Special Issue "Nanomaterials in Food Safety"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Graham Bonwick

Institute of Food Science and Innovation, University of Chester, Chester CH1 4BJ, UK
E-Mail
Phone: +44-7971-05-9997
Guest Editor
Dr. Catherine S. Birch

Institute of Food Science and Innovation, University of Chester, Chester CH1 4BJ, UK
E-Mail
Phone: +44-1244-1902

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials aims to explore the potential risks and benefits associated with the use of nanomaterials for food safety and quality assurance, as well as ensuring the integrity of the food supply chain.

Current research developments will be highlighted and potential applications to real world problems experienced within the food supply chain will be examined. The key areas to be addressed will include the use of nanomaterials as the basis of novel, rapid or inexpensive sensors, enhanced packaging performance for shelf life extension and as a mean of informing and protecting consumer health and wellbeing. Applications that deter or prevent criminal activity, such as food fraud, and protect the integrity of the supply chain are of particular interest.

Prof. Dr. Graham Bonwick
Dr. Catherine S. Birch
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food
  • nanomaterials
  • safety
  • quality
  • integrity

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Model O/W Emulsions: Influence of Initial Droplet Size and Emulsifiers
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(9), 282; doi:10.3390/nano7090282
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier) on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and
[...] Read more.
The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier) on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI)-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN)-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene. The bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated β-carotene based on the results of bioaccessibility and cellular uptake showed the same order with the results of cellular uptake being SCN > TW80 > WPI. An inconsistency between the results of bioaccessibility and bioavailability was observed, indicating that the cellular uptake assay is necessary for a reliable evaluation of the bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated compounds. The findings in this study contribute to a better understanding of the correlation between emulsion structure and the digestive fate of emulsion-encapsulated nutrients, which make it possible to achieve controlled or potential targeted delivery of nutrients by designing the structure of emulsion-based carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of PLA Film Incorporated with ZnO Nanoparticle on the Quality Attributes of Fresh-Cut Apple
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(8), 207; doi:10.3390/nano7080207
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
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Abstract
A novel nanopackaging film was synthesized by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a poly-lactic acid (PLA) matrix, and its effect on the quality of fresh-cut apple during the period of preservation was investigated at 4 ± 1 °C for 14 days. Six wt %
[...] Read more.
A novel nanopackaging film was synthesized by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a poly-lactic acid (PLA) matrix, and its effect on the quality of fresh-cut apple during the period of preservation was investigated at 4 ± 1 °C for 14 days. Six wt % cinnamaldehyde was added into the nano-blend film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed a rougher cross-section of the nano-blend films and an X-ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out to determine the structure of the ZnO nanoparticles. Compared to the pure PLA film, the nano-blend film had a higher water vapor permeability (WVP) and lower oxygen permeability. With the increase of the nanoparticles (NPs) in the PLA, the elongation at break (ε) and elastic modulus (EM) increased, while tensile strength (TS) decreased. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) presented a relatively good thermostability. Most importantly, the physical and biochemical properties of the fresh-cut apple were also measured, such as weight loss, firmness, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), total phenolic content, browning index (BI), sensory quality, and microbiological level. The results indicated that nano-blend packaging films had the highest weight loss at the end of storage compared to the pure PLA film; however, nanopackaging provided a better retention of firmness, total phenolic countent, color, and sensory quality. It also had a remarkable inhibition on the growth of microorganisms. Therefore, Nano-ZnO active packaging could be used to improve the shelf-life of fresh-cut produce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Nanoemulsified D-Limonene Reduces the Heat Resistance of Salmonella Senftenberg over 50 Times
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(3), 65; doi:10.3390/nano7030065
Received: 24 January 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
Salmonella Senftenberg is a pathogen agent causative of foodborne disease and it is considered the most heat-resistant serovar within this genus. Food industries use heat treatment and chemical antimicrobials in order to eliminate this microorganism in food, but consumers prefer natural antimicrobials as
[...] Read more.
Salmonella Senftenberg is a pathogen agent causative of foodborne disease and it is considered the most heat-resistant serovar within this genus. Food industries use heat treatment and chemical antimicrobials in order to eliminate this microorganism in food, but consumers prefer natural antimicrobials as essential oils and their components. This study evaluates the combined effect of thermal treatments and different concentrations of D-limonene nanoemulsion on the inactivation of Salmonella (S.) Senftenberg. The results showed an important effect of the nanoemulsified D-limonene on the heat resistance of S. Senftenberg. The δ50 °C value was reduced by 85%, 96% and 98% when 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM of nanoemulsified D-limonene was added to the heating medium. The effect was kept along all the heating temperatures researched and the shape of the survival curves did not change with the addition of the antimicrobial. The results obtained in this research could be very useful for food industries for optimizing or improving heat treatments applied to food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Food Safety)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Synthesis of Polyhydroxybutyrate Particles with Micro-to-Nanosized Structures and Application as Protective Coating for Packaging Papers
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(1), 5; doi:10.3390/nano7010005
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 30 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study reports on the development of bio-based hydrophobic coatings for packaging papers through deposition of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) particles in combination with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and plant wax. In the first approach, PHB particles in the micrometer range (PHB-MP) were prepared through a
