Insects 2012, 3(3), 668-691; doi:10.3390/insects3030668
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The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae

1 USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, 1600 SW23rd Drive, Gainesville, FL 32604, USA 2 Instituto de EcologĂ­a, A.C., Apartado Postal 63, Xalapa 91000, Veracruz, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2012; in revised form: 21 June 2012 / Accepted: 25 June 2012 / Published: 20 July 2012
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Abstract: Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, the choice of the parasitoid best suited to control a particular tephritid in a certain environment, release rate estimates and subsequent monitoring of effectiveness. In the following we review landscape-level and microhabitat foraging preferences, host/fruit ranges, orientation through environmental cues, host vulnerabilities/ovipositor structures, and inter and intraspecific competition. We also consider tephritid parasitoid mating systems and sexual signals, and suggest the directions of future research.
Keywords: Tephritidae; Braconidae; Anastrepha; Ceratitis; Bactrocera; Opiinae; Figitidae; signals; cues

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sivinski, J.; Aluja, M. The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae. Insects 2012, 3, 668-691.

AMA Style

Sivinski J, Aluja M. The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae. Insects. 2012; 3(3):668-691.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sivinski, John; Aluja, Martin. 2012. "The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae." Insects 3, no. 3: 668-691.

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