carbon nano-onions (oxi-CNOs), oxidized carbon nano-horns (oxi-CNHs) and graphene oxide (GO) in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We evaluate the possible effects of these nanomaterials on zebrafish development by assessing different end-points and exposure periods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigating Exchange Bias and Coercivity in Fe3O4–γ-Fe2O3 Core–Shell Nanoparticles of Fixed Core Diameter and Variable Shell Thicknesses
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 415; doi:10.3390/nano7120415
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 26 November 2017
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Abstract
We have carried out extensive measurements on novel Fe3O4–γ-Fe2O3 core–shell nanoparticles of nearly similar core diameter (8 nm) and of various shell thicknesses of 1 nm (sample S1), 3 nm (sample S2), and 5 nm (sample
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We have carried out extensive measurements on novel Fe3O4–γ-Fe2O3 core–shell nanoparticles of nearly similar core diameter (8 nm) and of various shell thicknesses of 1 nm (sample S1), 3 nm (sample S2), and 5 nm (sample S3). The structure and morphology of the samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The direct current (DC) magnetic measurements were carried out using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Exchange bias and coercivity were investigated at several temperatures where the applied field was varied between 3 and −3 T. Several key results are obtained, such as: (a) the complete absence of exchange bias effect in sample S3; (b) the occurrence of nonconventional exchange bias effect in samples S2 and S1; (c) the sign-change of exchange bias field in sample S2; (d) the monotonic increase of coercivity with temperature above 100 K in all samples; (e) the existence of a critical temperature (100 K) at which the coercivity is minimum; (f) the surprising suppression of coercivity upon field-cooling; and (g) the observation of coercivity at all temperatures, even at 300 K. The results are discussed and attributed to the existence of spin glass clusters at the core–shell interface. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Comparison of Photothermal Conversion Efficiency of Gold Nanotriangle and Nanorod in Laser Induced Thermal Therapy
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 416; doi:10.3390/nano7120416
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 26 November 2017
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Abstract
An experimental comparison of the photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) for gold nanotriangles (GNTs) and nanorods (GNRs) was carried out in the present work. The discrete dipole approximation method was applied to identify the spectral characteristic of GNTs and GNRs with different aspect ratios.
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An experimental comparison of the photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) for gold nanotriangles (GNTs) and nanorods (GNRs) was carried out in the present work. The discrete dipole approximation method was applied to identify the spectral characteristic of GNTs and GNRs with different aspect ratios. On this basis, the PCE of GNTs and GNRs in photothermal therapy were compared theoretically. Afterwards, an in vitro experiment was adopted to investigate the thermal effect of porcine muscle induced by laser irradiation, with and without injected GNTs and GNRs. The influences of laser total power, nanoparticle concentration, and nanoparticle type were investigated. It was found that for the commonly-used wavelengths for photothermal therapy, the PCE of GNTs is higher than that of the GNRs. Furthermore, for GNRs loaded in tissue in vitro, high laser power and high concentration of nanoparticles leads to the degeneration and even carbonization of tissue. However, for the GNTs with the same situation (laser power, nanoparticle volume concentration, and heating time), it could lead to the tissue’s evaporation instead of carbonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Imaging, Diagnosis or Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Bacteria Associated with Wound Infection by Biocompatible Green Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles from South African Plant Extracts
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 417; doi:10.3390/nano7120417
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 26 November 2017
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Abstract
Unlike conventional physical and chemical methods, the biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is considered a green and non-toxic approach to produce biocompatible GNPs that can be utilized in various biomedical applications. This can be achieved by using plant-derived phytochemicals to reduce gold
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Unlike conventional physical and chemical methods, the biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is considered a green and non-toxic approach to produce biocompatible GNPs that can be utilized in various biomedical applications. This can be achieved by using plant-derived phytochemicals to reduce gold salt into GNPs. Several green synthesized GNPs have been shown to have antibacterial effects, which can be applied in wound dressings to prevent wound infections. Therefore, the aim of this study is to synthesize biogenic GNPs from the South African Galenia africana and Hypoxis hemerocallidea plants extracts and evaluate their antibacterial activity, using the Alamar blue assay, against bacterial strains that are known to cause wound infections. Additionally, we investigated the toxicity of the biogenic GNPs to non-cancerous human fibroblast cells (KMST-6) using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In this paper, spherical GNPs, with particle sizes ranging from 9 to 27 nm, were synthesized and fully characterized. The GNPs from H. hemerocallidea exhibited antibacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains, whereas GNPs produced from G. africana only exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The GNPs did not show any significant toxicity towards KMST-6 cells, which may suggest that these nanoparticles can be safely applied in wound dressings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Transparent and Flexible Capacitors with an Ultrathin Structure by Using Graphene as Bottom Electrodes
