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Special Issue "Volcano Remote Sensing"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (6 September 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Zhong Lu

Huffington Department of Earth Sciences, Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750395, Dallas, TX 75275, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 214-768-0101
Interests: technique developments of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and multi-temporal InSAR processing, and their applications to natural hazard monitoring and natural resource management
Guest Editor
Prof. Peter Webley

Geophysical Institute, 903 Koyukuk Drive, University of Alaska Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: remote sensing natural hazard assessment, aerosol dispersion modeling, advanced visualization of natural hazards, scenario planning for potential impact from volcanic events, uncertainty analysis applied to natural hazards, real-time event detection methodologies from satellite remote sensing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Remote sensing has played an increasingly important role in monitoring virtually all of the approximate 1500 of the world’s potentially active volcanoes. Volcano remote sensing encompasses measurements from passive optical to active radar sensors. In a broad sense, the remote sensing of volcanoes means measuring volcanic activity without the need for in situ observations and so also includes data and observations from seismological and global positioning system (GPS) networks. Therefore, remote sensing constitutes a crucial element for understanding how the Earth’s volcanoes work, and where, when, and why they erupt. Essential remote sensing techniques on volcano monitoring, include, but are not limited to, ground surface deformation and topographic change mapping, earthquake analysis, thermal anomaly mapping, and detecting, measuring and tracking volcanic gases and ash from eruption plumes and clouds. This special issue invites innovative remote sensing analysis methods and applications on monitoring various aspects of the Earth’s volcanoes. Synergetic use of multiple sensing tools as well as monitoring volcanoes on an arc or continent scale are particularly welcome.

Prof. Zhong Lu
Prof. Peter Webley
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • multi-spectral
  • hyper-spectral
  • photogrammetry
  • radar
  • synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
  • volcano seismology
  • global position system (GPS)
  • volcanic gas
  • thermal anomaly
  • volcanic ash clouds
  • eruption plumes
  • lava
  • lahars
  • pyroclastic flows

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Stereoscopic Estimation of Volcanic Ash Cloud-Top Height from Two Geostationary Satellites
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(3), 206; doi:10.3390/rs8030206
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
PDF Full-text (4512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The characterization of volcanic ash clouds released into the atmosphere during explosive eruptions includes cloud height as a fundamental physical parameter. A novel application is proposed of a method based on parallax data acquired from two geostationary instruments for estimating ash cloud-top height
[...] Read more.
The characterization of volcanic ash clouds released into the atmosphere during explosive eruptions includes cloud height as a fundamental physical parameter. A novel application is proposed of a method based on parallax data acquired from two geostationary instruments for estimating ash cloud-top height (ACTH). An improved version of the method with a detailed discussion of height retrieval accuracy was applied to estimate ACTH from two datasets acquired by two satellites in favorable positions to fully exploit the parallax effect. A combination of MSG SEVIRI (HRV band; 1000 m nadir spatial resolution, 5 min temporal resolution) and Meteosat-7 MVIRI (VIS band, 2500 m nadir spatial resolution, 30 min temporal resolution) was implemented. Since MVIRI does not acquire data at exactly the same time as SEVIRI, a correction procedure enables compensation for wind advection in the atmosphere. The method was applied to the Mt. Etna, Sicily, Italy, eruption of 23 November 2013. The height of the volcanic cloud was tracked with a top height of ~8.5 km. The ash cloud estimate was applied to the visible channels to show the potential accuracy that will soon be achievable also in the infrared range using the next generation of multispectral imagers. The new constellation of geostationary meteorological satellites will enable full exploitation of this technique for continuous global ACTH monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volcano Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Satellite-Based Thermophysical Analysis of Volcaniclastic Deposits: A Terrestrial Analog for Mantled Lava Flows on Mars
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(2), 152; doi:10.3390/rs8020152
Received: 7 October 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (13842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Orbital thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is an important tool for characterizing geologic surfaces on Earth and Mars. However, deposition of material from volcanic or eolian activity results in bedrock surfaces becoming significantly mantled over time, hindering the accuracy of TIR compositional analysis.
