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Remote Sens., Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Remote Sensing of Soil Alkalinity and Salinity in the Wuyu’er-Shuangyang River Basin, Northeast China
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020163
Received: 2 December 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
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Abstract
The Songnen Plain of the Northeast China is one of the three largest soda saline-alkali regions worldwide. To better understand soil alkalinization and salinization in this important agricultural region, it is vital to explore the distribution and variation of soil alkalinity and salinity
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The Songnen Plain of the Northeast China is one of the three largest soda saline-alkali regions worldwide. To better understand soil alkalinization and salinization in this important agricultural region, it is vital to explore the distribution and variation of soil alkalinity and salinity in space and time. This study examined soil properties and identified the variables to extract soil alkalinity and salinity via physico-chemical, statistical, spectral, and image analysis. The physico-chemical and statistical results suggested that alkaline soils, coming from the main solute Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 in parent rocks, characterized the study area. The pH and electric conductivity (EC ) were correlated with both narrow band and broad band reflectance. For soil pH, the sensitive bands were in short wavelength (VIS) and the band with the highest correlation was 475 nm (r = 0.84). For soil EC, the sensitive bands were also in VIS and the band with the highest correlation was 354 nm (r = 0.84). With the stepwise regression, it was found that the pH was sensitive to reflectance of OLI band 2 and band 6, while the EC was only sensitive to band 1. The R2Adj (0.73 and 0.72) and root mean square error (RMSE) (0.98 and 1.07 dS/m) indicated that, the two stepwise regression models could estimate soil alkalinity and salinity with a considerable accuracy. Spatial distributions of soil alkalinity and salinity were mapped from the OLI image with the RMSE of 1.01 and 0.64 dS/m, respectively. Soil alkalinity was related to salinity but most soils in the study area were non-saline soils. The area of alkaline soils was 44.46% of the basin. Highly alkaline soils were close to the Zhalong wetland and downstream of rivers, which could become a severe concern for crop productivity in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Applied to Soils: From Ground to Space)
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Open AccessArticle Comparing and Combining Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature Products for Improved Hydrological Applications
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020162
Received: 26 November 2015 / Revised: 11 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Land surface temperature (LST) is an important variable that provides a valuable connection between the energy and water budget and is strongly linked to land surface hydrology. Space-borne remote sensing provides a consistent means for regularly observing LST using thermal infrared (TIR) and
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Land surface temperature (LST) is an important variable that provides a valuable connection between the energy and water budget and is strongly linked to land surface hydrology. Space-borne remote sensing provides a consistent means for regularly observing LST using thermal infrared (TIR) and passive microwave observations each with unique strengths and weaknesses. The spatial resolution of TIR based LST observations is around 1 km, a major advantage when compared to passive microwave observations (around 10 km). However, a major advantage of passive microwaves is their cloud penetrating capability making them all-weather sensors whereas TIR observations are routinely masked under the presence of clouds and aerosols. In this study, a relatively simple combination approach that benefits from the cloud penetrating capacity of passive microwave sensors was proposed. In the first step, TIR and passive microwave LST products were compared over Australia for both anomalies and raw timeseries. A very high agreement was shown over the vast majority of the country with R2 typically ranging from 0.50 to 0.75 for the anomalies and from 0.80 to 1.00 for the raw timeseries. Then, the scalability of the passive microwave based LST product was examined and a pixel based merging approach through linear scaling was proposed. The individual and merged LST products were further compared against independent LST from the re-analysis model outputs. This comparison revealed that the TIR based LST product agrees best with the re-analysis data (R2 0.26 for anomalies and R2 0.76 for raw data), followed by the passive microwave LST product (R2 0.16 for anomalies and R2 0.66 for raw data) and the combined LST product (R2 0.18 for anomalies and R2 0.62 for raw data). It should be noted that the drop in performance comes with an increased revisit frequency of approximately 20% compared to the revised frequency of the TIR alone. Additionally, this comparison against re-analysis data was subdivided over Australia’s major climate zones and revealed that the relative agreement between the individual and combined LST products against the re-analysis data is consistent over these climate zones. These results are also consistent for both the anomalies and the raw time series. Finally, two examples were provided that demonstrate the proposed merging approach including an example for the Hunter Valley floods along Australia’s central coast that experienced significant flooding in April 2015. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tree Species Abundance Predictions in a Tropical Agricultural Landscape with a Supervised Classification Model and Imbalanced Data
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020161
Received: 2 December 2015 / Revised: 3 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (5505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mapping species through classification of imaging spectroscopy data is facilitating research to understand tree species distributions at increasingly greater spatial scales. Classification requires a dataset of field observations matched to the image, which will often reflect natural species distributions, resulting in an imbalanced