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 418; doi:10.3390/nano7120418
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
Ultrathin, transparent and flexible capacitors using graphene as the bottom electrodes were directly fabricated on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates. ZrO2 dielectric films were deposited on the treated surface of graphene by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The deposition process did not introduce any
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Ultrathin, transparent and flexible capacitors using graphene as the bottom electrodes were directly fabricated on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates. ZrO2 dielectric films were deposited on the treated surface of graphene by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The deposition process did not introduce any detectible defects in the graphene, as indicated by Raman measurements, guaranteeing the electrical performances of the graphene electrodes. The Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were prepared as the top electrodes using the ALD technique. The capacitors presented a high capacitance density (10.3 fF/μm2 at 10 kHz) and a relatively low leakage current (5.3 × 10−6 A/cm2 at 1 V). Bending tests revealed that the capacitors were able to work normally at an outward bending radius of 10 mm without any deterioration of electrical properties. The capacitors exhibited an average optical transmittance of close to 70% at visible wavelengths. Thus, it opens the door to practical applications in transparent integrated circuits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Properties-Adjustable Alumina-Zirconia Nanolaminate Dielectric Fabricated by Spin-Coating
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 419; doi:10.3390/nano7120419
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, an alumina-zirconia (Al2O3-ZrO2) nanolaminate dielectric was fabricated by spin-coating and the performance was investigated. It was found that the properties of the dielectric can be adjusted by changing the content of Al2O
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In this paper, an alumina-zirconia (Al2O3-ZrO2) nanolaminate dielectric was fabricated by spin-coating and the performance was investigated. It was found that the properties of the dielectric can be adjusted by changing the content of Al2O3/ZrO2 in nanolaminates: when the content of Al2O3 was higher than 50%, the properties of nanolaminates, such as the optical energy gap, dielectric strength (Vds), capacitance density, and relative permittivity were relatively stable, while the change of these properties became larger when the content of Al2O3 was less than 50%. With the content of ZrO2 varying from 50% to 100%, the variation of these properties was up to 0.482 eV, 2.12 MV/cm, 135.35 nF/cm2, and 11.64, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the dielectric strength of nanolaminates were influenced significantly by the number (n) of bilayers. Every increment of one Al2O3-ZrO2 bilayer will enhance the dielectric strength by around 0.39 MV/cm (Vds ≈ 0.86 + 0.39n). This could be contributed to the amorphous alumina which interrupted the grain boundaries of zirconia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics, Electrical and Optical Properties of Nano-Thin Films)
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Open AccessArticle A Facile Approach to Tune the Electrical and Thermal Properties of Graphene Aerogels by Including Bulk MoS2
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 420; doi:10.3390/nano7120420
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Graphene aerogels (GAs) have attracted extensive interest in diverse fields, owing to their ultrahigh surface area, low density and decent electrical conductivity. However, the undesirable thermal conductivity of GAs may limit their applications in energy storage devices. Here, we report a facile hydrothermal
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Graphene aerogels (GAs) have attracted extensive interest in diverse fields, owing to their ultrahigh surface area, low density and decent electrical conductivity. However, the undesirable thermal conductivity of GAs may limit their applications in energy storage devices. Here, we report a facile hydrothermal method to modulate both the electrical and thermal properties of GAs by including bulk molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). It was found that MoS2 can help to reduce the size of graphene sheets and improve their dispersion, leading to the uniform porous micro-structure of GAs. The electrical measurement showed that the electrical conductivity of GAs could be decreased by 87% by adding 0.132 vol % of MoS2. On the contrary, the thermal conductivity of GAs could be increased by ~51% by including 0.2 vol % of MoS2. The quantitative investigation demonstrated that the effective medium theories (EMTs) could be applied to predict the thermal conductivity of composite GAs. Our findings indicated that the electrical and thermal properties of GAs can be tuned for the applications in various fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon nanostructure for energy storage and conversion)