[...] Read more.
Orbital thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is an important tool for characterizing geologic surfaces on Earth and Mars. However, deposition of material from volcanic or eolian activity results in bedrock surfaces becoming significantly mantled over time, hindering the accuracy of TIR compositional analysis. Moreover, interplay between particle size, albedo, composition and surface roughness add complexity to these interpretations. Apparent Thermal Inertia (ATI) is the measure of the resistance to temperature change and has been used to determine parameters such as grain/block size, density/mantling, and the presence of subsurface soil moisture/ice. Our objective is to document the quantitative relationship between ATI derived from orbital visible/near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) data and tephra fall mantling of the Mono Craters and Domes (MCD) in California, which were chosen as an analog for partially mantled flows observed at Arsia Mons volcano on Mars. The ATI data were created from two images collected ~12 h apart by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. The results were validated with a quantitative framework developed using fieldwork that was conducted at 13 pre-chosen sites. These sites ranged in grain size from ash-sized to meter-scale blocks and were all rhyolitic in composition. Block size and mantling were directly correlated with ATI. Areas with ATI under 2.3 × 10−2 were well-mantled with average grain size below 4 cm; whereas values greater than 3.0 × 10−2 corresponded to mantle-free surfaces. Correlation was less accurate where checkerboard-style mixing between mantled and non-mantled surfaces occurred below the pixel scale as well as in locations where strong shadowing occurred. However, the results validate that the approach is viable for a large majority of mantled surfaces on Earth and Mars. This is relevant for determining the volcanic history of Mars, for example. Accurate identification of non-mantled lava surfaces within an apparently well-mantled flow field on either planet provides locations to extract important mineralogical constraints on the individual flows using TIR data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volcano Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Post-Eruption Deformation Processes Measured Using ALOS-1 and UAVSAR InSAR at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(1), 73; doi:10.3390/rs8010073
Received: 13 October 2015 / Revised: 29 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pacaya volcano is a persistently active basaltic cone complex located in the Central American Volcanic Arc in Guatemala. In May of 2010, violent Volcanic Explosivity Index-3 (VEI-3) eruptions caused significant topographic changes to the edifice, including a linear collapse feature 600 m long
[...] Read more.
Pacaya volcano is a persistently active basaltic cone complex located in the Central American Volcanic Arc in Guatemala. In May of 2010, violent Volcanic Explosivity Index-3 (VEI-3) eruptions caused significant topographic changes to the edifice, including a linear collapse feature 600 m long originating from the summit, the dispersion of ~20 cm of tephra and ash on the cone, the emplacement of a 5.4 km long lava flow, and ~3 m of co-eruptive movement of the southwest flank. For this study, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images (interferograms) processed from both spaceborne Advanced Land Observing Satellite-1 (ALOS-1) and aerial Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) data acquired between 31 May 2010 and 10 April 2014 were used to measure post-eruptive deformation events. Interferograms suggest three distinct deformation processes after the May 2010 eruptions, including: (1) subsidence of the area involved in the co-eruptive slope movement; (2) localized deformation near the summit; and (3) emplacement and subsequent subsidence of about a 5.4 km lava flow. The detection of several different geophysical signals emphasizes the utility of measuring volcanic deformation using remote sensing techniques with broad spatial coverage. Additionally, the high spatial resolution of UAVSAR has proven to be an excellent compliment to satellite data, particularly for constraining motion components. Measuring the rapid initiation and cessation of flank instability, followed by stabilization and subsequent influence on eruptive features, provides a rare glimpse into volcanic slope stability processes. Observing these and other deformation events contributes both to hazard assessment at Pacaya and to the study of the stability of stratovolcanoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volcano Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Sensor Approach for Volcanic Ash Cloud Retrieval and Eruption Characterization: The 23 November 2013 Etna Lava Fountain
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(1), 58; doi:10.3390/rs8010058
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 30 December 2015 / Published: 12 January 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (9433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Volcanic activity is observed worldwide with a variety of ground and space-based remote sensing instruments, each with advantages and drawbacks. No single system can give a comprehensive description of eruptive activity, and so, a multi-sensor approach is required. This work integrates infrared and
[...] Read more.
