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Water, Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Irrigation Water Quality Standards for Indirect Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: A Contribution toward Sustainable Wastewater Reuse in South Korea
Water 2016, 8(4), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040169
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect
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Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect wastewater reuse, which is the type of agricultural wastewater reuse that is predominantly practiced, will increase, and this can cause issues of unplanned reuse. Therefore, water quality standards are needed for the safe and sustainable practice of indirect wastewater reuse in agriculture. In this study, irrigation water quality criteria for wastewater reuse were discussed, and the standards and guidelines of various countries and organizations were reviewed to suggest preliminary standards for indirect wastewater reuse in South Korea. The proposed standards adopted a probabilistic consideration of practicality and classified the use of irrigation water into two categories: upland and rice paddy. The standards suggest guidelines for E. coli, electric conductivity (EC), turbidity, suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), pH, odor, and trace elements. Through proposing the standards, this study attempts to combine features of both the conservative and liberal approaches, which in turn could suggest a new and sustainable practice of agricultural wastewater reuse. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture in Irrigated Lands by Assimilation of Landsat Vegetation Indices, Surface Energy Balance Products, and Relevance Vector Machines
Water 2016, 8(4), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040167
Received: 9 January 2016 / Revised: 9 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spatial surface soil moisture can be an important indicator of crop conditions on farmland, but its continuous estimation remains challenging due to coarse spatial and temporal resolution of existing remotely-sensed products. Furthermore, while preceding research on soil moisture using remote sensing (surface energy
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Spatial surface soil moisture can be an important indicator of crop conditions on farmland, but its continuous estimation remains challenging due to coarse spatial and temporal resolution of existing remotely-sensed products. Furthermore, while preceding research on soil moisture using remote sensing (surface energy balance, weather parameters, and vegetation indices) has demonstrated a relationship between these factors and soil moisture, practical continuous spatial quantification of the latter is still unavailable for use in water and agricultural management. In this study, a methodology is presented to estimate volumetric surface soil moisture by statistical selection from potential predictors that include vegetation indices and energy balance products derived from satellite (Landsat) imagery and weather data as identified in scientific literature. This methodology employs a statistical learning machine called a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) to identify and relate the potential predictors to soil moisture by means of stratified cross-validation and forward variable selection. Surface soil moisture measurements from irrigated agricultural fields in Central Utah in the 2012 irrigation season were used, along with weather data, Landsat vegetation indices, and energy balance products. The methodology, data collection, processing, and estimation accuracy are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture)
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Open AccessArticle Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea
Water 2016, 8(4), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040168
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (4243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring
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Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN), Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN), Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN), Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN), and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN). The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental and Numerical Study of Bottom Rack Occlusion by Flow with Gravel-Sized Sediment. Application to Ephemeral Streams in Semi-Arid Regions
Water 2016, 8(4), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040166
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rainfall runoff collection in ephemeral streams is an objective in semi-arid zones. Rack intake systems are proposed to collect these flash floods with intensive sediment transport. The design parameters address the problem of clogging the spacing between bars. Experiments for two different void
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Rainfall runoff collection in ephemeral streams is an objective in semi-arid zones. Rack intake systems are proposed to collect these flash floods with intensive sediment transport. The design parameters address the problem of clogging the spacing between bars. Experiments for two different void ratio racks are shown. Flows, longitudinal slopes in the rack, and water with three gravel-sized sediments were tested. Results such as effective void ratio due to the gravel deposition over the rack, the evolution of the flow rejected during each test, and the quantification of materials collected and deposited, are presented. The optimal longitudinal rack slope seems to be close to 30%. The effective void ratio is related to several hydraulic parameters calculated at the beginning of the rack. Some adjustments were proposed to predict the effective void ratio. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Time Series Analysis of Floods across the Niger River Basin
Water 2016, 8(4), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040165
Received: 7 November 2015 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (10097 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study analyses the increasing number of catastrophic floods in the Niger River Basin, focusing on the relation between long term hydro-climatic variability and flood risk over the last 40 to 100 years. Time series for three subregions (Guinean, Sahelian, Benue) show a
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This study analyses the increasing number of catastrophic floods in the Niger River Basin, focusing on the relation between long term hydro-climatic variability and flood risk over the last 40 to 100 years. Time series for three subregions (Guinean, Sahelian, Benue) show a general consistency between the annual maximum discharge (AMAX) and climatic decadal patterns in West Africa regarding both trends and major changepoints. Variance analysis reveals rather stable AMAX distributions except for the Sahelian region, implying that the changes in flood behavior differ within the basin and affect mostly the dry Sahelian region. The timing of the floods within the year has changed only downstream of the Inner Niger Delta due to retention processes. The results of the hydro-climatic analysis generally correspond to the presented damage statistics on people affected by catastrophic floods. The damage statistics shows positive trends for the entire basin since the beginning in the 1980s, with the most extreme increase in the Middle Niger. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Application of Large-Scale, Multi-Resolution Watershed Modeling Framework Using the Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)
Water 2016, 8(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040164
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (5523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, large-scale watershed modeling has been implemented broadly in the field of water resources planning and management. Complex hydrological, sediment, and nutrient processes can be simulated by sophisticated watershed simulation models for important issues such as water resources allocation, sediment transport,
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In recent years, large-scale watershed modeling has been implemented broadly in the field of water resources planning and management. Complex hydrological, sediment, and nutrient processes can be simulated by sophisticated watershed simulation models for important issues such as water resources allocation, sediment transport, and pollution control. Among commonly adopted models, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been demonstrated to provide superior performance with a large amount of referencing databases. However, it is cumbersome to perform tedious initialization steps such as preparing inputs and developing a model with each changing targeted study area. In this study, the Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is introduced to serve as a national-scale Decision Support System (DSS) to conduct challenging watershed modeling tasks. HAWQS is a web-based DSS developed and maintained by Texas A & M University, and supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Three different spatial resolutions of Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC8, HUC10, and HUC12) and three temporal scales (time steps in daily/monthly/annual) are available as alternatives for general users. In addition, users can specify preferred values of model parameters instead of using the pre-defined sets. With the aid of HAWQS, users can generate a preliminarily calibrated SWAT project within a few minutes by only providing the ending HUC number of the targeted watershed and the simulation period. In the case study, HAWQS was implemented on the Illinois River Basin, USA, with graphical demonstrations and associated analytical results. Scientists and/or decision-makers can take advantage of the HAWQS framework while conducting relevant topics or policies in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources
Water 2016, 8(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040163
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
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Abstract
We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF) by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua) as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Each
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We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF) by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua) as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI) was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Consumption)
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Open AccessOpinion Predicting the Hydraulic Conductivity of Metallic Iron Filters: Modeling Gone Astray
Water 2016, 8(4), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040162
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since its introduction about 25 years ago, metallic iron (Fe0) has shown its potential as the key component of reactive filtration systems for contaminant removal in polluted waters. Technical applications of such systems can be enhanced by numerical simulation of a
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Since its introduction about 25 years ago, metallic iron (Fe0) has shown its potential as the key component of reactive filtration systems for contaminant removal in polluted waters. Technical applications of such systems can be enhanced by numerical simulation of a filter design to improve, e.g., the service time or the minimum permeability of a prospected system to warrant the required output water quality. This communication discusses the relevant input quantities into such a simulation model, illustrates the possible simplifications and identifies the lack of relevant thermodynamic and kinetic data. As a result, necessary steps are outlined that may improve the numerical simulation and, consequently, the technical design of Fe0 filters. Following a general overview on the key reactions in a Fe0 system, the importance of iron corrosion kinetics is illustrated. Iron corrosion kinetics, expressed as a rate constant kiron, determines both the removal rate of contaminants and the average permeability loss of the filter system. While the relevance of a reasonable estimate of kiron is thus obvious, information is scarce. As a conclusion, systematic experiments for the determination of kiron values are suggested to improve the database of this key input parameter to Fe0 filters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Ecogeomorphological (EGM) Stream Design and Assessment Tools for the Piedmont of Alabama, USA
Water 2016, 8(4), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040161
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
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Abstract
Regional data needed for effective stream restoration include hydraulic geometry relationships (i.e., regional curves) and reference channel morphology parameters. Increasingly ecological conditions are being considered when designing, implementing, and assessing restoration efforts. We provide morphology relationships and associated ecological endpoint curves
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Regional data needed for effective stream restoration include hydraulic geometry relationships (i.e., regional curves) and reference channel morphology parameters. Increasingly ecological conditions are being considered when designing, implementing, and assessing restoration efforts. We provide morphology relationships and associated ecological endpoint curves for reference streams in the Alabama piedmont. Twenty-one reference stream reaches were identified in the Tallapoosa drainage of Alabama, ranging from 0.2 to 242 km2 drainage area. Geomorphic surveys were conducted in each stream to measure riffle cross-sections and longitudinal profiles and related to drainage area to develop regional curves. Fish, crayfish, and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from each surveyed reach and related to drainage area and geomorphic data to provide associated biological community endpoints. Bankfull channel cross-section area, width, mean depth, and estimated discharge were strongly correlated to watershed drainage area, similar to efforts in other areas of the Piedmont ecoregion. Multiple measures of fish assemblages and crayfish size were strongly predicted by drainage area and geomorphic dimensions. Macroinvertebrates showed no taxonomic and limited functional relationships with drainage area and geomorphic dimension. These tools, which integrate geomorphological and ecological conditions, can result in improved stream evaluations and designs increasing the effectiveness of stream restoration projects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Node Grouping for Water Distribution System Demand Estimation
Water 2016, 8(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040160
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Real-time state estimation is defined as the process of calculating the state variable of interest in real time not being directly measured. In a water distribution system (WDS), nodal demands are often considered as the state variable (i.e., unknown variable) and
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Real-time state estimation is defined as the process of calculating the state variable of interest in real time not being directly measured. In a water distribution system (WDS), nodal demands are often considered as the state variable (i.e., unknown variable) and can be estimated using nodal pressures and pipe flow rates measured at sensors installed throughout the system. Nodes are often grouped for aggregation to decrease the number of unknowns (demands) in the WDS demand estimation problem. This study proposes an optimal node grouping model to maximize the real-time WDS demand estimation accuracy. This Kalman filter-based demand estimation method is linked with a genetic algorithm for node group optimization. The modified Austin network demand is estimated to demonstrate the proposed model. True demands and field measurements are synthetically generated using a hydraulic model of the study network. Accordingly, the optimal node groups identified by the proposed model reduce the total root-mean-square error of the estimated node group demand by 24% compared to that determined by engineering knowledge. Based on the results, more pipe flow sensors should be installed to measure small flows and to further enhance the demand estimation accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Undermining Demand Management with Supply Management: Moral Hazard in Israeli Water Policies
