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Insects 2012, 3(3), 668-691; doi:10.3390/insects3030668
Review

The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae

1,*  and 2
Received: 8 May 2012; in revised form: 21 June 2012 / Accepted: 25 June 2012 / Published: 20 July 2012
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Abstract: Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, the choice of the parasitoid best suited to control a particular tephritid in a certain environment, release rate estimates and subsequent monitoring of effectiveness. In the following we review landscape-level and microhabitat foraging preferences, host/fruit ranges, orientation through environmental cues, host vulnerabilities/ovipositor structures, and inter and intraspecific competition. We also consider tephritid parasitoid mating systems and sexual signals, and suggest the directions of future research.
Keywords: Tephritidae; Braconidae; Anastrepha; Ceratitis; Bactrocera; Opiinae; Figitidae; signals; cues Tephritidae; Braconidae; Anastrepha; Ceratitis; Bactrocera; Opiinae; Figitidae; signals; cues
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sivinski, J.; Aluja, M. The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae. Insects 2012, 3, 668-691.

AMA Style

Sivinski J, Aluja M. The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae. Insects. 2012; 3(3):668-691.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sivinski, John; Aluja, Martin. 2012. "The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae." Insects 3, no. 3: 668-691.


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