Volcanic activity is observed worldwide with a variety of ground and space-based remote sensing instruments, each with advantages and drawbacks. No single system can give a comprehensive description of eruptive activity, and so, a multi-sensor approach is required. This work integrates infrared and microwave volcanic ash retrievals obtained from the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG)-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), the polar-orbiting Aqua-MODIS and ground-based weather radar. The expected outcomes are improvements in satellite volcanic ash cloud retrieval (altitude, mass, aerosol optical depth and effective radius), the generation of new satellite products (ash concentration and particle number density in the thermal infrared) and better characterization of volcanic eruptions (plume altitude, total ash mass erupted and particle number density from thermal infrared to microwave). This approach is the core of the multi-platform volcanic ash cloud estimation procedure being developed within the European FP7-APhoRISM project. The Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) volcano lava fountaining event of 23 November 2013 was considered as a test case. The results of the integration show the presence of two volcanic cloud layers at different altitudes. The improvement of the volcanic ash cloud altitude leads to a mean difference between the SEVIRI ash mass estimations, before and after the integration, of about the 30%. Moreover, the percentage of the airborne “fine” ash retrieved from the satellite is estimated to be about 1%–2% of the total ash emitted during the eruption. Finally, all of the estimated parameters (volcanic ash cloud altitude, thickness and total mass) were also validated with ground-based visible camera measurements, HYSPLIT forward trajectories, Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite data and tephra deposits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volcano Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Satellite and Ground Based Thermal Observation of the 2014 Effusive Eruption at Stromboli Volcano
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(12), 17190-17211; doi:10.3390/rs71215876
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 3 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2008 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As specifically designed platforms are still unavailable at this point in time, lava flows are usually monitored remotely with the use of meteorological satellites. Generally, meteorological satellites have a low spatial resolution, which leads to uncertain results. This paper presents the first long
[...] Read more.
As specifically designed platforms are still unavailable at this point in time, lava flows are usually monitored remotely with the use of meteorological satellites. Generally, meteorological satellites have a low spatial resolution, which leads to uncertain results. This paper presents the first long term satellite monitoring of active lava flows on Stromboli volcano (August–November 2014) at high spatial resolution (160 m) and relatively high temporal resolution (~3 days). These data were retrieved by the small satellite Technology Experiment Carrier-1 (TET-1), which was developed and built by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The satellite instrument is dedicated to high temperature event monitoring. The satellite observations were accompanied by field observations conducted by thermal cameras. These provided short time lava flow dynamics and validation for satellite data. TET-1 retrieved 27 datasets over Stromboli during its effusive activity. Using the radiant density approach, TET-1 data were used to calibrate the MODVOLC data and estimate the time averaged lava discharge rate. With a mean output rate of 0.87 m3/s during the three-month-long eruption, we estimate the total erupted volume to be 7.4 × 106 m3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volcano Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Environmental Factors on the Spectral Characteristics of Lava Surfaces: Field Spectrometry of Basaltic Lava Flows on Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(12), 16986-17012; doi:10.3390/rs71215864
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on spectral reflectance measurements of basaltic lava flows on Tenerife Island, Spain. Lava flow surfaces of different ages, surface roughness and elevations were systematically measured using a field spectroradiometer operating in the range of 350–2500 nm. Surface roughness, oxidation and lichen
[...] Read more.