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Mapping species through classification of imaging spectroscopy data is facilitating research to understand tree species distributions at increasingly greater spatial scales. Classification requires a dataset of field observations matched to the image, which will often reflect natural species distributions, resulting in an imbalanced dataset with many samples for common species and few samples for less common species. Despite the high prevalence of imbalanced datasets in multiclass species predictions, the effect on species prediction accuracy and landscape species abundance has not yet been quantified. First, we trained and assessed the accuracy of a support vector machine (SVM) model with a highly imbalanced dataset of 20 tropical species and one mixed-species class of 24 species identified in a hyperspectral image mosaic (350–2500 nm) of Panamanian farmland and secondary forest fragments. The model, with an overall accuracy of 62% ± 2.3% and F-score of 59% ± 2.7%, was applied to the full image mosaic (23,000 ha at a 2-m resolution) to produce a species prediction map, which suggested that this tropical agricultural landscape is more diverse than what has been presented in field-based studies. Second, we quantified the effect of class imbalance on model accuracy. Model assessment showed a trend where species with more samples were consistently over predicted while species with fewer samples were under predicted. Standardizing sample size reduced model accuracy, but also reduced the level of species over- and under-prediction. This study advances operational species mapping of diverse tropical landscapes by detailing the effect of imbalanced data on classification accuracy and providing estimates of tree species abundance in an agricultural landscape. Species maps using data and methods presented here can be used in landscape analyses of species distributions to understand human or environmental effects, in addition to focusing conservation efforts in areas with high tree cover and diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Mapping of Evapotranspiration Using an Energy Balance-Based Model over an Andean Páramo Catchment of Southern Ecuador
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020160
Received: 9 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (10795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Understanding of evapotranspiration (ET) processes over Andean mountain environments is crucial, particularly due to the importance of these regions to deliver water-related ecosystem services. In this context, the detection of spatio-temporal changes in ET remains poorly investigated for specific Andean ecosystems, like the
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Understanding of evapotranspiration (ET) processes over Andean mountain environments is crucial, particularly due to the importance of these regions to deliver water-related ecosystem services. In this context, the detection of spatio-temporal changes in ET remains poorly investigated for specific Andean ecosystems, like the páramo. To overcome this lack of knowledge, we implemented the energy-balance model METRIC with Landsat 7 ETM+ and MODIS-Terra imagery for a páramo catchment. The implementation contemplated adjustments for complex terrain in order to obtain daily, monthly and annual ET maps (between 2013 and 2014). In addition, we compared our results to the global ET product MOD16. Finally, a rigorous validation of the outputs was conducted with residual ET from the water balance. ET retrievals from METRIC (Landsat-based) showed good agreement with the validation-related ET at monthly and annual steps (mean bias error <8 mm·month−1 and annual deviation <17%). However, METRIC (MODIS-based) outputs and the MOD16 product were revealed to be unsuitable for our study due to the low spatial resolution. At last, the plausibility of METRIC to obtain spatial ET retrievals using higher resolution satellite data is demonstrated, which constitutes the first contribution to the understanding of spatially-explicit ET over an alpine catchment in the neo-tropical Andes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study of Cross-Product NDVI Dynamics in the Kilimanjaro Region—A Matter of Sensor, Degradation Calibration, and Significance
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020159
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 20 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
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Abstract
While satellite-based monitoring of vegetation activity at the earth’s surface is of vital importance for many eco-climatological applications, the degree of agreement among certain sensors and products providing estimates of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been found to vary considerably. In
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While satellite-based monitoring of vegetation activity at the earth’s surface is of vital importance for many eco-climatological applications, the degree of agreement among certain sensors and products providing estimates of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been found to vary considerably. In order to assess the extent of such differences in highly heterogeneous terrain, we analyze and compare intra-annual seasonal fluctuations and long-term monotonic trends (2003–2012) in the Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. The considered NDVI datasets include the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products from Terra and Aqua, Collections 5 and 6, and the 3rd Generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) product. The degree of agreement in seasonal fluctuations is assessed by calculating a pairwise Index of Association (IOAs), whereas long-term trends are derived from the trend-free pre-whitened Mann–Kendall test. On the seasonal scale, the two Terra-MODIS products (and, accordingly, the two Aqua-MODIS products) are best associated with each other, indicating that the seasonal signal remained largely unaffected by the new Collection 6 calibration approach. On the long-term scale, we find that the negative impacts of band ageing on Terra-MODIS NDVI have been accounted for in Collection 6, which now distinctly outweighs Aqua-MODIS in terms of greening trends. GIMMS NDVI, by contrast, fails to capture small-scale seasonal and trend patterns that are characteristic for the highly fragmented landscape which is likely owing to the coarse spatial resolution. As a short digression, we also demonstrate that the amount of false discoveries in the determined trend fraction is distinctly higher for p < 0.05 ( 52.6 % ) than for p < 0.001 ( 2.2 % ) which should point the way for any future studies focusing on the reliable deduction of long-term monotonic trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Sensor and Multi-Data Integration in Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of VIIRS and MODIS Thermal Emissive Band Calibration Stability Using Ground Target
