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Sustainability, Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Implementation of Circular Economy Business Models by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs): Barriers and Enablers
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111212
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are increasingly aware of the benefits of closing loops and improving resource efficiency, such as saving material costs, creating competitive advantages, and accessing new markets. At the same time, however, various barriers pose challenges to small businesses in
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Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are increasingly aware of the benefits of closing loops and improving resource efficiency, such as saving material costs, creating competitive advantages, and accessing new markets. At the same time, however, various barriers pose challenges to small businesses in their transition to a circular economy, namely a lack of financial resources and lack of technical skills. The aim of this paper is to increase knowledge and understanding about the barriers and enablers experienced by SMEs when implementing circular economy business models. Looking first at the barriers that prevent SMEs from realising the benefits of the circular economy, an investigation is carried out in the form of a literature review and an analysis of a sample of SME case studies that are featured on the GreenEcoNet EU-funded web platform. Several enabling factors that help SMEs adopt circular economy practices are then identified. The paper concludes that although various policy instruments are available to help SMEs incorporate circular economy principles into their business models, several barriers remain. The authors recommend that European and national policies strengthen their focus on greening consumer preferences, market value chains and company cultures, and support the recognition of SMEs’ green business models. This can be achieved through the creation of dedicated marketplaces and communities of practice, for example. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Technology-Based New Service Idea Generation for Smart Spaces: Application of 5G Mobile Communication Technology
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111211
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
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Abstract
Innovative technology has made it possible to dramatically change the social and economic environment. In particular, 5G mobile communication technology that radically improves the performance of current technology can renew urban infrastructure, public services, and citizens’ lives for the implementation of smart spaces.
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Innovative technology has made it possible to dramatically change the social and economic environment. In particular, 5G mobile communication technology that radically improves the performance of current technology can renew urban infrastructure, public services, and citizens’ lives for the implementation of smart spaces. Although new services need to be generated by such innovative technology, existing technology-based approaches have mostly relied on the intuition of experts rather than a systematic approach. Thus, this paper aims to present a method and process by which technology-based new ideas using 5G mobile communication technology are generated to realize a connected environment by focusing on technological functions as well as customer value. First, the relationships among technology, value, and service are defined through morphology analysis. Second, service opportunities are identified by developing a transformed buyer-utility map in the smart space environment. After mapping the established services, candidate cells for a new service were identified as vacant cells in the map with the removal of technically unnecessary candidates based upon the pre-defined relationship. Third, a new service idea is generated by modifying/extending candidates concretely through an ERRC (Eliminate, Reduce, Raise, Create) framework. Value factors are determined in advance and shown in the As-Is value curve representing the current status. The current level in the curve is then compared at an industrial level and value factors are chosen to newly modify or create. As a result, the To-Be curve is established and leads to a new service idea. It can be regarded as a useful tool for mobile carriers to plan new business models for smart spaces with adequate technology and market feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle A Spatial Analytic Hierarchy Process for Identification of Water Pollution with GIS Software in an Eco-Economy Environment
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111208
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 22 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water pollution has become a global problem and its impact on the health of the human population is growing day by day. This study aims to assess the pollution of the Cibin River (Romania) by a physicochemical analysis. Water samples have been collected
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Water pollution has become a global problem and its impact on the health of the human population is growing day by day. This study aims to assess the pollution of the Cibin River (Romania) by a physicochemical analysis. Water samples have been collected from four locations along the Cibin River over a period of 12 months. At this time, there are several commonly used Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods for the assessing the impact of pollutants on the environment. In this research, we used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) multi-criteria method to evaluate each sampling station’s physicochemical parameters. The significant results place the river in the first (sampling stations 1, 2 and 3) and second (sampling stations 4) water quality classes. Another significant result of this work is that the research using GIS software allowed an integrated automatic data collection system and displays interactive results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience to Natural and Man-Made Disasters)
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Open AccessArticle A Cost Analysis of Food Waste Composting in Taiwan
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111210
