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Insects, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2012), Pages 593-899

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Contact Toxicity and Residual Efficacy of Indoxacarb against the European Earwig (Dermaptera: Forficulidae)
Insects 2012, 3(3), 593-600; doi:10.3390/insects3030593
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 30 May 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 25 June 2012
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Abstract
Indoxacarb (Arilon 20WG) was evaluated against a nuisance pest, the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), and was found to be an effective contact toxicant with residual activity on substrates commonly encountered in urban environments. Within 16 h of being directly sprayed with
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Indoxacarb (Arilon 20WG) was evaluated against a nuisance pest, the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), and was found to be an effective contact toxicant with residual activity on substrates commonly encountered in urban environments. Within 16 h of being directly sprayed with indoxacarb, ≥90% of earwigs from two populations were either ataxic, moribund, or dead, and 100% displayed these symptoms of severe intoxication at 1 d. Brief exposure (5 min or 1 h) to dried residues on either a porous (pine wood) or non-porous (ceramic tile) substrate also was sufficient to cause severe intoxication of earwigs within 1 d. In all bioassays, indoxacarb-treated earwigs showed no signs of recovery during the 21-d observation period. In outdoor urban habitats, intoxicated earwigs would be more vulnerable to desiccation, predation, or pathogens leading to higher mortality than in a laboratory setting. Full article
Open AccessArticle How Varroa Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera
Insects 2012, 3(3), 601-615; doi:10.3390/insects3030601
Received: 18 April 2012 / Revised: 25 May 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 27 June 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, Apis mellifera, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee
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We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, Apis mellifera, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. Varroa‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecin) was either not significantly different between Varroa-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in Varroa-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of Varroa on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in Varroa-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high Varroa abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore Varroa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Immunity)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Banana Plantation Pesticides on the Immune Response of Lepidopteran Larvae and Their Parasitoid Natural Enemies
Insects 2012, 3(3), 616-628; doi:10.3390/insects3030616
Received: 12 May 2012 / Revised: 28 May 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 27 June 2012
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Abstract
Basic research on the insect immune response has progressed dramatically within the last two decades, showing that immunity is one of the most effective defenses against foreign invaders. As such, it is important to understand the causes of variation in this response. Here,
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Basic research on the insect immune response has progressed dramatically within the last two decades, showing that immunity is one of the most effective defenses against foreign invaders. As such, it is important to understand the causes of variation in this response. Here, we investigate the effects of pesticides used in Costa Rican banana plantations on the immune response of the lepidopteran larva, Caligo memnon (Brassolinae). In addition, we performed a parasitism survey of the banana plantations and surrounding forests to provide a broader assessment of pesticide effects on parasitoid populations. All caterpillars for the immune assay were collected from two banana plantations and brought to La Selva Biology Station for immune challenge. Individuals were fed leaves from the plantations (pesticide) or leaves from La Selva (pesticide-free), then immune challenged with injected sephadex beads. We found that individuals feeding on pesticide leaves had significantly lower bead melanization compared to individuals feeding on pesticide-free leaves. Nonetheless, the parasitism survey showed that caterpillars from the banana plantations had lower parasitism rates compared to caterpillars from the La Selva forest. This study adds to the growing body of evidence documenting negative effects of pesticides on the insect immune response and on adult parasitoids, and underscores the need for more research at the intersection between ecological entomology and immunology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Immunity)
Open AccessArticle Laboratory Study of the Influence of Substrate Type and Temperature on the Exploratory Tunneling by Formosan Subterranean Termite
Insects 2012, 3(3), 629-639; doi:10.3390/insects3030629
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 19 June 2012 / Accepted: 19 June 2012 / Published: 27 June 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using two-dimensional foraging arenas, laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effect of soil type, soil moisture level and ambient temperature on the exploratory tunneling by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. In choice arenas consisting of two substrate types having two moisture levels each, and
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Using two-dimensional foraging arenas, laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effect of soil type, soil moisture level and ambient temperature on the exploratory tunneling by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. In choice arenas consisting of two substrate types having two moisture levels each, and conducted at a constant temperature of 22 °C, a significantly greater proportion of termites aggregated in sand than in sandy loam. Similarly, the length of excavated tunnels was also increased in sand. In a given substrate, termite aggregation or tunnel length did not differ between 5% and 15% moisture levels. In no-choice tests, where three different substrates (sand, sandy loam and silt loam) were tested at two temperatures (22 °C and 28 °C), excavations were significantly greater in sand than either sandy loam or silt loam at 22 °C. Fewer primary tunnels were constructed in sandy loam than in sand and fewer branched tunnels than either in sand or silt loam. No significant difference in either tunnel length or number of primary or branched tunnels was found between these two temperatures. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) Invades Hawaii: Preliminary Investigations on Trap Response and Alternate Hosts
Insects 2012, 3(3), 640-652; doi:10.3390/insects3030640
Received: 11 June 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 4 July 2012 / Published: 11 July 2012
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Abstract
In August 2010 the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was first reported to have invaded the Kona coffee growing region of Hawaii, posing a severe economic challenge to the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the State. Despite its long and widespread occurrence
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In August 2010 the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was first reported to have invaded the Kona coffee growing region of Hawaii, posing a severe economic challenge to the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the State. Despite its long and widespread occurrence throughout the tropics as the most serious pest of coffee, there are still discrepancies in the literature regarding several basic aspects of berry borer biology relevant to its control. In Kona coffee plantations, we investigated the beetles’ response to several trap and lure formulations, and examined the occurrence of beetles in seeds of alternate host plants occurring adjacent to coffee farms. While traps were shown to capture significant numbers of beetles per day, and the occurrence of beetles in alternate hosts was quite rare, the unique situation of coffee culture in Hawaii will make this pest extremely challenging to manage in the Islands. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Incidence of Non-Immunological Defenses of Soil White Grubs on Parasitism Success of Mallophora ruficauda Larva (Diptera: Asilidae)
Insects 2012, 3(3), 692-708; doi:10.3390/insects3030692
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 7 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
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Abstract
White grubs are larvae of Coleoptera of the family Scarabaeidae. They are known because of their intensive feeding habits on crop roots. Mallophora ruficauda (Diptera: Asilidae) is a dipteran parasitoid whose larva is a natural enemy for white grubs. This species is a
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White grubs are larvae of Coleoptera of the family Scarabaeidae. They are known because of their intensive feeding habits on crop roots. Mallophora ruficauda (Diptera: Asilidae) is a dipteran parasitoid whose larva is a natural enemy for white grubs. This species is a solitary ectoparasitoid, where both female and larva realize different steps in the host location process. Female place its eggs in high grasslands and then, the larva finds and parasitizes the host in the ground. There are nine potential hosts in the area of action of this parasitoid; however a high preference for Cyclocephala signaticollis has been observed (87% of field parasitism). It is known that many insects have developed defensive and immunological mechanisms when attacked by a parasitoid, which can be behavioral, physiological, chemical or genetic. The objectives of this work were to investigate what kind of defense and non-immunological associated mechanisms the white grubs have against this parasitoid and to understand why M. ruficauda have such a high preference for masked chafer grubs or Cyclocephala species. In particular, for each white grub species, we asked: (1) If there is a differential behavioral reaction when a parasitoid attack is simulated; (2) If body attributes of white grubs species have influence on defense behavior, and particularly for the masked chafer C. signaticollis; and (3) Why this species is the most selected by M. ruficauda. It was found that behavioral defenses of white grubs would explain the parasitism pattern of M. ruficauda larvae and its preference for C. signaticollis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Immunity)
