Special Issue "Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biological Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Olivier Sandre

Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères Organiques (LCPO), Bordeaux-INP, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, 16 avenue Pey Berland, 33607 Pessac cedex, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: magnetic nanoparticles; superparamagnetic MRI contrast agents; magnetic hyperthermia; self-assembled copolymer micelles and vesicles (polymersomes); hybrid organic (e.g. polymer)/inorganic nanostructures; drug releasing nanoplatforms; nanomaterials study by neutron scattering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Developed in the 1960s initially for technological applications, stable suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) also called “ferrofluids”, emerged during the 1990s as building blocks for biological applications: Contrast agents for MRI, bio-assays using magnetic separation, internal heat sources for thermo-ablation of tumors, drug carriers with magnetic guiding capability or targeted drug release activated by an applied magnetic field, etc. The research on novel biocompatible MNPs is very active and multidisciplinary, as it involves chemistry for the development of the MNP core and of their coatings, but also physics for the study and optimization of their magnetic properties, pharmacology when dealing with conjugation to biological ligands, drug encapsulation, drug release, etc. From the materials point of view, the chemical composition and crystalline structure of MNP cores can be varied among several transition metals, metal alloys or metal oxides. However, most MNPs aimed to be in contact with living cells or organisms are made of magnetic iron oxides, in order to minimize the risks of toxicity that can arise with other metals (manganese, cobalt, nickel, zinc, etc.). Alternatively, mixed spinels or pristine metals can be used to optimize the magnetic moments. However, they need to be coated with biocompatible shells to avoid ion leashing, either organic or inorganic, as in the development of magnetic core-shells, or even magnetic tri-shells (e.g., ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic junctions to create exchange bias effects). Other magnetic carriers or magnetic devices are hybrid, i.e., they combine an organic matrix and magnetic nanofillers, creating multi-functional or multimodal probes for bio-imaging. One can cite MNPs combined with liposomes, polymer micelles or vesicles, protein or mesoporous silica shells. In particular, thermosensitive matrixes (polymer chains or gels with a thermal transition, inorganic porous shells filled with wax as gate keepers, etc.) were proposed to tune the drug release kinetics by applied magnetic fields. This Special Issue focuses on all aspects of new nanomaterials using MNPs as active components for biological applications (bio-assays, diagnosis and/or imaging probes, drug delivery systems, etc.), or on the interaction of MNPs with biological media (biological fluids, cell cultures, or living organisms). Studies which shed light on the cellular uptake of MNPs and on the intra-cellular magnetic hyperthermia mechanisms are particularly welcome. Special attention will also be paid to contributions from talented early-stage researchers who are settling their original approaches or new directions in this field of research.

Dr. Olivier Sandre
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • bio-compatible magnetic nanoparticles
  • MRI contrast agents
  • magnetic bio-assays
  • magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia
  • magnetically guided drug carriers
  • magnetic bio-actuators
  • magnetic tumor targeting
  • magnetically activated drug release
  • magnetic structure and properties
  • magnetic metals, alloys and metal oxides
  • magnetic core-shells
  • magnetic tri-shells
  • hybrid magnetic carriers
  • magnetic medical devices
  • magnetic responsive bio-nanocomposites
  • magnetic multi-modal bio-imaging probes
  • magnetic thermo-sensitive liposomes
  • magnetic polymer micelles or vesicles
  • magnetic protein capsules
  • magnetic core-mesoporous silica shells
  • magnetic thermo-sensitive polymers or gels
  • interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with biological media
  • magnetic nanoparticle cellular uptake
  • intracellular magnetic hyperthermia
  • pre-clinical assays on magnetic hyperthermia
  • magnetic nanoparticle therapies

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Magnetic Nanoparticles Interact and Pass an In Vitro Co-Culture Blood-Placenta Barrier Model
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(2), 108; doi:10.3390/nano8020108
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles are interesting tools for biomedicine. Before application, critical prerequisites have to be fulfilled. An important issue is the contact and interaction with biological barriers such as the blood-placenta barrier. In order to study these processes in detail, suitable in vitro models