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) has enacted a food waste recycling policy since 2003 as an alternative of landfill and incineration for the final disposal of municipal solid waste. Recycled food waste is currently seen as a valuable material, especially when appropriate technology
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Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) has enacted a food waste recycling policy since 2003 as an alternative of landfill and incineration for the final disposal of municipal solid waste. Recycled food waste is currently seen as a valuable material, especially when appropriate technology is developed. This paper conducts a cost/benefit analysis based on six cases of food waste composting plants in Taiwan, finding that (1) the composting of food waste may yield the most net benefit compared to other applications of today; (2) the production cost of compost ranges from NT$ 2897–23,117/tonne; (3) the adoption of more automatic technology may reduce operation costs and, thus, a closed composting system with mechanical aeration may be more cost effective; (4) the output is a determinant of affecting production costs and private firms are more competitive in production costs than government-affiliated composting units; (5) all of the government-affiliated composting units face a negative profit and thus they are required to make use of the market value of the produced compost to achieve economic viability; and (6) a subsidy to the compost producer is needed to expand the market demand as the food waste recycled can save the disposal cost of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Waste Management and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Dynamics and Drivers of Farmland Changes in Panxi Mountainous Region, China
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111209
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
Due to the multiple impacts of landform effects, spatial heterogeneity and land use policies, farmland dynamics in mountainous areas are complicated. This study investigated farmland dynamics based on land use data from a typical mountainous area, Panxi, in China for 1990, 2000 and
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Due to the multiple impacts of landform effects, spatial heterogeneity and land use policies, farmland dynamics in mountainous areas are complicated. This study investigated farmland dynamics based on land use data from a typical mountainous area, Panxi, in China for 1990, 2000 and 2010, discussed the relationship between altitude, slope and farmland changes and presented an analysis of the driving forces of farmland change. Our findings are as follows: (1) from 1990 to 2010, the area of converted farmland was relatively small (313 km2), accounting for only 2.6% of the region’s farmland. Farmland was mainly converted to forest and grassland as a result of the Returning Farmland to Forest Program; (2) The spatial distribution of land use types differed significantly. The presence of water bodies influenced farmland and built-up land, while forest and grassland showed “landform-oriented” characteristics. Built-up land was especially variable in distribution, indicating that it was more vulnerable to human activities; (3) The vertical differentiation of farmland changes was obvious. At altitudes <2500 m, the data displayed a trend of conversion from forest to farmland, while at >2500 m, this trend reversed. Thus, 2500 m serves as an altitudinal boundary between farmland and forest in Panxi. The largest area of forest-farmland transfer occurred on slopes steeper than 15°, not 25°, as defined by China’s policy of Returning Farmland to Forest; (4) The driving forces of farmland changes varied. Decreases in farmland were negatively correlated with proximity to rivers and roads. Increases in farmland were positively related to temperature and negatively related to both population density and altitude. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Capturing Agroecosystem Vulnerability and Resilience
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111206
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
Vulnerability and resilience are two crucial attributes of social-ecological systems that are used for analyzing the response to disturbances. We assess these properties in relation to agroecosystem buffer capacity and adaptive capacity, which depend on the ‘window of opportunities’ of possible changes in
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Vulnerability and resilience are two crucial attributes of social-ecological systems that are used for analyzing the response to disturbances. We assess these properties in relation to agroecosystem buffer capacity and adaptive capacity, which depend on the ‘window of opportunities’ of possible changes in terms of selected performance indicators, i.e., the solution space. The vulnerability of the system was quantified as the distance of performance indicators between original and disturbed systems. The buffer capacity was derived from the size of the solution space that could be obtained after reconfiguration of farm components (crops, animals, fertilizers, etc.) that were present on the original farm, whereas the assessment of adaptive capacity was derived in a similar way, but after allowing innovation by introducing new components to the farm. To illustrate the approach, we applied these concepts to two dairy farms in Northwest Michoacán, Mexico. After a disturbance resulting in a fodder maize yield decline, both economic profitability and soil organic matter inputs were reduced. The scope for recovery was different between the farms, but the projected improvements in profitability and organic matter inputs would require considerable changes in the farm configurations, and thus flexibility in farm management. High resilience requires a farmer with the managerial ability to make the required changes to move through the proposed solution space. The approach we present here offers a generic quantitative assessment of vulnerability and resilience concepts, based on a combined assessment of the social and ecological dimensions of agroecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Introduction of Behavioral Parameterization in the EPC Calculation Method and Assessment of Five Typical Urban Houses in Wallonia, Belgium
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111205
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