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020158
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
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Abstract
The S-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument, a polar orbiting Earth remote sensing instrument built using a strong MODIS background, employs a similarly designed on-board calibrating source—a V-grooved blackbody for the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB). The central wavelengths of most VIIRS
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The S-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument, a polar orbiting Earth remote sensing instrument built using a strong MODIS background, employs a similarly designed on-board calibrating source—a V-grooved blackbody for the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB). The central wavelengths of most VIIRS TEBs are very close to those of MODIS with the exception of the 10.7 µm channel. To ensure the long term continuity of climate data records derived using VIIRS and MODIS TEB, it is necessary to assess any systematic differences between the two instruments, including scenes with temperatures significantly lower than blackbody operating temperatures at approximately 290 K. Previous work performed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASA/GSFC used the frequent observations of the Dome Concordia site located in Antarctica to evaluate the calibration stability and consistency of Terra and Aqua MODIS over the mission lifetime. The near-surface temperature measurements from an automatic weather station (AWS) provide a direct reference useful for tracking the stability and determining the relative bias between the two MODIS instruments. In this study, the same technique is applied to the VIIRS TEB and the results are compared with those from the matched MODIS TEB. The results of this study show a small negative bias when comparing the matching VIIRS and Aqua MODIS TEB, implying a higher brightness temperature for S-VIIRS at the cold end. Statistically no significant drift is observed for VIIRS TEB performance over the first 3.5 years of the mission. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Fisher Kernel Coding Framework for High Spatial Resolution Scene Classification
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020157
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 20 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
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Abstract
High spatial resolution (HSR) image scene classification is aimed at bridging the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts, which is a challenging task due to the complex distribution of ground objects in HSR images. Scene classification based on the bag-of-visual-words
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High spatial resolution (HSR) image scene classification is aimed at bridging the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts, which is a challenging task due to the complex distribution of ground objects in HSR images. Scene classification based on the bag-of-visual-words (BOVW) model is one of the most successful ways to acquire the high-level semantic concepts. However, the BOVW model assigns local low-level features to their closest visual words in the “visual vocabulary” (the codebook obtained by k-means clustering), which discards too many useful details of the low-level features in HSR images. In this paper, a feature coding method under the Fisher kernel (FK) coding framework is introduced to extend the BOVW model by characterizing the low-level features with a gradient vector instead of the count statistics in the BOVW model, which results in a significant decrease in the codebook size and an acceleration of the codebook learning process. By considering the differences in the distributions of the ground objects in different regions of the images, local FK (LFK) is proposed for the HSR image scene classification method. The experimental results show that the proposed scene classification methods under the FK coding framework can greatly reduce the computational cost, and can obtain a better scene classification accuracy than the methods based on the traditional BOVW model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impacts of Re-Vegetation on Surface Soil Moisture over the Chinese Loess Plateau Based on Remote Sensing Datasets
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020156
Received: 4 November 2015 / Revised: 31 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
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Abstract
A large-scale re-vegetation supported by the Grain for Green Project (GGP) has greatly changed local eco-hydrological systems, with an impact on soil moisture conditions for the Chinese Loess Plateau. It is important to know how, exactly, re-vegetation influences soil moisture conditions, which not
