Next Article in Journal
Incidence of Non-Immunological Defenses of Soil White Grubs on Parasitism Success of Mallophora ruficauda Larva (Diptera: Asilidae)
Next Article in Special Issue
Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World
Previous Article in Journal
Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Amphibians
Insects 2012, 3(3), 668-691; doi:10.3390/insects3030668
Review

The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae

1,*  and 2
1 USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, 1600 SW23rd Drive, Gainesville, FL 32604, USA 2 Instituto de EcologĂ­a, A.C., Apartado Postal 63, Xalapa 91000, Veracruz, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2012 / Revised: 21 June 2012 / Accepted: 25 June 2012 / Published: 20 July 2012
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [917 KB, uploaded 23 July 2012]   |   Browse Figures
SciFeed

Abstract

Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, the choice of the parasitoid best suited to control a particular tephritid in a certain environment, release rate estimates and subsequent monitoring of effectiveness. In the following we review landscape-level and microhabitat foraging preferences, host/fruit ranges, orientation through environmental cues, host vulnerabilities/ovipositor structures, and inter and intraspecific competition. We also consider tephritid parasitoid mating systems and sexual signals, and suggest the directions of future research.
Keywords: Tephritidae; Braconidae; Anastrepha; Ceratitis; Bactrocera; Opiinae; Figitidae; signals; cues Tephritidae; Braconidae; Anastrepha; Ceratitis; Bactrocera; Opiinae; Figitidae; signals; cues
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Sivinski, J.; Aluja, M. The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae. Insects 2012, 3, 668-691.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Insects EISSN 2075-4450 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert