E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Cheinway Hwang

Department of Civil Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: satellite altimetry; satellite gravimetry
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wenbin Shen

Department of Geophysics, School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu road, Wuhan 430079, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Gravity field theory and its applications; Earth rotation; relativistic geodesy; Earth’s free oscillation
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. C.K. Shum

Division of Geodetic Science, School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, USA
E-Mail
Interests: Satellite Geodesy; Sea-Level; Satellite Oceanography and Hydrology; Geodynamics; Ice Mass Balance
Guest Editor
Dr. Stéphane Calmant

Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD)/Laboratoire d'Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiales (LEGOS), 14 Av. Edouard Belin, Toulouse 31400, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Sea floor mapping; plate tectonics and sismo-geodesy; calval of altimetry missions; large river basin hydrology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue calls for papers on interdisciplinary scientific findings applying active and passive remote sensing techniques and focusing on Tibet, Siberia Xinjiang, and Central Asia. We encourage synergistic investigations of integrating multiple remote sensing data sets that lead to new insights and potential separations of competing geophysical, cryospheric, hydrologic, and climatic processes, previously limited by data scarcity. Papers should use tools related to remote sensing to study climate change and geophysical processes in Tibet, Siberia, and their surrounding areas. Subjects include, but are not limited to:

  • Long-term monitoring of surface processes from satellite altimeter, SAR/InSAR, optical/infrared imageries, and GNSS
  • Satellite and terrestrial-based gravimetric, gradiometric and geomagnetic observations
  • GNSS geodynamics, meteorology and ionosphere
  • Terrestrial hydrology, groundwater, glacier change, lake level change, permafrost thawing, water resources
  • Geophysical interpretations and consequences of gravity, GNSS, satellite altimetry, and seismic observations
  • Crustal structure, Moho, internal structure constraints, continental geodynamics, earthquakes

Prof. Dr. Cheinway Hwang
Prof. Dr. Wenbin Shen
Prof. Dr. C.K. Shum
Dr. Stéphane Calmant
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • geodynamics
  • mountain glacier
  • hydrology
  • satellite altimetry
  • GNSS
  • GRACE
  • satellite imageries in microwave and optical spectra
  • Siberia
  • Tibet

Published Papers (14 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-14
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Characterization of Active Layer Thickening Rate over the Northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Permafrost Region Using ALOS Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Data, 2007–2009
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(1), 84; doi:10.3390/rs9010084
Received: 2 April 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (22756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP), also known as the Third Pole and the World Water Tower, is the largest and highest plateau with distinct and competing surface and subsurface processes. It is covered by a large layer of discontinuous and sporadic alpine permafrost which
[...] Read more.
The Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP), also known as the Third Pole and the World Water Tower, is the largest and highest plateau with distinct and competing surface and subsurface processes. It is covered by a large layer of discontinuous and sporadic alpine permafrost which has degraded 10% during the past few decades. The average active layer thickness (ALT) increase rate is approximately 7.5 cm·yr−1 from 1995 to 2007, based on soil temperature measurements from 10 borehole sites along Qinghai-Tibetan Highway, and approximately 6.3 cm·yr−1, 2006–2010, using soil temperature profiles for 27 monitoring sites along Qinghai-Tibetan railway. In this study, we estimated the ALT and its AL thickening rate in the northern QTP near the railway using ALOS PALSAR L-band small baseline subset interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SBAS-InSAR) data observed land subsidence and the corresponding ALT modeling. The InSAR estimated ALT and AL thickening rate were validated with ground-based observations from the borehole site WD4 within our study region, indicating excellent agreement. We concluded that we have generated high spatial resolution (30 m) and spatially-varying ALT and AL thickening rates, 2007–2009, over approximately an area of 150 km2 of permafrost-covered region in the northern QTP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Changes in Mountain Glaciers, Lake Levels, and Snow Coverage in the Tianshan Monitored by GRACE, ICESat, Altimetry, and MODIS
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(10), 798; doi:10.3390/rs8100798
Received: 7 February 2016 / Revised: 18 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 26 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Tianshan mountain range is experiencing a notable environmental change as a result of global warming. In this paper; we adopt multiple remote sensing techniques to examine the diversified geophysical changes in the Tianshan; including glacier changes measured by Gravity Recovery and Climate
[...] Read more.
The Tianshan mountain range is experiencing a notable environmental change as a result of global warming. In this paper; we adopt multiple remote sensing techniques to examine the diversified geophysical changes in the Tianshan; including glacier changes measured by Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat); lake level changes measured by radar altimetry; and snow coverage measured by moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find a rapid transition from dry years to wet years in 2010 in the western and northern Tianshan for all the geophysical measurements. The transition is likely caused by increasing westerlies and greatly pollutes the gravity signals in the edge of Tianshan. However, glaciers in the central Tianshan are unaffected and have been steadily losing mass at a rate of –4.0 ± 0.7 Gt/year during 2003–2014 according to space gravimetry and –3.4 ± 0.8 Gt/year during 2003–2009 according to laser altimetry. Our results show a weaker declining trend and greater linearity compared with earlier estimates; because we investigate the signal pattern in more detail. Finally; water level records of 60 years in Bosten Lake; China; are presented to show that for areas strongly dependent on meltwater; rising temperature can benefit the water supply in the short run; but cause it to deteriorate in the long run. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A GIS-Based Assessment of Vulnerability to Aeolian Desertification in the Source Areas of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(8), 626; doi:10.3390/rs8080626
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 19 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (16199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aeolian desertification is a kind of land degradation that is characterized by aeolian activity, resulting from the responses of land ecosystems to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. The source areas of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers are typical regions of China’s Tibetan Plateau
[...] Read more.
Aeolian desertification is a kind of land degradation that is characterized by aeolian activity, resulting from the responses of land ecosystems to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. The source areas of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers are typical regions of China’s Tibetan Plateau affected by aeolian desertification. We assessed the vulnerability of these areas to aeolian desertification by combining remote sensing with geographical information system technologies. We developed an assessment model with eight indicators, whose weights were determined by the analytical hierarchy process. Employing this model, we analyzed the spatial distribution of vulnerability to aeolian desertification and its changes from 2000 to 2010, and discuss the implications. Overall, low-vulnerability land was the most widespread, accounting for 64%, 62%, and 71% of the total study area in 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively. The degree of vulnerability showed regional differences. In the source areas of the Yangtze River, land with high or very high vulnerability accounted for 17.4% of this sub-region in 2010, versus 2.6% in the source areas of the Yellow River. In the Zoige Basin, almost all of the land had very low to low vulnerability. To understand the change in vulnerability to aeolian desertification, we calculated an integrated vulnerability index (IVI). This analysis indicated that the vulnerability to aeolian desertification increased from 2000 to 2005 (IVI increased from 2.1709 to 2.2463), and decreased from 2005 to 2010 (IVI decreased from 2.2463 to 2.0057). Increasing regional temperatures appear to be primarily responsible for the change in vulnerability to aeolian desertification throughout the region. The effects of other factors (climatic variation and human activities) differed among the various sub-regions. The implementation of the ecological restoration project has achieved a noticeable effect since 2005. Our results provide empirical support for effort to protect the ecology of this ecologically fragile region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Deriving Ice Motion Patterns in Mountainous Regions by Integrating the Intensity-Based Pixel-Tracking and Phase-Based D-InSAR and MAI Approaches: A Case Study of the Chongce Glacier
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(7), 611; doi:10.3390/rs8070611
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
PDF Full-text (6942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a sensitive indicator of climate change, mountain glacier dynamics are of great concern, but the ice motion pattern of an entire glacier surface cannot be accurately and efficiently generated by the use of only phase-based or intensity-based methods with synthetic aperture radar
[...] Read more.
As a sensitive indicator of climate change, mountain glacier dynamics are of great concern, but the ice motion pattern of an entire glacier surface cannot be accurately and efficiently generated by the use of only phase-based or intensity-based methods with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. To derive the ice movement of the whole glacier surface with a high accuracy, an integrated approach combining differential interferometric SAR (D-InSAR), multi-aperture interferometry (MAI), and a pixel-tracking (PT) method is proposed, which could fully exploit the phase and intensity information recorded by the SAR sensor. The Chongce Glacier surface flow field is estimated with the proposed integrated approach. Compared with the traditional SAR-based methods, the proposed approach can determine the ice motion over a widely varying range of ice velocities with a relatively high accuracy. Its capability is proved by the detailed ice displacement pattern with the average accuracy of 0.2 m covering the entire Chongce Glacier surface, which shows a maximum ice movement of 4.9 m over 46 days. Furthermore, it is shown that the ice is in a quiescent state in the downstream part of the glacier. Therefore, the integrated approach presented in this paper could present us with a novel way to comprehensively and accurately understand glacier dynamics by overcoming the incoherence phenomenon, and has great potential for glaciology study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Surface Displacement Field Associated with the 25 April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, Earthquake: Solution from Integrated InSAR and GPS Measurements with an Extended SISTEM Approach
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(7), 559; doi:10.3390/rs8070559
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three-dimensional surface displacement field associated with the 25 April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake is derived from an integration of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, with an extended SISTEM (Simultaneous and Integrated Strain Tensor Estimation From Geodetic and
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional surface displacement field associated with the 25 April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake is derived from an integration of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, with an extended SISTEM (Simultaneous and Integrated Strain Tensor Estimation From Geodetic and Satellite Deformation Measurements) approach (ESISTEM) proposed in this study. In ESISTEM approach, both surrounding InSAR and GPS measurements can be used as constraints in deriving surface displacements; while only surrounding GPS measurements are used in SISTEM approach. Besides the constraints from surrounding GPS measurements, the ESISTEM approach makes surrounding InSAR measurements available for constraining the derived deformations based on surface elastic theory for the first time. From the north to the south, derived surface displacement field shows prevailing southward horizontal deformations, and gradually varied vertical deformations ranging from −0.95 to 1.40 m within 120 km to the north of Kathmandu. This reveals that ruptures of Main Himalayan thrust (MHT) system were confined in subsurface and did not propagate to the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) fault, in accordance with field investigation as well as geodetic and seismic studies. Relation between vertical deformations and earthquake-induced landslides is briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle GRACE-Derived Terrestrial Water Storage Changes in the Inter-Basin Region and Its Possible Influencing Factors: A Case Study of the Sichuan Basin, China
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(6), 444; doi:10.3390/rs8060444
Received: 27 February 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (14575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigate terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes over the Sichuan Basin and the related impacts of water variations in the adjacent basins from GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), in situ river level, and precipitation data. Although GRACE shows water increased over the
[...] Read more.
We investigate terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes over the Sichuan Basin and the related impacts of water variations in the adjacent basins from GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), in situ river level, and precipitation data. Although GRACE shows water increased over the Sichuan Basin from January 2003 to February 2015, two heavy droughts in 2006 and 2011 have resulted in significant water deficits. Correlations of 0.74 and 0.56 were found between TWS and mean river level/precipitation within the Sichuan Basin, respectively, indicating that the Sichuan Basin TWS is influenced by both of the local rainfall and water recharge from the adjacent rivers. Moreover, water sources from the neighboring basins showed different impacts on water deficits observed by GRACE during the two severe droughts in the region. This provides valuable information for regional water management in response to serious dry conditions. Additionally, the Sichuan Basin TWS is shown to be influenced more by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) than the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), especially for the January 2003–July 2012 period with a correlation of −0.66. However, a strong positive correlation of 0.84 was found between TWS and ENSO after August 2012, which is a puzzle that needs further investigation. This study shows that the combination of other hydrological variables can provide beneficial applications of GRACE in inter-basin areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Multi-Decadal Monitoring of Lake Level Changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau by the TOPEX/Poseidon-Family Altimeters: Climate Implication
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(6), 446; doi:10.3390/rs8060446
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
PDF Full-text (6889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lake levels in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provide valuable records for climate change studies. We use two decades of measurements (January 1993–December 2014) from the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P)-family satellite altimeters (T/P, Jason-1 and -2) to detect lake level variations at 23 lakes along their
[...] Read more.