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Open AccessArticle Improved In Vivo Efficacy of Anti-Hypertensive Biopeptides Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles Fabricated by Ionotropic Gelation on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 421; doi:10.3390/nano7120421
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Abstract
Recent biotechnological advances in the food industry have led to the enzymatic production of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory biopeptides with a strong blood pressure lowering effect from different food proteins. However, the safe oral administration of biopeptides is impeded by their enzymatic degradation
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Recent biotechnological advances in the food industry have led to the enzymatic production of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory biopeptides with a strong blood pressure lowering effect from different food proteins. However, the safe oral administration of biopeptides is impeded by their enzymatic degradation due to gastrointestinal digestion. Consequently, nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery systems are used to overcome these gastrointestinal barriers to maintain the improved bioavailability and efficacy of the encapsulated biopeptides. In the present study, the ACE-inhibitory biopeptides were generated from stone fish (Actinopyga lecanora) protein using bromelain and stabilized by their encapsulation in chitosan (chit) nanoparticles (NPs). The nanoparticles were characterized for in vitro physicochemical properties and their antihypertensive effect was then evaluated on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The results of a physicochemical characterization showed a small particle size of 162.70 nm, a polydispersity index (pdi) value of 0.28, a zeta potential of 48.78 mV, a high encapsulation efficiency of 75.36%, a high melting temperature of 146.78 °C and an in vitro sustained release of the biopeptides. The results of the in vivo efficacy indicated a dose-dependent blood pressure lowering effect of the biopeptide-loaded nanoparticles that was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the un-encapsulated biopeptides. Moreover, the results of a morphological examination using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated the nanoparticles as homogenous and spherical. Thus, the ACE-inhibitory biopeptides stabilized by chitosan nanoparticles can effectively reduce blood pressure for an extended period of time in hypertensive individuals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cationic Biomimetic Particles of Polystyrene/Cationic Bilayer/Gramicidin for Optimal Bactericidal Activity
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 422; doi:10.3390/nano7120422
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Abstract
Nanostructured particles of polystyrene sulfate (PSS) covered by a cationic lipid bilayer of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) incorporated gramicidin D (Gr) yielding optimal and broadened bactericidal activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The adsorption of DODAB/Gr bilayer onto PSS nanoparticles (NPs)
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Nanostructured particles of polystyrene sulfate (PSS) covered by a cationic lipid bilayer of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) incorporated gramicidin D (Gr) yielding optimal and broadened bactericidal activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The adsorption of DODAB/Gr bilayer onto PSS nanoparticles (NPs) increased the zeta-average diameter by 8–10 nm, changed the zeta-potential of the NPs from negative to positive, and yielded a narrow size distributions for the PSS/DODAB/Gr NPs, which displayed broad and maximal microbicidal activity at very small concentrations of the antimicrobials, namely, 0.057 and 0.0057 mM DODAB and Gr, respectively. The results emphasized the advantages of highly-organized, nanostructured, and cationic particles to achieve hybrid combinations of antimicrobials with broad spectrum activity at considerably reduced DODAB and Gr concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Physico-Chemical and Electrochemical Properties of Nanoparticulate NiO/C Composites for High Performance Lithium and Sodium Ion Battery Anodes
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 423; doi:10.3390/nano7120423
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Abstract
Nanoparticulate NiO and NiO/C composites with different carbon proportions have been prepared for anode application in lithium and sodium ion batteries. Structural characterization demonstrated the presence of metallic Ni in the composites. Morphological study revealed that the NiO and Ni nanoparticles were well
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Nanoparticulate NiO and NiO/C composites with different carbon proportions have been prepared for anode application in lithium and sodium ion batteries. Structural characterization demonstrated the presence of metallic Ni in the composites. Morphological study revealed that the NiO and Ni nanoparticles were well dispersed in the matrix of amorphous carbon. The electrochemical study showed that the lithium ion batteries (LIBs), containing composites with carbon, have promising electrochemical performances, delivering specific discharge capacities of 550 mAh/g after operating for 100 cycles at 1C. These excellent results could be explained by the homogeneity of particle size and structure, as well as the uniform distribution of NiO/Ni nanoparticles in the in situ generated amorphous carbon matrix. On the other hand, the sodium ion battery (NIB) with the NiO/C composite revealed a poor cycling stability. Post-mortem analyses revealed that this fact could be ascribed to the absence of a stable Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI) or passivation layer upon cycling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Highly Sensitive and Stretchable Strain Sensor Based on Ag@CNTs
