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Water 2016, 8(4), 169; doi:10.3390/w8040169

Irrigation Water Quality Standards for Indirect Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: A Contribution toward Sustainable Wastewater Reuse in South Korea

1
Institute of Green Bio Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Gangwon 25354, Korea
2
Department of Rural Construction Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas N. Angelakis
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
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Abstract

Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect wastewater reuse, which is the type of agricultural wastewater reuse that is predominantly practiced, will increase, and this can cause issues of unplanned reuse. Therefore, water quality standards are needed for the safe and sustainable practice of indirect wastewater reuse in agriculture. In this study, irrigation water quality criteria for wastewater reuse were discussed, and the standards and guidelines of various countries and organizations were reviewed to suggest preliminary standards for indirect wastewater reuse in South Korea. The proposed standards adopted a probabilistic consideration of practicality and classified the use of irrigation water into two categories: upland and rice paddy. The standards suggest guidelines for E. coli, electric conductivity (EC), turbidity, suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), pH, odor, and trace elements. Through proposing the standards, this study attempts to combine features of both the conservative and liberal approaches, which in turn could suggest a new and sustainable practice of agricultural wastewater reuse. View Full-Text
Keywords: indirect wastewater reuse; irrigation water quality; paddy irrigation; wastewater reuse; water quality standards indirect wastewater reuse; irrigation water quality; paddy irrigation; wastewater reuse; water quality standards
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, H.; Kim, H.; Jang, T. Irrigation Water Quality Standards for Indirect Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: A Contribution toward Sustainable Wastewater Reuse in South Korea. Water 2016, 8, 169.

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