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Water 2016, 8(4), 150; doi:10.3390/w8040150

Feasibility Study of Advanced NOM-Reduction by Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration at a Swedish Surface Water Treatment Plant

1
Division of Water Resources Engineering, LTH, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
2
Sweden Water Research AB, Ideon Science Park, Scheelevägen 15, 223 70 Lund, Sweden
3
Sydvatten AB, Hyllie Stationstorg 21, 215 32 Malmö, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephan Pfister
Received: 19 February 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Consumption)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1228 KB, uploaded 14 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Membrane technology, i.e., ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, is growing in popularity, as it is a space efficient alternative for surface water treatment. Two types of hollow fiber membranes were tested in a fully equipped and automated pilot at a Swedish water treatment plant. Raw water was treated by a nanofilter and by coagulation before an ultrafilter. Operation parameters recorded during these trials have been the basis for cost estimations and assessments of environmental impact, comparing the two membrane modules to the existing conventional treatment. The membranes required lower chemical consumption, but led to increased costs from membrane modules and a higher energy demand. Compared to the existing treatment (0.33 €/m3), the operational costs were estimated to increase 6% for ultrafiltration and 30% for nanofiltration. Considering the low emissions from Nordic energy production, the membrane processes would lower the environmental impact, including factors such as climate and ecosystem health. Greenhouse gas emissions would decrease from 161 g CO2-eq/m3 of the existing process, to 127 g CO2-eq/m3 or 83 g CO2-eq/m3 for ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, respectively. Lower chemical consumption and less pollution from the sludge leaving the water treatment plant lead to lower impacts on the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: cost analysis; environmental impact; nanofiltration; natural organic matter; ultrafiltration cost analysis; environmental impact; nanofiltration; natural organic matter; ultrafiltration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lidén, A.; Persson, K.M. Feasibility Study of Advanced NOM-Reduction by Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration at a Swedish Surface Water Treatment Plant. Water 2016, 8, 150.

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