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 424; doi:10.3390/nano7120424
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract
Due to the rapid development and superb performance of electronic skin, we propose a highly sensitive and stretchable temperature and strain sensor. Silver nanoparticles coated carbon nanowires (Ag@CNT) nanomaterials with different Ag concentrations were synthesized. After the morphology and components of the nanomaterials
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Due to the rapid development and superb performance of electronic skin, we propose a highly sensitive and stretchable temperature and strain sensor. Silver nanoparticles coated carbon nanowires (Ag@CNT) nanomaterials with different Ag concentrations were synthesized. After the morphology and components of the nanomaterials were demonstrated, the sensors composed of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and CNTs or Ag@CNTs were prepared via a simple template method. Then, the electronic properties and piezoresistive effects of the sensors were tested. Characterization results present excellent performance of the sensors for the highest gauge factor (GF) of the linear region between 0–17.3% of the sensor with Ag@CNTs1 was 137.6, the sensor with Ag@CNTs2 under the strain in the range of 0–54.8% exhibiting a perfect linearity and the GF of the sensor with Ag@CNTs2 was 14.9. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The UV Plasmonic Behavior of Distorted Rhodium Nanocubes
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 425; doi:10.3390/nano7120425
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract
For applications of surface-enhanced spectroscopy and photocatalysis, the ultraviolet (UV) plasmonic behavior and charge distribution within rhodium nanocubes is explored by a detailed numerical analysis. The strongest plasmonic hot-spots and charge concentrations are located at the corners and edges of the nanocubes, exactly
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For applications of surface-enhanced spectroscopy and photocatalysis, the ultraviolet (UV) plasmonic behavior and charge distribution within rhodium nanocubes is explored by a detailed numerical analysis. The strongest plasmonic hot-spots and charge concentrations are located at the corners and edges of the nanocubes, exactly where they are the most spectroscopically and catalytically active. Because intense catalytic activity at corners and edges will reshape these nanoparticles, distortions of the cubical shape, including surface concavity, surface convexity, and rounded corners and edges, are also explored to quantify how significantly these distortions deteriorate their plasmonic and photocatalytic properties. The fact that the highest fields and highest carrier concentrations occur in the corners and edges of Rh nanocubes (NCs) confirms their tremendous potential for plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy and catalysis. It is shown that this opportunity is fortuitously enhanced by the fact that even higher field and charge concentrations reside at the interface between the metal nanoparticle and a dielectric or semiconductor support, precisely where the most chemically active sites are located. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydroxyapatite Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Promising Nanomaterial for Magnetic Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 426; doi:10.3390/nano7120426
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract
Targeting cancer cells without injuring normal cells is the prime objective in treatment of cancer. In this present study, solvothermal and wet chemical precipitation techniques were employed to synthesize iron oxide (IO), hydroxyapatite (HAp), and hydroxyapatite coated iron oxide (IO-HAp) nanoparticles for magnetic
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Targeting cancer cells without injuring normal cells is the prime objective in treatment of cancer. In this present study, solvothermal and wet chemical precipitation techniques were employed to synthesize iron oxide (IO), hydroxyapatite (HAp), and hydroxyapatite coated iron oxide (IO-HAp) nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia mediated cancer therapy. The synthesized well dispersed spherical IO-HAp nanoparticles, magnetite, and apatite phases were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The non-toxic behavior of synthesized IO-HAp nanoparticles was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay (Trypan blue and MTT assay). The synthesized nanoparticles revealed a remarkable magnetic saturation of 83.2 emu/g for IO and 40.6 emu/g for IO-HAp nanoparticles in presence of 15,000 Oe (1.5 T) magnetic field at room temperature (300 K). The magnetic hyperthermia study that was performed with IO-HAp nanoparticles showed an excellent hyperthermia effect (SAR value 85 W/g) over MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. The in vitro hyperthermia temperature (~45 °C) was reached within 3 min, which shows a very high efficiency and kills nearly all of the experimental MG-63 osteosarcoma cells within 30 min exposure. These results could potentially open new perceptions for biomaterials that are aimed for anti-cancer therapies based on magnetic hyperthermia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hyaluronan-Based Nanohydrogels as Effective Carriers for Transdermal Delivery of Lipophilic Agents: Towards Transdermal Drug Administration in Neurological Disorders
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 427; doi:10.3390/nano7120427
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract
We suggest a convenient nanoemulsion fabrication method to create hyaluronan (HA)-based nanohydrogels for effective transdermal delivery. First, hyaluronan-conjugated dodecylamine (HA–Do) HA-based polymers to load the lipophilic agents were synthesized with hyaluronan (HA) and dodecylamine (Do) by varying the substitution ratio of Do to
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We suggest a convenient nanoemulsion fabrication method to create hyaluronan (HA)-based nanohydrogels for effective transdermal delivery. First, hyaluronan-conjugated dodecylamine (HA–Do) HA-based polymers to load the lipophilic agents were synthesized with hyaluronan (HA) and dodecylamine (Do) by varying the substitution ratio of Do to HA. The synthetic yield of HA–Do was more than 80% (HA–Do (A): 82.7 ± 4.7%, HA–Do (B): 87.1 ± 3.9% and HA–Do (C): 81.4 ± 4.5%). Subsequently, nanohydrogels were fabricated using the nanoemulsion method. Indocyanine green (ICG) simultaneously self-assembled with HA–Do, and the size depended on the substitution ratio of Do in HA–Do (nanohydrogel (A): 118.0 ± 2.2 nm, nanohydrogel (B): 121.9 ± 11.4 nm, and nanohydrogel (C): 142.2 ± 3.8 nm). The nanohydrogels were delivered into cells, and had excellent biocompatibility. Especially, nanohydrogel (A) could deliver and permeate ICG into the deep skin layer, the dermis. This suggests that nanohydrogels can be potent transdermal delivery systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Neurology)
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Open AccessCommunication Thermally and Electrically Conductive Nanopapers from Reduced Graphene Oxide: Effect of Nanoflakes Thermal Annealing on the Film Structure and Properties
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 428; doi:10.3390/nano7120428
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we report a novel strategy to prepare graphene nanopapers from direct vacuum filtration. Instead of the conventional method, i.e., thermal annealing nanopapers at extremely high temperatures prepared from graphene oxide (GO) or partially reduced GO, we fabricate our graphene nanopapers
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In this study, we report a novel strategy to prepare graphene nanopapers from direct vacuum filtration. Instead of the conventional method, i.e., thermal annealing nanopapers at extremely high temperatures prepared from graphene oxide (GO) or partially reduced GO, we fabricate our graphene nanopapers directly from suspensions of fully reduced graphene oxide (RGO), obtained after RGO and thermal annealing at 1700 °C in vacuum. By using this approach, we studied the effect of thermal annealing on the physical properties of the macroscopic graphene-based papers. Indeed, we demonstrated that the enhancement of the thermal and electrical properties of graphene nanopapers prepared from annealed RGO is strongly influenced by the absence of oxygen functionalities and the morphology of the nanoflakes. Hence, our methodology can be considered as a valid alternative to the classical approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Piezoelectric Potential in Single-Crystalline ZnO Nanohelices Based on Finite Element Analysis
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 430; doi:10.3390/nano7120430
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
Electric potential produced in deformed piezoelectric nanostructures is of significance for both fundamental study and practical applications. To reveal the piezoelectric property of ZnO nanohelices, the piezoelectric potential in single-crystal nanohelices was simulated by finite element method calculations. For a nanohelix with a
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Electric potential produced in deformed piezoelectric nanostructures is of significance for both fundamental study and practical applications. To reveal the piezoelectric property of ZnO nanohelices, the piezoelectric potential in single-crystal nanohelices was simulated by finite element method calculations. For a nanohelix with a length of 1200 nm, a mean coil radius of 150 nm, five active coils, and a hexagonal coiled wire with a side length 100 nm, a compressing force of 100 nN results in a potential of 1.85 V. This potential is significantly higher than the potential produced in a straight nanowire with the same length and applied force. Maintaining the length and increasing the number of coils or mean coil radius leads to higher piezoelectric potential in the nanohelix. Appling a force along the axial direction produces higher piezoelectric potential than in other directions. Adding lateral forces to an existing axial force can change the piezoelectric potential distribution in the nanohelix, while the maximum piezoelectric potential remains largely unchanged in some cases. This research demonstrates the promising potential of ZnO nanohelices for applications in sensors, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, nanorobotics, and energy sciences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ZnO and TiO2 Based Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Mesoporous Flowerlike Iron Sulfide Hierarchitectures: Facile Synthesis and Fast Lithium Storage Capability
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 431; doi:10.3390/nano7120431
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
The 3D flowerlike iron sulfide (F-FeS) is successfully synthesized via a facile one-step sulfurization process, and the electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are investigated. Compared with bulk iron sulfide, we find that the unique structural features, overall flowerlike