We report on spectral reflectance measurements of basaltic lava flows on Tenerife Island, Spain. Lava flow surfaces of different ages, surface roughness and elevations were systematically measured using a field spectroradiometer operating in the range of 350–2500 nm. Surface roughness, oxidation and lichen coverage were documented at each measured site. Spectral properties vary with age and morphology of lava. Pre-historical lavas with no biological coverage show a prominent increase in spectral reflectance in the 400–760 nm range and a decrease in the 2140–2210 nm range. Pāhoehoe surfaces have higher reflectance values than ʻaʻā ones and attain a maximum reflectance at wavelengths < 760 nm. Lichen-covered lavas are characterized by multiple lichen-related absorption and reflection features. We demonstrate that oxidation and lichen growth are two major factors controlling spectra of Tenerife lava surfaces and, therefore, propose an oxidation index and a lichen index to quantify surface alterations of lava flows: (1) the oxidation index is based on the increase of the slope of the spectral profile from blue to red as the field-observed oxidation level strengthens; and (2) the lichen index is based on the spectral reflectance in the 1660–1725 nm range, which proves to be highly correlated with lichen coverage documented in the field. The two spectral indices are applied to Landsat ETM+ and Hyperion imagery of the study area for mapping oxidation and lichen coverage on lava surfaces, respectively. Hyperion is shown to be capable of discriminating different volcanic surfaces, i.e., tephra vs. lava and oxidized lava vs. lichen-covered lava. Our study highlights the value of field spectroscopic measurements to aid interpretation of lava flow characterization using satellite images and of the effects of environmental factors on lava surface evolution over time, and, therefore, has the potential to contribute to the mapping as well as dating of lava surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volcano Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Post-Eruptive Inflation of Okmok Volcano, Alaska, from InSAR, 2008–2014
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(12), 16778-16794; doi:10.3390/rs71215839
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (15162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Okmok, a ~10-km wide caldera that occupies most of the northeastern end of Umnak Island, is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc. The most recent eruption at Okmok during July–August 2008 was by far its largest and most explosive
[...] Read more.
Okmok, a ~10-km wide caldera that occupies most of the northeastern end of Umnak Island, is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc. The most recent eruption at Okmok during July–August 2008 was by far its largest and most explosive since at least the early 19th century. We investigate post-eruptive magma supply and storage at the volcano during 2008–2014 by analyzing all available synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of Okmok acquired during that time period using the multi-temporal InSAR technique. Data from the C-band Envisat and X-band TerraSAR-X satellites indicate that Okmok started inflating very soon after the end of 2008 eruption at a time-variable rate of 48–130 mm/y, consistent with GPS measurements. The “model-assisted” phase unwrapping method is applied to improve the phase unwrapping operation for long temporal baseline pairs. The InSAR time-series is used as input for deformation source modeling, which suggests magma accumulating at variable rates in a shallow storage zone at ~3.9 km below sea level beneath the summit caldera, consistent with previous studies. The modeled volume accumulation in the six years following the 2008 eruption is ~75% of the 1997 eruption volume and ~25% of the 2008 eruption volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volcano Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Magma Pathways and Their Interactions Inferred from InSAR and Stress Modeling at Nyamulagira Volcano, D.R. Congo
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(11), 15179-15202; doi:10.3390/rs71115179
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A summit and upper flank eruption occurred at Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo, from 2–27 January 2010. Eruptions at Nyamulagira during 1996–2010 occurred from eruptive fissures on the upper flanks or within the summit caldera and were distributed along the ~N155E rift
[...] Read more.