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A large-scale re-vegetation supported by the Grain for Green Project (GGP) has greatly changed local eco-hydrological systems, with an impact on soil moisture conditions for the Chinese Loess Plateau. It is important to know how, exactly, re-vegetation influences soil moisture conditions, which not only crucially constrain growth and distribution of vegetation, and hence, further re-vegetation, but also determine the degree of soil desiccation and, thus, erosion risk in the region. In this study, three eco-environmental factors, which are Soil Water Index (SWI), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and precipitation, were used to investigate the response of soil moisture in the one-meter layer of top soil to the re-vegetation during the GGP. SWI was estimated based on the backscatter coefficient produced by the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1/2) and Meteorological Operational satellite program (MetOp), while NDVI was derived from SPOT imageries. Two separate periods, which are 1998–2000 and 2008–2010, were selected to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of the chosen eco-environmental factors. It has been shown that the amount of precipitation in 1998–2000 was close to that of 2008–2010 (the difference being 13.10 mm). From 1998–2000 to 2008–2010, the average annual NDVI increased for 80.99%, while the SWI decreased for 72.64% of the area on the Loess Plateau. The average NDVI over the Loess Plateau increased rapidly by 17.76% after the 10-year GGP project. However, the average SWI decreased by 4.37% for two-thirds of the area. More specifically, 57.65% of the area on the Loess Plateau experienced an increased NDVI and decreased SWI, 23.34% of the area had an increased NDVI and SWI. NDVI and SWI decreased simultaneously for 14.99% of the area, and the decreased NDVI and increased SWI occurred at the same time for 4.02% of the area. These results indicate that re-vegetation, human activities, and climate change have impacts on soil moisture. However, re-vegetation, which consumes a large quantity of soil water, may be the major factor for soil moisture change in most areas of the Loess Plateau. It is, therefore, suggested that Soil Moisture Content (SMC) should be kept in mind when carrying out re-vegetation in China’s arid and semi-arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Forest Health)
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Open AccessArticle Representation of Block-Based Image Features in a Multi-Scale Framework for Built-Up Area Detection
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020155
Received: 24 August 2015 / Revised: 17 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
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Abstract
The accurate extraction and mapping of built-up areas play an important role in many social, economic, and environmental studies. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for built-up area detection from high spatial resolution remote sensing images, using a block-based multi-scale feature
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The accurate extraction and mapping of built-up areas play an important role in many social, economic, and environmental studies. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for built-up area detection from high spatial resolution remote sensing images, using a block-based multi-scale feature representation framework. First, an image is divided into small blocks, in which the spectral, textural, and structural features are extracted and represented using a multi-scale framework; a set of refined Harris corner points is then used to select blocks as training samples; finally, a built-up index image is obtained by minimizing the normalized spectral, textural, and structural distances to the training samples, and a built-up area map is obtained by thresholding the index image. Experiments confirm that the proposed approach is effective for high-resolution optical and synthetic aperture radar images, with different scenes and different spatial resolutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Extracting Soil Water Holding Capacity Parameters of a Distributed Agro-Hydrological Model from High Resolution Optical Satellite Observations Series
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020154
Received: 12 October 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
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Abstract
Sentinel-2 (S2) earth observation satellite mission, launched in 2015, is foreseen to promote within-field decisions in Precision Agriculture (PA) for both: (1) optimizing crop production; and (2) regulating environmental impacts. In this second scope, a set of Leaf Area Index (LAI) derived from
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Sentinel-2 (S2) earth observation satellite mission, launched in 2015, is foreseen to promote within-field decisions in Precision Agriculture (PA) for both: (1) optimizing crop production; and (2) regulating environmental impacts. In this second scope, a set of Leaf Area Index (LAI) derived from S2 type time-series (2006–2010, using Formosat-2 satellite) is used to spatially constrain the within-field crop growth and the related nitrogen contamination of surface water simulated at a small experimental catchment scale with the distributed agro-hydrological model Topography Nitrogen Transfer and Transformation (TNT2). The Soil Water Holding Capacity (SWHC), represented by two parameters, soil depth and retention porosity, is used to fit the yearly maximum of LAI (LAX) at each pixel of the satellite image. Possible combinations of soil parameters, defining 154 realistic SWHC found on the study site are used to force spatially homogeneous SWHC. LAX simulated at the pixel level for the 154 SWHC, for each of the five years of the study period, are recorded and hereafter referred to as synthetic LAX. Optimal SWHCyear_I,pixel_j, corresponding to minimal difference between observed and synthetic LAXyear_I,pixel_j, is selected for each pixel, independent of the value at neighboring pixels. Each re-estimated soil maps are used to re-simulate LAXyear_I. Results show that simulated and synthetic LAXyear_I,allpixels obtained from SWHCyear_I,allpixels are close and accurately fit the observed LAXyear_I,allpixels (RMSE = 0.05 m2/m2 to 0.2 and R2 = 0.99 to 0.94), except for the year 2008 (RMSE = 0.8 m2/m2 and R2 = 0.8). These results show that optimal SWHC can be derived from remote sensing series for one year. Unique SWHC solutions for each pixel that limit the LAX error for the five years to less than 0.2 m2/m2 are found for only 10% of the pixels. Selection of unique soil parameters using multi-year LAX and neighborhood solution is expected to deliver more robust soil parameters solutions and need to be assessed further. The use of optical remote sensing series is then a promising calibration step to represent crop growth within crop field at catchment level. Nevertheless, this study discusses the model and data improvements that are needed to get realistic spatial representation of agro-hydrological processes simulated within catchments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Precision Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle Quantifying the Daytime and Night-Time Urban Heat Island in Birmingham, UK: A Comparison of Satellite Derived Land Surface Temperature and High Resolution Air Temperature Observations