Lake levels in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provide valuable records for climate change studies. We use two decades of measurements (January 1993–December 2014) from the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P)-family satellite altimeters (T/P, Jason-1 and -2) to detect lake level variations at 23 lakes along their repeat ground tracks every 10 days. We employ an optimal processing technique to obtain quality measurements, including outlier detection, averaging and filtering. The lake level accuracies are improved by subwaveform retracking. Jason-1 delivers few measurements after waveform retracking and a cluster classification at most lakes. From January 1993 to December 2014, most lake levels in eastern Tibet rose, while those in western Tibet declined. In Qinghai, lake levels dropped before 2005 and then rose afterwards, coinciding with the measure in 2005 that protects the Qinghai ecosystem (e.g., grassland conservation). The overall pattern of lake level change in the QTP is largely affected by monsoons and lake locations. Most lake levels show clear annual and inter-annual oscillations. Certain lakes show alternating level highs and lows in the same seasons and varying amplitudes of annual oscillations due to lake level changes. We detect a sudden rise of lake level by 7 m caused by floods, varying lake level trends associated with the 1997‒98 El Niño and other factors, and persistently rising and declining lake levels associated with the long-term precipitation trends in the QTP. The T/P-family satellites will continue to monitor lake levels here as long as the sea level monitoring program lasts, collecting a long-term climate record at highlands echoing sea level change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Quantifying Freshwater Mass Balance in the Central Tibetan Plateau by Integrating Satellite Remote Sensing, Altimetry, and Gravimetry
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(6), 441; doi:10.3390/rs8060441
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been observed by satellite optical remote sensing, altimetry, and gravimetry for a variety of geophysical parameters, including water storage change. However, each of these sensors has its respective limitation in the parameters observed, accuracy and spatial-temporal resolution. Here,
[...] Read more.
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been observed by satellite optical remote sensing, altimetry, and gravimetry for a variety of geophysical parameters, including water storage change. However, each of these sensors has its respective limitation in the parameters observed, accuracy and spatial-temporal resolution. Here, we utilized an integrated approach to combine remote sensing imagery, digital elevation model, and satellite radar and laser altimetry data, to quantify freshwater storage change in a twin lake system named Chibuzhang Co and Dorsoidong Co in the central TP, and compared that with independent observations including mass changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Our results show that this twin lake, located within the Tanggula glacier system, remained almost steady during 1973–2000. However, Dorsoidong Co has experienced a significant lake level rise since 2000, especially during 2000–2005, that resulted in the plausible connection between the two lakes. The contemporary increasing lake level signal at a rate of 0.89 ± 0.05 cm·yr−1, in a 2° by 2° grid equivalent water height since 2002, is higher than the GRACE observed trend at 0.41 ± 0.17 cm·yr−1 during the same time span. Finally, a down-turning trend or inter-annual variability shown in the GRACE signal is observed after 2012, while the lake level is still rising at a consistent rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Mass Flux Solution in the Tibetan Plateau Using Mascon Modeling
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(5), 439; doi:10.3390/rs8050439
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
PDF Full-text (19404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mascon modeling is used in this paper to produce the mass flux solutions in the Tibetan Plateau. In the mascon modeling, the pseudo observations and their covariance matrices are derived from the GRACE monthly gravity field models. The sampling density of the pseudo
[...] Read more.
Mascon modeling is used in this paper to produce the mass flux solutions in the Tibetan Plateau. In the mascon modeling, the pseudo observations and their covariance matrices are derived from the GRACE monthly gravity field models. The sampling density of the pseudo observations is determined based on the eigenvalues of the covariance matrices. In the Tibetan Plateau, the sampling density of per 1.5° is the most appropriate among all choices. The mass flux variations from 2003 to 2014 are presented in this paper, which show large mass loss (about −15.5 Gt/year) in Tianshan, North India, and Eastern Himalaya, as well as strong positive signals (about 9 Gt/year) in the Inner Tibetan Plateau. After the glacier isostatic adjustment effects from Pau-5-AUT model are removed, the mass change rates in the Tibetan Plateau derived from CSR RL05, JPL RL05, GFZ RL05a, and Tongji-GRACE02 monthly models are −6.41 ± 4.74 Gt/year, −5.87 ± 4.88 Gt/year, −6.08 ± 4.65 Gt/year, and −11.50 ± 4.79 Gt/year, respectively, which indicate slight mass loss in this area. Our results confirm that mascon modeling is efficient in the recovery of time-variable gravity signals in the Tibetan Plateau. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Moho Density Contrast in Central Eurasia from GOCE Gravity Gradients
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(5), 418; doi:10.3390/rs8050418
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seismic data are primarily used in studies of the Earth’s inner structure. Since large parts of the world are not yet sufficiently covered by seismic surveys, products from the Earth’s satellite observation systems have more often been used for this purpose in recent
[...] Read more.