The Energy Performance Certification (EPC) of existing residential buildings has been designed to introduce energy efficiency as a comparative criterion for real-estate purchase choices, which should influence real-estate market value and stimulate energy saving investments. EPCs in Belgium are asset ratings, calculated with
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The Energy Performance Certification (EPC) of existing residential buildings has been designed to introduce energy efficiency as a comparative criterion for real-estate purchase choices, which should influence real-estate market value and stimulate energy saving investments. EPCs in Belgium are asset ratings, calculated with a standardized approach, which purposefully (and understandably) takes the human factor out of the equations in order to allow the comparison of buildings. As a result, they often overestimate energy consumption and present discrepancies that do not allow appropriation of the results by potential buyers. This study proposes complementary EPC results, obtained by integrating the behavior of occupants in the calculation method. This paper first analyses the pool of behavioral uncertainties that influence the results of EPCs, describes a questionnaire built to gather additional data on households’ characteristics and energy consumption habits and proposes modifications to the calculation method. The complementary results are then compared to regulatory EPC results and real consumption data. Though acknowledging the necessity of a standardized EPC for dwellings’ comparison, this study completes it with data on the energy consumption-related behaviors to (partially) close the gap between real and theoretical consumptions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Airline Sustainability Modeling: A New Framework with Application of Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1204; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111204
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
There are many factors which could influence the sustainability of airlines. The main purpose of this study is to introduce a framework for a financial sustainability index and model it based on structural equation modeling (SEM) with maximum likelihood and Bayesian predictors. The
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There are many factors which could influence the sustainability of airlines. The main purpose of this study is to introduce a framework for a financial sustainability index and model it based on structural equation modeling (SEM) with maximum likelihood and Bayesian predictors. The introduced framework includes economic performance, operational performance, cost performance, and financial performance. Based on both Bayesian SEM (Bayesian-SEM) and Classical SEM (Classical-SEM), it was found that economic performance with both operational performance and cost performance are significantly related to the financial performance index. The four mathematical indices employed are root mean square error, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and mean absolute percentage error to compare the efficiency of Bayesian-SEM and Classical-SEM in predicting the airline financial performance. The outputs confirmed that the framework with Bayesian prediction delivered a good fit with the data, although the framework predicted with a Classical-SEM approach did not prepare a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between Classical and Bayesian predictions, as well as the potential advantages and caveats with the application of Bayesian approach in airline sustainability studies, are debated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability and Convergence: The Future of Corporate Governance Systems?
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111203
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In today’s world, a sustainable approach to corporate governance can be a source of competitive advantage and a long-term success factor for any firm. Sustainable governance requires that the board of directors considers economic, social and environmental expectations in an integrated way, no
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In today’s world, a sustainable approach to corporate governance can be a source of competitive advantage and a long-term success factor for any firm. Sustainable governance requires that the board of directors considers economic, social and environmental expectations in an integrated way, no matter what ownership structure and formal rules of corporate governance apply to the company: this mitigates the traditional differences between insider and outsider systems of corporate governance. Previous studies failed to consider the contribution of sustainability in the process of corporate governance convergence. Therefore, the aim of this article is to fill the gap in the existing literature by means of a qualitative analysis, supporting the international debate about convergence of corporate governance systems. The article describes the evolution of outsider and insider systems in the light of the increasing importance of sustainability in the board’s decision-making and firm’s operation to satisfy the needs of all the company’s stakeholders. According to this, a qualitative content analysis developed with a directed approach completes the theoretical discussion, demonstrating that sustainability can bring de facto convergence between outsider and insider corporate governance systems. The article aims to be a theoretical starting point for future research, the findings of which could also have practical implications: the study encourages the policy makers to translate the sustainable business best practices into laws and recommendations, strengthening the mutual influence between formal and substantial convergence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Different Weather Files on London Detached Residential Building Performance—Deterministic, Uncertainty, and Sensitivity Analysis on CIBSE TM48 and CIBSE TM49 Future Weather Variables Using CIBSE TM52 as Overheating Criteria
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111194
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
Though uncertainties of input variables may have significant implications on building simulations, they are quite often not identified, quantified, or included in building simulations results. This paper considers climatic deterministic, uncertainty, and sensitivity analysis through a series of simulations using the CIBSE UKCIP02