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Open AccessArticle Horizontal Transmission of the Entomopathogen Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in Microcerotermes diversus Groups
Insects 2012, 3(3), 709-718; doi:10.3390/insects3030709
Received: 7 May 2012 / Revised: 5 June 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An experiment was carried out in order to investigate fungal conidia transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin from vector (donor) to healthy Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Iso.: Termitidae) and determine the best donor/concentration ratio for transmission. After preliminary trials, concentrations of 3.1 × 10
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An experiment was carried out in order to investigate fungal conidia transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin from vector (donor) to healthy Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Iso.: Termitidae) and determine the best donor/concentration ratio for transmission. After preliminary trials, concentrations of 3.1 × 104, 3.9 × 105, 3.2 × 106 and 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 were selected for testing. The experiment was performed at three donor : Recipient ratios of 10, 30 and 50%. The highest mortality of recipient workers was observed after 14 days at the concentration of 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 and donor ratio of 50%. The mortality of recipient workers was less than 20% at all concentrations at a donor ratio of 10%. Our observations indicate social behavior of M. diversus, such as grooming, can be effective in promoting epizootic outbreaks in a colony. While the current results suggest good potential for efficacy, the use of M. anisopliae as a component of integrated pest management of M. diversus still needs to be proven under field conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Screening Commercially Available Entomopathogenic Biocontrol Agents for the Control of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in the UK
Insects 2012, 3(3), 719-726; doi:10.3390/insects3030719
Received: 3 July 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is an invasive pest of honey bees. Indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa, it has now become established in North America and Australia. It represents a serious threat to European honey bees. Commercially available entomopathogenic agents were screened
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The Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is an invasive pest of honey bees. Indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa, it has now become established in North America and Australia. It represents a serious threat to European honey bees. Commercially available entomopathogenic agents were screened for their potential to control beetle larvae. Entomopathogenic fungi investigated had minimal impact. The nematodes Steinernema kraussei and S. carpocapsae provided excellent control with 100% mortality of larvae being obtained. Sequential applications of the nematodes following larvae entering sand to pupate also provided excellent control for up to 3 weeks. The information gained supports the development of contingency plans to deal with A. tumida should it occur in the UK, and is relevant to the management of Small hive beetle where it is already present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee)
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Open AccessArticle RNA-Seq Study of Microbially Induced Hemocyte Transcripts from Larval Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Insects 2012, 3(3), 743-762; doi:10.3390/insects3030743
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 13 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Larvae of the tobacco budworm are major polyphagous pests throughout the Americas. Development of effective microbial biopesticides for this and related noctuid pests has been stymied by the natural resistance mediated innate immune response. Hemocytes play an early and central role in activating
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Larvae of the tobacco budworm are major polyphagous pests throughout the Americas. Development of effective microbial biopesticides for this and related noctuid pests has been stymied by the natural resistance mediated innate immune response. Hemocytes play an early and central role in activating and coordinating immune responses to entomopathogens. To approach this problem we completed RNA-seq expression profiling of hemocytes collected from larvae following an in vivo challenge with bacterial and fungal cell wall components to elicit an immune response. A de novo exome assembly was constructed by combination of sequence tags from all treatments. Sequence tags from each treatment were aligned separately with the assembly to measure expression. The resulting table of differential expression had > 22,000 assemblies each with a distinct combination of annotation and expression. Within these assemblies > 1,400 were upregulated and > 1,500 downregulated by immune activation with bacteria or fungi. Orthologs to innate immune components of other insects were identified including pattern recognition, signal transduction pathways, antimicrobial peptides and enzymes, melanization and coagulation. Additionally orthologs of components regulating hemocytic functions such as autophagy, apoptosis, phagocytosis and nodulation were identified. Associated cellular oxidative defenses and detoxification responses were identified providing a comprehensive snapshot of the early response to elicitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Immunity)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Amitraz and Oxalic Acid on the Cuticle Proteolytic System of Apis mellifera L. Workers
Insects 2012, 3(3), 821-832; doi:10.3390/insects3030821
Received: 16 May 2012 / Revised: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 4 August 2012 / Published: 27 August 2012
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Abstract
This work verifies that amitraz and oxalic acid treatment affect honeybee cuticle proteolytic enzymes (CPE). Three bee groups were monitored: oxalic acid treatment, amitraz treatment, control. Electrophoresis of hydrophilic and hydrophobic CPE was performed. Protease and protease inhibitor activities (in vitro)
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This work verifies that amitraz and oxalic acid treatment affect honeybee cuticle proteolytic enzymes (CPE). Three bee groups were monitored: oxalic acid treatment, amitraz treatment, control. Electrophoresis of hydrophilic and hydrophobic CPE was performed. Protease and protease inhibitor activities (in vitro) and antifungal/antibacterial efficiencies (in vivo), were analyzed. Amitraz and oxalic acid treatment reduced hydrophobic, but did not affect hydrophilic, protein concentrations and reduced both hydrophilic and hydrophobic body surface asparagine and serine protease activities in relation to most substrates and independently of pH. The activities of natural cuticle inhibitors of acidic, neutral, and alkaline proteases were suppressed as a result of the treatments, corresponding with reduced antifungal and antibacterial activity. Electrophoretic patterns of low-, medium-, and high-molecular-weight proteases and protease inhibitors were also affected by the treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee)
Open AccessArticle Training for Defense? From Stochastic Traits to Synchrony in Giant Honey Bees (Apis dorsata)
Insects 2012, 3(3), 833-856; doi:10.3390/insects3030833
Received: 1 July 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 30 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In Giant Honey Bees, abdomen flipping happens in a variety of contexts. It can be either synchronous or cascaded, such as in the collective defense traits of shimmering and rearing-up, or it can happen as single-agent behavior. Abdomen flipping is also involved in
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In Giant Honey Bees, abdomen flipping happens in a variety of contexts. It can be either synchronous or cascaded, such as in the collective defense traits of shimmering and rearing-up, or it can happen as single-agent behavior. Abdomen flipping is also involved in flickering behavior, which occurs regularly under quiescent colony state displaying singular or collective traits, with stochastic, and (semi-) synchronized properties. It presumably acts via visual, mechanoceptive, and pheromonal pathways and its goals are still unknown. This study questions whether flickering is preliminary to shimmering which is subject of the fs (flickering-shimmering)-transition hypothesis? We tested the respective prediction that trigger sites (ts) at the nest surface (where shimmering waves had been generated) show higher flickering activity than the alternative non-trigger sites (nts). We measured the flickering activity of ts- and nts-surface bees from two experimental nests, before and after the colony had been aroused by a dummy wasp. Arousal increased rate and intensity of the flickering activity of both ts- and nts cohorts (P < 0.05), whereby the flickering intensity of ts-bees were higher than that of nts-bees (P < 0.05). Under arousal, the colonies also increased the number of flickering-active ts- and nts-cohorts (P < 0.05). This provides evidence that cohorts which are specialist at launching shimmering waves are found across the quiescent nest zone. It also proves that arousal may reinforce the responsiveness of quiescent curtain bees for participating in shimmering, practically by recruiting additional trigger site bees for expanding repetition of rate and intensity of shimmering waves. This finding confirms the fs-transition hypothesis and constitutes evidence that flickering is part of a basal colony-intrinsic information system. Furthermore, the findings disprove that the muscle activity associated with flickering would heat up the surface bees. Hence, surface bees are not actively contributing to thermoregulation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Does Patriline Composition Change over a Honey Bee Queen’s Lifetime?