A summit and upper flank eruption occurred at Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo, from 2–27 January 2010. Eruptions at Nyamulagira during 1996–2010 occurred from eruptive fissures on the upper flanks or within the summit caldera and were distributed along the ~N155E rift zone, whereas the 2011–2012 eruption occurred ~12 km ENE of the summit. 3D numerical modeling of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) geodetic measurements of the co-eruptive deformation in 2010 reveals that magma stored in a shallow (~3.5 km below the summit) reservoir intruded as two subvertical dikes beneath the summit and southeastern flank of the volcano. The northern dike is connected to an ~N45E-trending intra-caldera eruptive fissure, extending to an ~2.5 km maximum depth. The southern dike is connected to an ~N175E-trending flank fissure extending to the depth of the inferred reservoir at ~3.5 km. The inferred reservoir location is coincident with the reservoir that was active during previous eruptions in 1938–1940 and 2006. The volumetric ratio of total emitted magma (intruded in dikes + erupted) to the contraction of the reservoir (rv) is 9.3, consistent with pressure recovery by gas exsolution in the small, shallow modeled magma reservoir. We derive a modified analytical expression for rv, accounting for changes in reservoir volume induced by gas exsolution, as well as eruptive volume. By using the precise magma composition, we estimate a magma compressibility of 1.9–3.2 × 109 Pa−1 and rv of 6.5–10.1. From a normal-stress change analysis, we infer that intrusions in 2010 could have encouraged the ascent of magma from a deeper reservoir along an ~N45E orientation, corresponding to the strike of the rift transfer zone structures and possibly resulting in the 2011–2012 intrusion. The intrusion of magma to greater distances from the summit may be enhanced along the N45E orientation, as it is more favorable to the regional rift extension (compared to the local volcanic rift zone, trending N155E). Repeated dike intrusions beneath Nyamulagira’s SSE flank may encourage intrusions beneath the nearby Nyiragongo volcano. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volcano Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Detecting the Source Location of Recent Summit Inflation via Three-Dimensional InSAR Observation of Kīlauea Volcano
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(11), 14386-14402; doi:10.3390/rs71114386
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 29 October 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2102 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Starting on 21 April 2015, unusual activity on the summit of Kīlauea was detected. Rapid summit inflation and a rising lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u crater were interpreted as early signs of imminent magma intrusion. We explored the three-dimensional (3D) surface motion accompanying this
[...] Read more.
Starting on 21 April 2015, unusual activity on the summit of Kīlauea was detected. Rapid summit inflation and a rising lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u crater were interpreted as early signs of imminent magma intrusion. We explored the three-dimensional (3D) surface motion accompanying this volcanic event using the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) stacking method. Multi-temporal COSMO-SkyMed X-band SAR data collected from ascending and descending orbits were processed for the time period encompassing the unrest behavior. The 3D displacement maps retrieved by integrating the stacked InSAR with Multiple-Aperture Interferometric SAR (MAI) measurements revealed the deformation patterns and areal coverage of this volcanic activity. The observed maximum displacements were approximately 8.2, −13.8, and 11.6 cm in the east, north, and up directions, respectively. The best-fit model for the mechanism causing the surface deformation was determined via ten thousand simulations using the 3D surface deformation as the input. When compared to the results of a previous study, the 3D-based modeling produced more precise model parameter estimates with markedly lower uncertainties. The optimal spheroid magma source was located southwest of the caldera, lying at a depth of approximately 2.8 km below the surface. Precise model parameter estimates produced using the 3D-based modeling will be helpful in understanding the magma behavior in Kīlauea’s complex volcanic system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volcano Remote Sensing)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Observing Volcanoes from the Seafloor in the Central Mediterranean Area
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(4), 298; doi:10.3390/rs8040298
Received: 2 October 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The three volcanoes that are the object of this paper show different types of activity that are representative of the large variety of volcanism present in the Central Mediterranean area. Etna and Stromboli are sub-aerial volcanoes, with significant part of their structure under
[...] Read more.
The three volcanoes that are the object of this paper show different types of activity that are representative of the large variety of volcanism present in the Central Mediterranean area. Etna and Stromboli are sub-aerial volcanoes, with significant part of their structure under the sea, while the Marsili Seamount is submerged, and its activity is still open to debate. The study of these volcanoes can benefit from multi-parametric observations from the seafloor. Each volcano was studied with a different kind of observation system. Stromboli seismic recordings are acquired by means of a single Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS). From these data, it was possible to identify two different magma chambers at different depths. At Marsili Seamount, gravimetric and seismic signals are recorded by a battery-powered multi-disciplinary observatory (GEOSTAR). Gravimetric variations and seismic Short Duration Events (SDE) confirm the presence of hydrothermal activity. At the Etna observation site, seismic signals, water pressure, magnetic field and acoustic echo intensity are acquired in real-time thanks to a cabled multi-disciplinary observatory (NEMO-SN1 ). This observatory is one of the operative nodes of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO; www.emso-eu.org) research infrastructure. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we speculate about deep Etna sources and follow some significant events, such as volcanic ash diffusion in the seawater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volcano Remote Sensing)
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