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The 3D flowerlike iron sulfide (F-FeS) is successfully synthesized via a facile one-step sulfurization process, and the electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are investigated. Compared with bulk iron sulfide, we find that the unique structural features, overall flowerlike structure, composed of several dozen nanopetals and numerous small size iron sulfide particles embedded within the fine nanopetals, and hierarchical pore structure features provide signification improvements in lithium storage performance, with a high-rate discharge capacity of 779.0 mAh g−1 at a rate of 5 A g−1, due to effectively alleviating the volume expansion during the lithiation/delithiation process, and shorting the diffusion length of both lithium ion and electron. Especially, an excellent cycling stability are achieved, a high discharge capacity of 890 mAh g−1 retained at a rate of 1.0 A g−1, suggesting its promising applications in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Three-dimensional Nanomaterials for Energy Storage and Conversions)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Corrosion Resistance Properties of Electroplated Chitosan-Zn1−xCuxO Composite Thin Films
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 432; doi:10.3390/nano7120432
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
Novel chitosan–zinc copper oxide (Zn1−xCuxO) composites were electrochemically synthesized through galvanostatic deposition. The prepared chitosan-based composite thin films were elaborately investigated to determine their structural, morphological, compositional, impedance, and corrosion properties. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to reveal their
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Novel chitosan–zinc copper oxide (Zn1−xCuxO) composites were electrochemically synthesized through galvanostatic deposition. The prepared chitosan-based composite thin films were elaborately investigated to determine their structural, morphological, compositional, impedance, and corrosion properties. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to reveal their structural orientation of composite thin films. Energy dispersive analysis by X-ray evidently confirmed the existence of Zn, Cu, and O in the composite thin films. Nyquist plots revealed that the chitosan-Zn1−xCuxO thin films had obvious semi-circular boundaries, and higher resistance was observed for chitosan-ZnO due to the grain boundary effect. Corrosion properties were evaluated using both an electrochemical method and the ASTM weight gain method, which revealed good corrosion rates of 34 and 35 × 10−3 mm/y, respectively, for chitosan-ZnO thin film. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Self-Supported Ni(P, O)x·MoOx Nanowire Array on Nickel Foam as an Efficient and Durable Electrocatalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 433; doi:10.3390/nano7120433
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
Earth-abundant and low-cost catalysts with excellent electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity in alkaline solution play an important role in the sustainable production of hydrogen energy. In this work, a catalyst of Ni(P, O)x·MoOx nanowire array on nickel foam has
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Earth-abundant and low-cost catalysts with excellent electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity in alkaline solution play an important role in the sustainable production of hydrogen energy. In this work, a catalyst of Ni(P, O)x·MoOx nanowire array on nickel foam has been prepared via a facile route for efficient alkaline HER. Benefiting from the collaborative advantages of Ni(P, O)x and amorphous MoOx, as well as three-dimensional porous conductive nickel scaffold, the hybrid electrocatalyst shows high catalytic activity in 1 M KOH aqueous solution, including a small overpotential of 59 mV at 10 mA cm−2, a low Tafel slope of 54 mV dec-1, and excellent cycling stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based Fuel Cells and Supercapacitors)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Octyl Methoxy Cinnamates (OMC)/Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Emulsion Method
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 434; doi:10.3390/nano7120434
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
Although octyl methoxy cinnamates (OMC) is the most used Ultraviolet B (UVB) filter in sunscreen, it has poor light stability in emulsion system. In this study, OMC/SiO2 nanoparticles were prepared via sol-gel emulsion method. Tetraethoxy silane (TEOS) was used as the silica
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Although octyl methoxy cinnamates (OMC) is the most used Ultraviolet B (UVB) filter in sunscreen, it has poor light stability in emulsion system. In this study, OMC/SiO2 nanoparticles were prepared via sol-gel emulsion method. Tetraethoxy silane (TEOS) was used as the silica source to encapsulate OMC. Modification of experimental parameters such as stirring speed of condensation reaction and emulsion condition, pH value of acid-catalyzed, surfactant and different percentage of TEOS and OMC, adding of OMC and surfactant to different phase may affect the particle size, and yield and entrapment efficiency in preparation process of OMC/SiO2 nanoparticles. Concluding all the parameter, we found that when condensation reaction and emulsion conditions are at 1000 rpm, pH 1.5, Span 80/Tween 20, TEOS/OMC ratios 1:1, OMC and surfactants added in oil phase, resulting in smaller particle sizes 476.5 nm, higher yield 95.8%, and higher entrapment efficiency 61.09%. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis demonstrated that OMC/SiO2 nanoparticles were successfully prepared. In vitro release profile supposed that OMC/SiO2 nanoparticles can delay OMC releasing and had 60.83% decreasing of cumulative amount. Therefore, the OMC/SiO2 nanoparticles have the potential to develop as new sunscreen materials in the use for cosmetics field in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Zinc-Modified Nanotransporter of Doxorubicin for Targeted Prostate Cancer Delivery