Insects 2012, 3(3), 857-869; doi:10.3390/insects3030857
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 27 August 2012 / Accepted: 30 August 2012 / Published: 13 September 2012
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Abstract
A honey bee queen mates with a number of drones a few days after she emerges as an adult. Spermatozoa of different drones are stored in her spermatheca and used for the rest of the queen’s life to fertilize eggs. Sperm usage is
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A honey bee queen mates with a number of drones a few days after she emerges as an adult. Spermatozoa of different drones are stored in her spermatheca and used for the rest of the queen’s life to fertilize eggs. Sperm usage is thought to be random, so that the patriline distribution within a honey bee colony would remain constant over time. In this study we assigned the progeny of a naturally mated honey bee queen to patrilines using microsatellite markers at the queen’s age of two, three and four years. No significant changes in patriline distribution occurred within each of two foraging seasons, with samples taken one and five months apart, respectively. Overall and pair-wise comparisons between the three analyzed years reached significant levels. Over the three-year period we found a trend for patrilines to become more equally represented with time. It is important to note that this study was performed with a single queen, and thus individual and population variation in sperm usage patterns must be assessed. We discuss long-term changes in patriline composition due to mixing processes in the queen’s spermatheca, following incomplete mixing of different drones’ sperm after mating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee)

Review

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Open AccessReview Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Amphibians
Insects 2012, 3(3), 653-667; doi:10.3390/insects3030653
Received: 25 April 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
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Abstract
Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that
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Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that ladybirds are quite often eaten by frogs and toads (Anura), with recorded frequencies reaching up to 15% of dietary items. Salamanders (Caudata) eat ladybirds less frequently, probably as their habits less often bring them into contact with the beetles. Amphibians do not appear to be deleteriously affected by the potentially toxic alkaloids that ladybirds possess. Amphibians, especially frogs and toads, use primarily prey movement as a release cue to attack their food; it is thus likely that their ability to discriminate against ladybirds and other chemically defended prey is limited. Because of this poor discriminatory power, amphibians have apparently evolved non-specific resistance to prey defensive chemicals, including ladybird alkaloids. Although amphibian-related ladybird mortality is limited, in certain habitats it could outweigh mortality from more frequently studied predators, notably birds. The gut analyses from the herpetological literature used in this study, suggest that in studying predation of insects, entomologists should consider specialized literature on other animal groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trophic Interactions of Insects and Amphibians)
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Open AccessReview The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae
Insects 2012, 3(3), 668-691; doi:10.3390/insects3030668
Received: 8 May 2012 / Revised: 21 June 2012 / Accepted: 25 June 2012 / Published: 20 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, the choice
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Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, the choice of the parasitoid best suited to control a particular tephritid in a certain environment, release rate estimates and subsequent monitoring of effectiveness. In the following we review landscape-level and microhabitat foraging preferences, host/fruit ranges, orientation through environmental cues, host vulnerabilities/ovipositor structures, and inter and intraspecific competition. We also consider tephritid parasitoid mating systems and sexual signals, and suggest the directions of future research. Full article
Open AccessReview Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World
Insects 2012, 3(3), 727-742; doi:10.3390/insects3030727
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1672 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of
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Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri); similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway) were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa). Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more recent successes against Bactrocera spp. and related tephritids, and outline simple rearing and release methods to facilitate this goal. Full article
Open AccessReview Molecular Techniques for the Detection and Differentiation of Host and Parasitoid Species and the Implications for Fruit Fly Management
Insects 2012, 3(3), 763-788; doi:10.3390/insects3030763
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parasitoid detection and identification is a necessary step in the development and implementation of fruit fly biological control strategies employing parasitoid augmentive release. In recent years, DNA-based methods have been used to identify natural enemies of pest species where morphological differentiation is problematic.
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Parasitoid detection and identification is a necessary step in the development and implementation of fruit fly biological control strategies employing parasitoid augmentive release. In recent years, DNA-based methods have been used to identify natural enemies of pest species where morphological differentiation is problematic. Molecular techniques also offer a considerable advantage over traditional morphological methods of fruit fly and parasitoid discrimination as well as within-host parasitoid identification, which currently relies on dissection of immature parasitoids from the host, or lengthy and labour-intensive rearing methods. Here we review recent research focusing on the use of molecular strategies for fruit fly and parasitoid detection and differentiation and discuss the implications of these studies on fruit fly management. Full article
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Open AccessReview Behavioral Immunity in Insects
Insects 2012, 3(3), 789-820; doi:10.3390/insects3030789
Received: 27 May 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection,
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Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Immunity)
Open AccessReview Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program
Insects 2012, 3(3), 870-888; doi:10.3390/insects3030870
Received: 5 June 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 August 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has
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In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions. Full article
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Open AccessReview Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases
Insects 2012, 3(3), 889-899; doi:10.3390/insects3030889
Received: 29 May 2012 / Revised: 12 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and
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The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies. Full article

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