Water 2016, 8(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040159
Received: 21 February 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most water managers use a mixture of both supply-side and demand-side policies, seeking to capitalize on the relative advantages of each. However, supply augmentation undertaken to avoid overdrafts can reduce the effectiveness of demand management policies if the two strategies are not carefully
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Most water managers use a mixture of both supply-side and demand-side policies, seeking to capitalize on the relative advantages of each. However, supply augmentation undertaken to avoid overdrafts can reduce the effectiveness of demand management policies if the two strategies are not carefully integrated. Such a result can stem from a type of moral hazard phenomenon by which consumers, aware of the increases in potential supply, discount the importance of conservation. This is illustrated by the case of Israel. Initial national-scale water-supply projects were followed by over-extraction, which, in turn, compelled implementation of wide-spread demand management measures to reduce consumption. With the recent advent of large-scale desalination in Israel, public perception regarding the importance of conservation has diminished and consumption has increased—this, despite periodic drought conditions and critically low levels of water reserves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quantifying Spatial Changes in the Structure of Water Quality Constituents in a Large Prairie River within Two Frameworks of a Water Quality Model
Water 2016, 8(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040158
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A global sensitivity analysis was carried out on a water quality model to quantify the spatial changes in parameter sensitivity of a model of a large prairie river, the South Saskatchewan River (SSR). The method is used to assess the relative impacts of
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A global sensitivity analysis was carried out on a water quality model to quantify the spatial changes in parameter sensitivity of a model of a large prairie river, the South Saskatchewan River (SSR). The method is used to assess the relative impacts of major nutrient loading sources and a reservoir on the river’s water quality. The river completely freezes over during winter; hence, the sensitivity analysis was carried out seasonally, for winter and summer, to account for the influence of ice-covered conditions on nutrient transformations. Furthermore, the integrity of the river’s aquatic ecosystem was examined through the inter-relationship between variables and comparing hierarchy index values and water quality indices at four locations along the river. Sensitivities of model parameters varied slightly at different locations along the river, with the phytoplankton growth rate being the most influential parameter. Nitrogen and phosphorus transformation processes were more sensitive in winter, while chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen parameters showed higher sensitivity in summer. A more complicated correlation between variables was observed downstream of the junction of the Red Deer River. Our results reveal that the lower correlation between variables may suggest a more balanced and healthier system, although further analysis is needed to support this statement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Modeling of River Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global Warming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water and Waste Service Options
Water 2016, 8(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040154
Received: 21 January 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous
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Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energy- and carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability and sensitivity were evaluated, the carbon intensity of the local electricity grid and the efficiency of electricity production by the co-digestion with the energy recovery process were the most important for determining the relative global warming potential results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity
Water 2016, 8(4), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040157
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC) is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development
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Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC) is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC), which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size) of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III) will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104) in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104) in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC) in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transforming European Water Governance? Participation and River Basin Management under the EU Water Framework Directive in 13 Member States
Water 2016, 8(4), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8040156
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 30 March 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires EU member states to produce and implement river basin management plans, which are to be designed and updated via participatory processes that inform, consult with, and actively involve all interested stakeholders. The assumption of
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The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires EU member states to produce and implement river basin management plans, which are to be designed and updated via participatory processes that inform, consult with, and actively involve all interested stakeholders. The assumption of the European Commission is that stakeholder participation, and institutional adaptation and procedural innovation to facilitate it, are essential to the effectiveness of river basin planning and, ultimately, the environmental impact of the Directive. We analyzed official documents and the WFD literature to compare implementation of the Directive in EU member states in the initial WFD planning phase (2000–2009). Examining the development of participatory approaches to river basin management planning, we consider the extent of transformation in EU water governance over the period. Employing a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach, we map the implementation “trajectories” of 13 member states, and then provide a detailed examination of shifts in river basin planning and participation in four member states (Germany, Sweden, Poland and France) to illustrate the diversity of institutional approaches observed. We identify a general tendency towards increased, yet circumscribed, stakeholder participation in river basin management in the member states examined, alongside clear continuities in terms of their respective pre-WFD institutional and procedural arrangements. Overall, the WFD has driven a highly uneven shift to river basin-level planning among the member states, and instigated a range of efforts to institutionalize stakeholder involvement—often through the establishment of advisory groups to bring organized stakeholders into the planning process. Full article
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