Special Issue "Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management"

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A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Olivia L. Reynolds (Website)

Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (an alliance between the NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Woodbridge Road, Menangle NSW 2568, Australia
Fax: +61 2 46406300
Interests: silicon & insect-plant interactions; fruit fly pest management & trapping; sterile insect technique; biological control; insect behaviour

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are one of the worst group of pests facing horticultural industries worldwide. Environmental concerns and pressure from consumers and industry have contributed to the need for alternative control tactics to chemical insecticides as stand alone methods of control. Augmentative biological control of fruit flies using parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera) is receiving increasing attention worldwide as parasitoids are target specific, environmentally friendly and cause no damage to the crop. For this special issue of Insects (an online, peer-reviewed, open-access journal: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/insects/), authors are invited to contribute review articles or original research papers on aspects of parasitoid biology, ecology and behaviour that enable their success as biological control agents (rearing to release) and which ultimately aim to optimise their performance in the field. Contributed reviews and original research articles will address a range of topics including learning ability, host larval and fruit chemical cues, competitive interactions and synergies between parasitoids and other control methods. This special issue will capture some of the important research on these and related topics to date, and highlight areas where further research is needed, together in one issue.

Dr. Olivia Reynolds
Guest Editor

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil
Insects 2013, 4(1), 55-70; doi:10.3390/insects4010055
Received: 16 October 2012 / Revised: 17 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean [...] Read more.
The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets. Full article
Open AccessReview Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1220-1235; doi:10.3390/insects3041220
Received: 12 September 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 29 October 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual [...] Read more.
Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual or potential biocontrol agents for such programs are egg or larval Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Here, we review the literature published on their habitat and host location behavior, as well as the factors that modulate this behavior, which is assumed to be sequential; parasitoids forage first for the host habitat and then for the host itself. Parasitoids rely on chemical, visual, and mechanical stimuli, often strongly related to their ecology. Behavioral modulation factors include biotic and abiotic factors including learning, climatic conditions and physiological state of the insect. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research are briefly highlighted. A detailed knowledge of this behavior may be very useful for selecting the release sites for both inundative/augmentative releases of mass-reared parasitoids and inoculative releases for classical biocontrol. Full article
Open AccessReview Application of Nuclear Techniques to Improve the Mass Production and Management of Fruit Fly Parasitoids
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1105-1125; doi:10.3390/insects3041105
Received: 7 August 2012 / Revised: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 25 October 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no appreciable effect on [...] Read more.
The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no appreciable effect on parasitoid quality, i.e., fecundity, longevity and flight capability. Parasitoids of fruit fly eggs, larvae and pupae have all been shown to successfully develop in irradiated hosts, allowing a broad range of species to be shipped and released without post-rearing delays waiting for fly emergence and costly procedures to separate flies and wasps. This facilitates the early, more effective and less damaging shipment of natural enemies within hosts and across quarantined borders. In addition, the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids can be monitored by placing irradiated sentinel-hosts in the field. The optimal radiation dosages for host-sterility and parasitoid-fitness differ among species, and considerable progress has been made in integrating radiation into a variety of rearing procedures. Full article
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Open AccessReview Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1056-1083; doi:10.3390/insects3041056
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 4 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native [...] Read more.
This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. Full article
Open AccessReview Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release
Insects 2012, 3(4), 900-911; doi:10.3390/insects3040900
Received: 9 August 2012 / Revised: 7 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 25 September 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific [...] Read more.
Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests. Full article
Open AccessReview Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases
Insects 2012, 3(3), 889-899; doi:10.3390/insects3030889
Received: 29 May 2012 / Revised: 12 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing [...] Read more.
The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies. Full article
Open AccessReview Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program
Insects 2012, 3(3), 870-888; doi:10.3390/insects3030870
Received: 5 June 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 August 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents [...] Read more.
In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions. Full article
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Open AccessReview Molecular Techniques for the Detection and Differentiation of Host and Parasitoid Species and the Implications for Fruit Fly Management
Insects 2012, 3(3), 763-788; doi:10.3390/insects3030763
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parasitoid detection and identification is a necessary step in the development and implementation of fruit fly biological control strategies employing parasitoid augmentive release. In recent years, DNA-based methods have been used to identify natural enemies of pest species where morphological differentiation is [...] Read more.
Parasitoid detection and identification is a necessary step in the development and implementation of fruit fly biological control strategies employing parasitoid augmentive release. In recent years, DNA-based methods have been used to identify natural enemies of pest species where morphological differentiation is problematic. Molecular techniques also offer a considerable advantage over traditional morphological methods of fruit fly and parasitoid discrimination as well as within-host parasitoid identification, which currently relies on dissection of immature parasitoids from the host, or lengthy and labour-intensive rearing methods. Here we review recent research focusing on the use of molecular strategies for fruit fly and parasitoid detection and differentiation and discuss the implications of these studies on fruit fly management. Full article
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Open AccessReview Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World
Insects 2012, 3(3), 727-742; doi:10.3390/insects3030727
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1672 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment [...] Read more.
Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri); similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway) were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa). Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more recent successes against Bactrocera spp. and related tephritids, and outline simple rearing and release methods to facilitate this goal. Full article
Open AccessReview The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae
Insects 2012, 3(3), 668-691; doi:10.3390/insects3030668
Received: 8 May 2012 / Revised: 21 June 2012 / Accepted: 25 June 2012 / Published: 20 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, the [...] Read more.
Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, the choice of the parasitoid best suited to control a particular tephritid in a certain environment, release rate estimates and subsequent monitoring of effectiveness. In the following we review landscape-level and microhabitat foraging preferences, host/fruit ranges, orientation through environmental cues, host vulnerabilities/ovipositor structures, and inter and intraspecific competition. We also consider tephritid parasitoid mating systems and sexual signals, and suggest the directions of future research. Full article

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