[...] Read more.
This study reports on the development of bio-based hydrophobic coatings for packaging papers through deposition of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) particles in combination with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and plant wax. In the first approach, PHB particles in the micrometer range (PHB-MP) were prepared through a phase-separation technique providing internally-nanosized structures. The particles were transferred as a coating by dip-coating filter papers in the particle suspension, followed by sizing with a carnauba wax solution. This approach allowed partial to almost full surface coverage of PHB-MP over the paper surface, resulting in static water contact angles of 105°–122° and 129°–144° after additional wax coating. In the second approach, PHB particles with submicron sizes (PHB-SP) were synthesized by an oil-in-water emulsion (o/w) solvent evaporation method and mixed in aqueous suspensions with 0–7 wt % NFC. After dip-coating filter papers in PHB-SP/NFC suspensions and sizing with a carnauba wax solution, static water contact angles of 112°–152° were obtained. The intrinsic properties of the particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy, indicating higher crystallinity for PHB-SP than PHB-MP. The chemical interactions between the more amorphous PHB-MP particles and paper fibers were identified as an esterification reaction, while the morphology of the NFC fibrillar network was playing a key role as the binding agent in the retention of more crystalline PHB-SP at the paper surface, hence contributing to higher hydrophobicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Oral Toxicity and Intestinal Transport Mechanism of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticle-Treated Red Ginseng
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(11), 208; doi:10.3390/nano6110208
Received: 4 September 2016 / Revised: 29 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
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Abstract
(1) Background: Application of nanotechnology or nanomaterials in agricultural food crops has attracted increasing attention with regard to improving crop production, quality, and nutrient utilization. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been reported to enhance seed yield, germination rate, and anti-oxidant potential in food crops,
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Application of nanotechnology or nanomaterials in agricultural food crops has attracted increasing attention with regard to improving crop production, quality, and nutrient utilization. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been reported to enhance seed yield, germination rate, and anti-oxidant potential in food crops, raising concerns about their toxicity potential. In this study, we evaluated the oral toxicity of red ginseng exposed to colloidal Au-NPs during cultivation (G-red ginseng) in rats and their intestinal transport mechanism. (2) Methods: 14-day repeated oral administration of G-red ginseng extract to rats was performed, and body weight, hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathological values were analyzed. An in vitro model of human intestinal follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and an intestinal epithelial monolayer system were used for intestinal transport mechanistic study. (3) Results: No remarkable oral toxicity of G-red ginseng extract in rats was found, and Au-NPs did not accumulate in any organ, although Au-NP transfer to G-red ginseng and some increased saponin levels were confirmed. Au-NPs were transcytozed by microfold (M) cells, but not by a paracellular pathway in the intestinal epithelium. (4) Conclusion: These findings suggest great potential of Au-NPs for agricultural food crops at safe levels. Further study is required to elucidate the functional effects of Au-NPs on ginseng and long-term toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Prohibited Fish Drugs Using Silver Nanowires as Substrate for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(9), 175; doi:10.3390/nano6090175
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering or surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a promising detection technology, and has captured increasing attention. Silver nanowires were synthesized using a rapid polyol method and optimized through adjustment of the molar ratio of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and silver nitrate in a
[...] Read more.
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering or surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a promising detection technology, and has captured increasing attention. Silver nanowires were synthesized using a rapid polyol method and optimized through adjustment of the molar ratio of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and silver nitrate in a glycerol system. Ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the silver nanowires. The optimal silver nanowires were used as a SERS substrate to detect prohibited fish drugs, including malachite green, crystal violet, furazolidone, and chloramphenicol. The SERS spectra of crystal violet could be clearly identified at concentrations as low as 0.01 ng/mL. The minimum detectable concentration for malachite green was 0.05 ng/mL, and for both furazolidone and chloramphenicol were 0.1 μg/mL. The results showed that the as-prepared Ag nanowires SERS substrate exhibits high sensitivity and activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Food Safety)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Micro-/Nanostructured PHB coatings as protective coatings for packaging papers
Authors: Vibhore Rastogi, Pieter Samyn
Abstract: This study reports on the development of bio-based hydrophobic coatings for packaging papers by following the two approaches. In first approach, structured polyhydroxybutyrate or PHB particles in micrometer range were prepared through the phase-separation technique and later transferred over the paper by dip-coating method. This approach only allowed the partial surface coverage of structured PHB particles over the papers resulted in the development of second approach. In second approach, two step dip-coating coating formulation comprises PHB as coating pigment, nanofibrillated cellulose or NFC as binder, and plant wax as hydrophobizing agent. A synthesis procedure for the formulation of PHB particles in aqueous environment has first been optimized. In the next step, filter paper was dip-coated in PHB/NFC aqueous suspensions with different concentrations of NFC and the latter was additionally sized with wax solution, to have a final water contact angle of 152°. Morphological characterizations on coated papers were carried out by SEM and 3D-laser profilometry to visualize the effect of different NFC concentrations as binder. It was observed that the fibrillar cellulose network is playing a key role in the retention of PHB particles at the paper surface. This effect was further confirmed by chemical analysis of coated papers by Raman mapping. The coated papers can serve as protective layers with improved hydrophobicity for food packaging applications.