Seismic data are primarily used in studies of the Earth’s inner structure. Since large parts of the world are not yet sufficiently covered by seismic surveys, products from the Earth’s satellite observation systems have more often been used for this purpose in recent years. In this study we use the gravity-gradient data derived from the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE), the elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and other global datasets to determine the Moho density contrast at the study area which comprises most of the Eurasian plate (including parts of surrounding continental and oceanic tectonic plates). A regional Moho recovery is realized by solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz’s (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy and a seismic crustal model is applied to constrain the gravimetric solution. Our results reveal that the Moho density contrast reaches minima along the mid-oceanic rift zones and maxima under the continental crust. This spatial pattern closely agrees with that seen in the CRUST1.0 seismic crustal model as well as in the KTH1.0 gravimetric-seismic Moho model. However, these results differ considerably from some previously published gravimetric studies. In particular, we demonstrate that there is no significant spatial correlation between the Moho density contrast and Moho deepening under major orogens of Himalaya and Tibet. In fact, the Moho density contrast under most of the continental crustal structure is typically much more uniform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Impact of Reservoirs in the Upper Mekong River Using Satellite Radar Altimetry and Remote Sensing Imageries
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(5), 367; doi:10.3390/rs8050367
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 3 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water level (WL) and water volume (WV) of surface-water bodies are among the most crucial variables used in water-resources assessment and management. They fluctuate as a result of climatic forcing, and they are considered as indicators of climatic impacts on water resources. Quantifying
[...] Read more.
Water level (WL) and water volume (WV) of surface-water bodies are among the most crucial variables used in water-resources assessment and management. They fluctuate as a result of climatic forcing, and they are considered as indicators of climatic impacts on water resources. Quantifying riverine WL and WV, however, usually requires the availability of timely and continuous in situ data, which could be a challenge for rivers in remote regions, including the Mekong River basin. As one of the most developed rivers in the world, with more than 20 dams built or under construction, Mekong River is in need of a monitoring system that could facilitate basin-scale management of water resources facing future climate change. This study used spaceborne sensors to investigate two dams in the upper Mekong River, Xiaowan and Jinghong Dams within China, to examine river flow dynamics after these dams became operational. We integrated multi-mission satellite radar altimetry (RA, Envisat and Jason-2) and Landsat-5/-7/-8 Thematic Mapper (TM)/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+)/Operational Land Imager (OLI) optical remote sensing (RS) imageries to construct composite WL time series with enhanced spatial resolutions and substantially extended WL data records. An empirical relationship between WL variation and water extent was first established for each dam, and then the combined long-term WL time series from Landsat images are reconstructed for the dams. The R2 between altimetry WL and Landsat water area measurements is >0.95. Next, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data were used to diagnose and determine water variation caused by the precipitation anomaly within the basin. Finally, the impact of hydrologic dynamics caused by the impoundment of the dams is assessed. The discrepancy between satellite-derived WL and available in situ gauge data, in term of root-mean-square error (RMSE) is at 2–5 m level. The estimated WV variations derived from combined RA/RS imageries and digital elevation model (DEM) are consistent with results from in situ data with a difference at about 3%. We concluded that the river level downstream is affected by a combined operation of these two dams after 2009, which has decreased WL by 0.20 m·year−1 in wet seasons and increased WL by 0.35 m·year−1 in dry seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Heterogeneous Fault Mechanisms of the 6 October 2008 MW 6.3 Dangxiong (Tibet) Earthquake Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(3), 228; doi:10.3390/rs8030228
Received: 23 October 2015 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 12 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (61139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most current crustal deformation models do not account for topographic effects, crustal lateral variations, and complex fault geometries. To overcome these limitations, we apply finite element models constrained by interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images of co-seismic displacements to the 2008 Mw
[...] Read more.
