Insects 2012, 3(3), 889-899; doi:10.3390/insects3030889
Review

Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases

Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA-IICA, Camino a los Cacahotales S/N, CP 30680, Metapa de Domínguez, Chiapas, México
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2012; in revised form: 12 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
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Abstract: The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies.
Keywords: Augmentative Biological Control; chilling adult technique; wide-area approach

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MDPI and ACS Style

Montoya, P.; Cancino, J.; Ruiz, L. Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases. Insects 2012, 3, 889-899.

AMA Style

Montoya P, Cancino J, Ruiz L. Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases. Insects. 2012; 3(3):889-899.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Montoya, Pablo; Cancino, Jorge; Ruiz, Lía. 2012. "Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases." Insects 3, no. 3: 889-899.

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