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 435; doi:10.3390/nano7120435
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
This work investigated the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles used as carriers for doxorubicin for targeted cancer delivery. Prepared nanocarriers were stabilized and functionalized via zinc ions incorporated into the chitosan nanoparticle backbone. We took the advantage of high expression of sarcosine in the
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This work investigated the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles used as carriers for doxorubicin for targeted cancer delivery. Prepared nanocarriers were stabilized and functionalized via zinc ions incorporated into the chitosan nanoparticle backbone. We took the advantage of high expression of sarcosine in the prostate cancer cells. The prostate cancer targeting was mediated by the AntiSar antibodies decorated surface of the nanocage. Formation of the chitosan nanoparticles was determined using a ninhydrin assay and differential pulse voltammetry. Obtained results showed the strong effect of tripolyphosphine on the nanoparticle formation. The zinc ions affected strong chitosan backbone coiling both in inner and outer chitosan nanoparticle structure. Zinc electrochemical signal depended on the level of the complex formation and the potential shift from −960 to −950 mV. Formed complex is suitable for doxorubicin delivery. It was observed the 20% entrapment efficiency of doxorubicin and strong dependence of drug release after 120 min in the blood environment. The functionality of the designed nanotransporter was proven. The purposed determination showed linear dependence in the concentration range of Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled gold nanoparticles from 0 to 1000 µg/mL and the regression equation was found to be y = 3.8x − 66.7 and R2 = 0.99. Performed ELISA confirmed the ability of Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled chitosan nanoparticles with loaded doxorubicin to bind to the sarcosine molecule. Observed hemolytic activity of the nanotransporter was 40%. Inhibition activity of our proposed nanotransporter was evaluated to be 0% on the experimental model of S. cerevisiae. Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled chitosan nanoparticles, with loaded doxorubicin stabilized by Zn ions, are a perspective type of nanocarrier for targeted drug therapy managed by specific interaction with sarcosine and metallothionein for prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Fibrin-Based Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Potential Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 436; doi:10.3390/nano7120436 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 10 December 2017
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Abstract
Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have gained great attention for a number of biomedical applications due to their improved properties compared to individual components alone. In this study, we investigated the capacity of newly-developed naturally-derived IPNs as potential biomaterials for tissue engineering. These IPNs
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Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have gained great attention for a number of biomedical applications due to their improved properties compared to individual components alone. In this study, we investigated the capacity of newly-developed naturally-derived IPNs as potential biomaterials for tissue engineering. These IPNs combine the biologic properties of a fibrous fibrin network polymerized at the nanoscale and the mechanical stability of polyethylene oxide (PEO). First, we assessed their cytotoxicity in vitro on L929 fibroblasts. We further evaluated their biocompatibility ex vivo with a chick embryo organotypic culture model. Subcutaneous implantations of the matrices were subsequently conducted on nude mice to investigate their biocompatibility in vivo. Our preliminary data highlighted that our biomaterials were non-cytotoxic (viability above 90%). The organotypic culture showed that the IPN matrices induced higher cell adhesion (across all the explanted organ tissues) and migration (skin, intestine) than the control groups, suggesting the advantages of using a biomimetic, yet mechanically-reinforced IPN-based matrix. We observed no major inflammatory response up to 12 weeks post implantation. All together, these data suggest that these fibrin-based IPNs are promising biomaterials for tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle New Three-Dimensional Porous Electrode Concept: Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Directly Grown on Embroidered Copper Structures
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 438; doi:10.3390/nano7120438 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
New three-dimensional (3D) porous electrode concepts are required to overcome limitations in Li-ion batteries in terms of morphology (e.g., shapes, dimensions), mechanical stability (e.g., flexibility, high electroactive mass loadings), and electrochemical performance (e.g., low volumetric energy densities and rate capabilities). Here a new