[...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles are interesting tools for biomedicine. Before application, critical prerequisites have to be fulfilled. An important issue is the contact and interaction with biological barriers such as the blood-placenta barrier. In order to study these processes in detail, suitable in vitro models are needed. For that purpose a blood-placenta barrier model based on the trophoblast-like cell line BeWo and primary placenta-derived pericytes was established. This model was characterized by molecular permeability, transepithelial electrical resistance and cell-cell-contact markers. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with cationic, anionic or neutral surface charge were applied. The localization of the nanoparticles within the cells was illustrated by histochemistry. The time-dependent passage of the nanoparticles through the BeWo/pericyte barrier was measured by magnetic particle spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cationically coated SPIONs exhibited the most extensive interaction with the BeWo cells and remained primarily in the BeWo/pericyte cell layer. In contrast, SPIONs with neutral and anionic surface charge were able to pass the cell layer to a higher extent and could be detected beyond the barrier after 24 h. This study showed that the mode of SPION interaction with and passage through the in vitro blood-placenta barrier model depends on the surface charge and the duration of treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biological Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication Improved Anticancer Effect of Magnetite Nanocomposite Formulation of GALLIC Acid (Fe3O4-PEG-GA) Against Lung, Breast and Colon Cancer Cells
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(2), 83; doi:10.3390/nano8020083
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
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Abstract
Lung cancer, breast cancer and colorectal cancer are the most prevalent fatal types of cancers globally. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a bioactive compound found in plants and foods, such as white tea, witch hazel and it has been reported to possess anticancer,
[...] Read more.
Lung cancer, breast cancer and colorectal cancer are the most prevalent fatal types of cancers globally. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a bioactive compound found in plants and foods, such as white tea, witch hazel and it has been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we have redesigned our previously reported anticancer nanocomposite formulation with improved drug loading based on iron oxide magnetite nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol and loaded with anticancer drug gallic acid (Fe3O4-PEG-GA). The in vitro release profile and percentage drug loading were found to be better than our previously reported formulation. The anticancer activity of pure gallic acid (GA), empty carrier (Fe3O4-PEG) nanocarrier and of anticancer nanocomposite (Fe3O4-PEG-GA) were screened against human lung cancer cells (A549), human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), human colon cancer cells (HT-29) and normal fibroblast cells (3T3) after incubation of 24, 48 and 72 h using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay. The designed formulation (Fe3O4-PEG-GA) showed better anticancer activity than free gallic acid (GA). The results of the in vitro studies are highly encouraging to conduct the in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biological Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Magnetic Actuation Scheme to Disaggregate Nanoparticles and Enhance Passage across the Blood–Brain Barrier
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(1), 3; doi:10.3390/nano8010003
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) hinders drug delivery to the brain. Despite various efforts to develop preprogramed actuation schemes for magnetic drug delivery, the unmodeled aggregation phenomenon limits drug delivery performance. This paper proposes a novel scheme with an aggregation model for a feed-forward
[...] Read more.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) hinders drug delivery to the brain. Despite various efforts to develop preprogramed actuation schemes for magnetic drug delivery, the unmodeled aggregation phenomenon limits drug delivery performance. This paper proposes a novel scheme with an aggregation model for a feed-forward magnetic actuation design. A simulation platform for aggregated particle delivery is developed and an actuation scheme is proposed to deliver aggregated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using a discontinuous asymmetrical magnetic actuation. The experimental results with a Y-shaped channel indicated the success of the proposed scheme in steering and disaggregation. The delivery performance of the developed scheme was examined using a realistic, three-dimensional (3D) vessel simulation. Furthermore, the proposed scheme enhanced the transport and uptake of MNPs across the BBB in mice. The scheme presented here facilitates the passage of particles across the BBB to the brain using an electromagnetic actuation scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biological Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Sterilization and Preservation Procedures on the Integrity of Serum Protein-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 453; doi:10.3390/nano7120453
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
PDF Full-text (2919 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for various medical applications. Prior to their application into a biological system, one has to guarantee that the particle dispersions are free from pathogens or any other microbiologic contamination. Furthermore, to find entrance into clinical routine, the
[...] Read more.
Protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for various medical applications. Prior to their application into a biological system, one has to guarantee that the particle dispersions are free from pathogens or any other microbiologic contamination. Furthermore, to find entrance into clinical routine, the nanoparticle dispersions have to be storable for several months. In this study, we tested several procedures for sterilization and preservation of nanoparticle containing liquids on their influence on the integrity of the protein coating on the surface of these particles. For this, samples were treated by freezing, autoclaving, lyophilization, and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and characterized by means of dynamic light scattering, determination of surface potential, and gel electrophoresis afterwards. We found that the UV sterilization followed by lyophilization under the addition of polyethylene glycol are the most promising procedures for the preparation of sterilized long-term durable protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Ongoing work is focused on the optimization of used protocols for UV sterilization and lyophilization for further improvement of the storage time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biological Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Functionalization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Gallic Acid as Potential Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(10), 306; doi:10.3390/nano7100306
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
PDF Full-text (867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this research, we report the size-controlled synthesis and surface-functionalization of magnetite with the natural antioxidant gallic acid (GA) as a ligand, using in situ and post-synthesis methods. GA functionalization provided narrow size distribution, with an average particle size of 5 and 8
[...] Read more.
In this research, we report the size-controlled synthesis and surface-functionalization of magnetite with the natural antioxidant gallic acid (GA) as a ligand, using in situ and post-synthesis methods. GA functionalization provided narrow size distribution, with an average particle size of 5 and 8 nm for in situ synthesis of gallic acid functionalized magnetite IONP@GA1 and IONP@GA2, respectively, which are ultra-small particles as compared to unfunctionalized magnetite (IONP) and post functionalized magnetite IONP@GA3 with average size of 10 and 11 nm respectively. All the IONPs@GA samples were found hydrophilic with stable aggregation state. Prior to commencement of experimental lab work, PASS software was used to predict the biological activities of GA and it is found that experimental antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and antimicrobial studies using well diffusion method are in good agreement with the simulated results. Furthermore, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of DPPH antioxidant assay revealed a 2–4 fold decrease as compared to unfunctionalized IONP. In addition to antioxidant activity, all the three IONP@GA proved outstanding antimicrobial activity while testing on different bacterial and fungal strains. The results collectively indicate the successful fabrication of novel antioxidant, antimicrobial IONP@GA composite, which are magnetically separable, efficient, and low cost, with potential applications in polymers, cosmetics, and biomedical and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biological Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Tuning Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Aqueous Synthesis without Ligands to Improve MRI Relaxivity and SAR
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(8), 225; doi:10.3390/nano7080225
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aqueous synthesis without ligands of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) with exceptional properties still remains an open issue, because of the challenge to control simultaneously numerous properties of the IONPs in these rigorous settings. To solve this, it is necessary to correlate the synthesis
[...] Read more.
Aqueous synthesis without ligands of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) with exceptional properties still remains an open issue, because of the challenge to control simultaneously numerous properties of the IONPs in these rigorous settings. To solve this, it is necessary to correlate the synthesis process with their properties, but this correlation is until now not well understood. Here, we study and correlate the structure, crystallinity, morphology, as well as magnetic, relaxometric and heating properties of IONPs obtained for different durations of the hydrothermal treatment that correspond to the different growth stages of IONPs upon initial co-precipitation in aqueous environment without ligands. We find that their properties were different for IONPs with comparable diameters. Specifically, by controlling the growth of IONPs from primary to secondary particles firstly by colloidal and then also by magnetic interactions, we control their crystallinity from monocrystalline to polycrystalline IONPs, respectively. Surface energy minimization in the aqueous environment along with low temperature treatment is used to favor nearly defect-free IONPs featuring superior properties, such as high saturation magnetization, magnetic volume, surface crystallinity, the transversal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxivity (up to r2 = 1189 mM−1·s−1 and r2/r1 = 195) and specific absorption rate, SAR (up to 1225.1 W·gFe−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biological Applications)
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