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020153
Received: 13 October 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
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Abstract
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is one of the most well documented phenomena in urban climatology. Although a range of measurements and modelling techniques can be used to assess the UHI, the paucity of traditional meteorological observations in urban areas has been an
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The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is one of the most well documented phenomena in urban climatology. Although a range of measurements and modelling techniques can be used to assess the UHI, the paucity of traditional meteorological observations in urban areas has been an ongoing limitation for studies. The availability of remote sensing data has therefore helped fill a scientific need by providing high resolution temperature data of our cities. However, satellite-mounted sensors measure land surface temperatures (LST) and not canopy air temperatures with the latter being the key parameter in UHI investigations. Fortunately, such data is becoming increasingly available via urban meteorological networks, which now provide an opportunity to quantify and compare surface and canopy UHI on an unprecedented scale. For the first time, this study uses high resolution air temperature data from the Birmingham Urban Climate Laboratory urban meteorological network and MODIS LST to quantify and identify the spatial pattern of the daytime and night-time UHI in Birmingham, UK (a city with an approximate population of 1 million). This analysis is performed under a range of atmospheric stability classes and investigates the relationship between surface and canopy UHI in the city. A significant finding of this work is that it demonstrates, using observations, that the distribution of the surface UHI appears to be clearly linked to landuse, whereas for canopy UHI, advective processes appear to play an increasingly important role. Strong relationships were found between air temperatures and LST during both the day and night at a neighbourhood scale, but even with the use of higher resolution urban meteorological datasets, relationships at the city scale are still limited. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Satellite-Based Thermophysical Analysis of Volcaniclastic Deposits: A Terrestrial Analog for Mantled Lava Flows on Mars
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020152
Received: 7 October 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
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Abstract
Orbital thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is an important tool for characterizing geologic surfaces on Earth and Mars. However, deposition of material from volcanic or eolian activity results in bedrock surfaces becoming significantly mantled over time, hindering the accuracy of TIR compositional analysis.
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Orbital thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is an important tool for characterizing geologic surfaces on Earth and Mars. However, deposition of material from volcanic or eolian activity results in bedrock surfaces becoming significantly mantled over time, hindering the accuracy of TIR compositional analysis. Moreover, interplay between particle size, albedo, composition and surface roughness add complexity to these interpretations. Apparent Thermal Inertia (ATI) is the measure of the resistance to temperature change and has been used to determine parameters such as grain/block size, density/mantling, and the presence of subsurface soil moisture/ice. Our objective is to document the quantitative relationship between ATI derived from orbital visible/near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) data and tephra fall mantling of the Mono Craters and Domes (MCD) in California, which were chosen as an analog for partially mantled flows observed at Arsia Mons volcano on Mars. The ATI data were created from two images collected ~12 h apart by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. The results were validated with a quantitative framework developed using fieldwork that was conducted at 13 pre-chosen sites. These sites ranged in grain size from ash-sized to meter-scale blocks and were all rhyolitic in composition. Block size and mantling were directly correlated with ATI. Areas with ATI under 2.3 × 10−2 were well-mantled with average grain size below 4 cm; whereas values greater than 3.0 × 10−2 corresponded to mantle-free surfaces. Correlation was less accurate where checkerboard-style mixing between mantled and non-mantled surfaces occurred below the pixel scale as well as in locations where strong shadowing occurred. However, the results validate that the approach is viable for a large majority of mantled surfaces on Earth and Mars. This is relevant for determining the volcanic history of Mars, for example. Accurate identification of non-mantled lava surfaces within an apparently well-mantled flow field on either planet provides locations to extract important mineralogical constraints on the individual flows using TIR data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volcano Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Urban Land Use by Using Landsat Images and Open Social Data
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020151
Received: 23 October 2015 / Revised: 31 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (3683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
High-resolution urban land use maps have important applications in urban planning and management, but the availability of these maps is low in countries such as China. To address this issue, we have developed a protocol to identify urban land use functions over large