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New three-dimensional (3D) porous electrode concepts are required to overcome limitations in Li-ion batteries in terms of morphology (e.g., shapes, dimensions), mechanical stability (e.g., flexibility, high electroactive mass loadings), and electrochemical performance (e.g., low volumetric energy densities and rate capabilities). Here a new electrode concept is introduced based on the direct growth of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) on embroidered Cu current collectors. The direct growth of VA-CNTs was achieved by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and there was no application of any post-treatment or cleaning procedure. The electrochemical behavior of the as-grown VA-CNTs was analyzed by charge/discharge cycles at different specific currents and with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The results were compared with values found in the literature. The as-grown VA-CNTs exhibit higher specific capacities than graphite and pristine VA-CNTs found in the literature. This together with the possibilities that the Cu embroidered structures offer in terms of specific surface area, total surface area, and designs provide a breakthrough in new 3D electrode concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon nanostructure for energy storage and conversion)
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Open AccessReview Iron-Based Nanomaterials/Graphene Composites for Advanced Electrochemical Sensors
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 406; doi:10.3390/nano7120406
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
Iron oxide nanostructures (IONs) in combination with graphene or its derivatives—e.g., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide—hold great promise toward engineering of efficient nanocomposites for enhancing the performance of advanced devices in many applicative fields. Due to the peculiar electrical and electrocatalytic properties
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Iron oxide nanostructures (IONs) in combination with graphene or its derivatives—e.g., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide—hold great promise toward engineering of efficient nanocomposites for enhancing the performance of advanced devices in many applicative fields. Due to the peculiar electrical and electrocatalytic properties displayed by composite structures in nanoscale dimensions, increasing efforts have been directed in recent years toward tailoring the properties of IONs-graphene based nanocomposites for developing more efficient electrochemical sensors. In the present feature paper, we first reviewed the various routes for synthesizing IONs-graphene nanostructures, highlighting advantages, disadvantages and the key synthesis parameters for each method. Then, a comprehensive discussion is presented in the case of application of IONs-graphene based composites in electrochemical sensors for the determination of various kinds of (bio)chemical substances. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles for Diagnostic Sensing
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 411; doi:10.3390/nano7120411
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles exhibit unique optical properties, such as a long luminescence lifetime (up to several milliseconds), sharp emission peaks, and upconversion luminescence over the range of wavelengths from near-infrared to visible. Exploiting these optical properties, lanthanide-doped nanoparticles have been widely utilized for cellular
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Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles exhibit unique optical properties, such as a long luminescence lifetime (up to several milliseconds), sharp emission peaks, and upconversion luminescence over the range of wavelengths from near-infrared to visible. Exploiting these optical properties, lanthanide-doped nanoparticles have been widely utilized for cellular and small animal imaging with the absence of background autofluorescence. In addition, these nanoparticles have advantages of high signal-to-noise ratio for highly sensitive and selective diagnostic detection. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent progress in the development of highly sensitive diagnostic methods using lanthanide-doped nanoparticles. Combined with a smartphone, portable luminescence detecting platforms could be widely applied in point-of-care tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Sensing Applications)
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Open AccessBrief Report Effect of Graphene Oxide (GO) on the Morphology and Microstructure of Cement Hydration Products
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 429; doi:10.3390/nano7120429
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the effects of graphene oxide (GO) on the microstructure of cement mortars were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric (TG), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Cement mortar samples with different proportions of GO (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 wt
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In this study, the effects of graphene oxide (GO) on the microstructure of cement mortars were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric (TG), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Cement mortar samples with different proportions of GO (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 wt % based on the weight of cement) were prepared. The test results showed that GO affected the crystallization of cement hydration products, C–S–H (calcium silicate hydrate is the main hydrate product) and CH (calcium hydroxide). The morphology of hydration products changed with the increase of GO content. Furthermore, the results of XRD analyses showed that the diffraction peak intensity and the crystal grain size of CH (001), (100), (101), and (102) for GO samples increased considerably compared with the control sample. Based on the results, it can be understood that GO can modify the crystal surface of CH, leading to the formation of larger crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Nanosciences, Computational Chemistry, and Data Analysis)
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