Title: Preparation of an antimicrobial capsule by encapsulating thyme oil into modified halloysite nanotubes
Authors: Min Hyeock Lee, Hyun-Sun Seo, Hyun Jin Park*
Abstract: An antimicrobial capsule releasing thyme oil was developed using halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) for controlled release system. In order to increase the pore volume, HNTs were treated with 5.0 mol/L NaOH solution, which resulted in the encapsulation of more thyme oil molecules into the lumen of the HNTs. The morphology of the non-treated HNTs and NaOH-treated HNTs was characterized using transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis via the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The loading capacity increased from 180.7 ± 12.7 mg thyme oil/g HNT to 256.4 ± 16.7 mg thyme oil/g HNT after the NaOH treatment. The aerial release characteristics of thyme oil from both the HNT capsules were investigated in a closed-package atmosphere system at 4 °C and 25 °C. The antimicrobial activity of the capsule against Escherichia coli O157:H7 was determined using the vapor phase assay. Moreover, the antimicrobial effects of the capsule against E. coli O157:H7, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), and molds and yeasts (MY) on the surfaces of cherry tomatoes were investigated at 4 °C and 25 °C for 5 days. When the cherry tomatoes were exposed to the thyme oil-loaded HNT capsule, the number of E. coli O157:H7, MAB, and MY significantly reduced during storage.

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