Most current crustal deformation models do not account for topographic effects, crustal lateral variations, and complex fault geometries. To overcome these limitations, we apply finite element models constrained by interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images of co-seismic displacements to the 2008 Mw 6.3 Dangxiong earthquake that occurred in Yadong–Gulu rift, southern Tibet. For mountainous plateau environments, InSAR observations are advantageous for studying crustal deformation and crustal medium structure. We evaluate the effect of topography and variations in Poisson’s ratio and elastic moduli on estimation of coseismic deformation from InSAR observations. The results show that coseismic surface displacements are more sensitive to variations in Young’s modulus than to variations in topography and Poisson’s ratio. Therefore, with constant Poisson’s ratio and density, we change the Young’s modulus on each side of the fault to obtain the model that best fits the observations. This is attained when the Young’s moduli in the eastern and western sides of the fault were 2.6 × 1010 Pa and 7.8 × 1010 Pa, respectively. The result is consistent with previous field surveys that the medium on either side of the fault is different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Deformation and Source Parameters of the 2015 Mw 6.5 Earthquake in Pishan, Western China, from Sentinel-1A and ALOS-2 Data
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 134; doi:10.3390/rs8020134
Received: 19 December 2015 / Revised: 20 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 8 February 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (6782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) was used to determine the seismogenic fault and slip distribution of the 3 July 2015 Pishan earthquake in the Tarim Basin, western China. We obtained a coseismic deformation map from the ascending and descending Sentinel-1A
[...] Read more.
In this study, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) was used to determine the seismogenic fault and slip distribution of the 3 July 2015 Pishan earthquake in the Tarim Basin, western China. We obtained a coseismic deformation map from the ascending and descending Sentinel-1A satellite Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans (TOPS) mode and the ascending Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) satellite Fine mode InSAR data. The maximum ground uplift and subsidence were approximately 13.6 cm and 3.2 cm, respectively. Our InSAR observations associated with focal mechanics indicate that the source fault dips to southwest (SW). Further nonlinear inversions show that the dip angle of the seimogenic fault is approximate 24°, with a strike of 114°, which is similar with the strike of the southeastern Pishan fault. However, this fault segment responsible for the Pishan event has not been mapped before. Our finite fault model reveals that the peak slip of 0.89 m occurred at a depth of 11.6 km, with substantial slip at a depth of 9–14 km and a near-uniform slip of 0.2 m at a depth of 0–7 km. The estimated moment magnitude was approximately Mw 6.5, consistent with seismological results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Climatic Controls on Spring Onset of the Tibetan Plateau Grasslands from 1982 to 2008
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(12), 16607-16622; doi:10.3390/rs71215847
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (5183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding environmental controls on vegetation spring onset (SO) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is crucial to diagnosing regional ecosystem responses to climate change. We investigated environmental controls on the SO of the TP grasslands using satellite vegetation index (VI) from the 3rd Global
[...] Read more.
Understanding environmental controls on vegetation spring onset (SO) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is crucial to diagnosing regional ecosystem responses to climate change. We investigated environmental controls on the SO of the TP grasslands using satellite vegetation index (VI) from the 3rd Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g) product, with in situ air temperature (Ta) and precipitation (Prcp) measurement records from 1982 to 2008. The SO was determined using a dynamic threshold method based on a 25% threshold of seasonal VI amplitude. We find that SO shows overall close associations with spring Ta, but is also subject to regulation from spring precipitation. In relatively dry but increasingly wetting (0.50 mm·year−1, p < 0.10) grasslands (mean spring Prcp = 22.8 mm; Ta = −3.27 °C), more precipitation tends to advance SO (−0.146 day·mm1, p = 0.150) before the mid-1990s, but delays SO (0.110 day·mm−1, p = 0.108) over the latter record attributed to lower solar radiation and cooler temperatures associated with Prcp increases in recent years. In contrast, in relatively humid TP grasslands (73.0 mm; −3.51 °C), more precipitation delays SO (0.036 day·mm−1, p = 0.165) despite regional warming (0.045 °C·year−1, p < 0.05); the SO also shows a delaying response to a standardized drought index (mean R = 0.266), indicating a low energy constraint to vegetation onset. Our results highlight the importance of surface moisture status in regulating the phenological response of alpine grasslands to climate warming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
Figures

Back to Top