Insects 2012, 3(3), 821-832; doi:10.3390/insects3030821
Article

Influence of Amitraz and Oxalic Acid on the Cuticle Proteolytic System of Apis mellifera L. Workers

Received: 16 May 2012; in revised form: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 4 August 2012 / Published: 27 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This work verifies that amitraz and oxalic acid treatment affect honeybee cuticle proteolytic enzymes (CPE). Three bee groups were monitored: oxalic acid treatment, amitraz treatment, control. Electrophoresis of hydrophilic and hydrophobic CPE was performed. Protease and protease inhibitor activities (in vitro) and antifungal/antibacterial efficiencies (in vivo), were analyzed. Amitraz and oxalic acid treatment reduced hydrophobic, but did not affect hydrophilic, protein concentrations and reduced both hydrophilic and hydrophobic body surface asparagine and serine protease activities in relation to most substrates and independently of pH. The activities of natural cuticle inhibitors of acidic, neutral, and alkaline proteases were suppressed as a result of the treatments, corresponding with reduced antifungal and antibacterial activity. Electrophoretic patterns of low-, medium-, and high-molecular-weight proteases and protease inhibitors were also affected by the treatments.
Keywords: proteases; protease inhibitors; Apis mellifera; bees; cuticle; amitraz; oxalic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Strachecka, A.; Paleolog, J.; Olszewski, K.; Borsuk, G. Influence of Amitraz and Oxalic Acid on the Cuticle Proteolytic System of Apis mellifera L. Workers. Insects 2012, 3, 821-832.

AMA Style

Strachecka A, Paleolog J, Olszewski K, Borsuk G. Influence of Amitraz and Oxalic Acid on the Cuticle Proteolytic System of Apis mellifera L. Workers. Insects. 2012; 3(3):821-832.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Strachecka, Aneta; Paleolog, Jerzy; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Borsuk, Grzegorz. 2012. "Influence of Amitraz and Oxalic Acid on the Cuticle Proteolytic System of Apis mellifera L. Workers." Insects 3, no. 3: 821-832.

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