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High-resolution urban land use maps have important applications in urban planning and management, but the availability of these maps is low in countries such as China. To address this issue, we have developed a protocol to identify urban land use functions over large areas using satellite images and open social data. We first derived parcels from road networks contained in Open Street Map (OSM) and used the parcels as the basic mapping unit. We then used 10 features derived from Points of Interest (POI) data and two indices obtained from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images to classify parcels into eight Level I classes and sixteen Level II classes of land use. Similarity measures and threshold methods were used to identify land use types in the classification process. This protocol was tested in Beijing, China. The results showed that the generated land use map had an overall accuracy of 81.04% and 69.89% for Level I and Level II classes, respectively. The map revealed significantly more details of the spatial pattern of land uses in Beijing than the land use map released by the government. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Potential of Autonomous Ship-Borne Hyperspectral Radiometers for the Validation of Ocean Color Radiometry Data
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020150
Received: 29 November 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
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Abstract
Calibration and validation of satellite observations are essential and on-going tasks to ensure compliance with mission accuracy requirements. An automated above water hyperspectral radiometer significantly augmented Australia’s ability to contribute to global and regional ocean color validation and algorithm design activities. The hyperspectral
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Calibration and validation of satellite observations are essential and on-going tasks to ensure compliance with mission accuracy requirements. An automated above water hyperspectral radiometer significantly augmented Australia’s ability to contribute to global and regional ocean color validation and algorithm design activities. The hyperspectral data can be re-sampled for comparison with current and future sensor wavebands. The continuous spectral acquisition along the ship track enables spatial resampling to match satellite footprint. This study reports spectral comparisons of the radiometer data with Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua for contrasting water types in tropical waters off northern Australia based on the standard NIR atmospheric correction implemented in SeaDAS. Consistent match-ups are shown for transects of up to 50 km over a range of reflectance values. The MODIS and VIIRS satellite reflectance data consistently underestimated the in situ spectra in the blue with a bias relative to the “dynamic above water radiance and irradiance collector” (DALEC) at 443 nm ranging from 9.8 × 10−4 to 3.1 × 10−3 sr−1. Automated acquisition has produced good quality data under standard operating and maintenance procedures. A sensitivity analysis explored the effects of some assumptions in the data reduction methods, indicating the need for a comprehensive investigation and quantification of each source of uncertainty in the estimate of the DALEC reflectances. Deployment on a Research Vessel provides the potential for the radiometric data to be combined with other sampling and observational activities to contribute to algorithm development in the wider bio-optical research community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Moving Towards Dynamic Ocean Management: How Well Do Modeled Ocean Products Predict Species Distributions?
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8020149
Received: 12 November 2015 / Revised: 16 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (4160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Species distribution models are now widely used in conservation and management to predict suitable habitat for protected marine species. The primary sources of dynamic habitat data have been in situ and remotely sensed oceanic variables (both are considered “measured data”), but now ocean
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Species distribution models are now widely used in conservation and management to predict suitable habitat for protected marine species. The primary sources of dynamic habitat data have been in situ and remotely sensed oceanic variables (both are considered “measured data”), but now ocean models can provide historical estimates and forecast predictions of relevant habitat variables such as temperature, salinity, and mixed layer depth. To assess the performance of modeled ocean data in species distribution models, we present a case study for cetaceans that compares models based on output from a data assimilative implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to those based on measured data. Specifically, we used seven years of cetacean line-transect survey data collected between 1991 and 2009 to develop predictive habitat-based models of cetacean density for 11 species in the California Current Ecosystem. Two different generalized additive models were compared: one built with a full suite of ROMS output and another built with a full suite of measured data. Model performance was assessed using the percentage of explained deviance, root mean squared error (RMSE), observed to predicted density ratios, and visual inspection of predicted and observed distributions. Predicted distribution patterns were similar for models using ROMS output and measured data, and showed good concordance between observed sightings and model predictions. Quantitative measures of predictive ability were also similar between model types, and RMSE values were almost identical. The overall demonstrated success of the ROMS-based models opens new opportunities for dynamic species management and biodiversity monitoring because ROMS output is available in near real time and can be forecast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Biodiversity)
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