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Though uncertainties of input variables may have significant implications on building simulations, they are quite often not identified, quantified, or included in building simulations results. This paper considers climatic deterministic, uncertainty, and sensitivity analysis through a series of simulations using the CIBSE UKCIP02 future weather years, CIBSE TM48 for design summer years (DSYs), and the latest CIBSE TM49 DSY future weather data which incorporates the UKCP09 projections to evaluate the variance and the impact of differing London future weather files on indoor operative temperature of a detached dwelling in the United Kingdom using the CIBSE TM52 overheating criteria. The work analyses the variability of comparable weather data set to identify the most influential weather parameters that contribute to thermal comfort implications for these dwellings. The choice of these weather files is to ascertain their differences, as their development is underpinned by different climatic projections. The overall pattern of the variability of the UKCIP02 and UKCP09 Heathrow weather data sets under Monte Carlo sensitivity consideration do not seem to be very different from each other. The deterministic results show that the operative temperatures of the UKCIP02 are slightly higher than those of UKCP09, with the UKCP09 having a narrow range of operative temperatures. The Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis quantified and affirmed the dry bulb and radiant temperatures as the most influential weather parameters that affect thermal comfort on dwellings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Dynamic Urban Land Use Patterns with Crowdsourced Geo-Tagged Social Media (Sina-Weibo) and Commercial Points of Interest Collections in Beijing, China
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111202
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In fast-growing cities, especially large cities in developing countries, land use types are changing rapidly, and different types of land use are mixed together. It is difficult to assess the land use types in these fast-growing cities in a timely and accurate way.
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In fast-growing cities, especially large cities in developing countries, land use types are changing rapidly, and different types of land use are mixed together. It is difficult to assess the land use types in these fast-growing cities in a timely and accurate way. To address this problem, this paper presents a multi-source data mining approach to study dynamic urban land use patterns. Spatiotemporal social media data reveal human activity patterns in different areas, social media text data reflects the topics discussed in different areas, and Points of Interest (POI) reflect the distribution of urban facilities in different regions. Human activity patterns, topics of discussion on social media, and the distribution of urban facilities in different regions were combined and analyzed to infer urban land use patterns. We collected 9.5 million geo-tagged Chinese social media (Sina-Weibo) messages from January 2014 to July 2014 in the urban core areas of Beijing and compared them with 385,792 commercial Points of Interest (POI) from Datatang (a Chinese digital data content provider). To estimate urban land use types and patterns in Beijing, a regular grid of 400 m × 400 m was created to divide the urban core areas into 18,492 cells. By analyzing the temporal frequency trends of social media messages within each cell using K-means clustering algorithm, we identified seven types of land use clusters in Beijing: residential areas, university dormitories, commercial areas, work areas, transportation hubs, and two types of mixed land use areas. Text mining, word clouds, and the distribution analysis of POI were used to verify the estimated land use types successfully. This study can help urban planners create up-to-date land use patterns in an economic way and help us better understand dynamic human activity patterns in a city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle The Optimization of Distributed Photovoltaic Comprehensive Efficiency Based on the Construction of Regional Integrated Energy Management System in China
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111201
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 20 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the context of energy crisis, environmental pollution, and energy abandoning in the large-scale centralized clean energy generation, distributed energy has become an inevitable trend in the development of China’s energy system. Distributed photovoltaic boasts great potential for development in China due to
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In the context of energy crisis, environmental pollution, and energy abandoning in the large-scale centralized clean energy generation, distributed energy has become an inevitable trend in the development of China’s energy system. Distributed photovoltaic boasts great potential for development in China due to resource advantages and policy support. However, we need improve the efficiency of photovoltaic generation, which is restricted by technology and dislocation of supply and demand. With a view to optimizing the efficiency of distributed photovoltaic, based on the concept of comprehensive efficiency, this paper discusses the influencing factors and chooses the optimization direction according to system dynamics (SD). The optimizing content is further clarified on the basis of energy management system. From the perspective of technology, this paper puts forward optimization methods from resource side, energy conversion and demand side, and the simulation results of applying the three methods verify the feasibility of the method. Comprehensive efficiency would be improved as the result of regional integrated energy management system and policy mechanisms. The conclusions of this paper will provide theoretical basis and optimized reference for the improvement of distributed photovoltaic comprehensive utilization in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessReview Exploring the Direction on the Environmental and Business Performance Relationship at the Firm Level. Lessons from a Literature Review
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111200
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interest of scientists and companies in understanding the business implications of environmental investment is timely; however, a dilemma remains at the firm level: is the environment a “strategic competitive factor”, as in the “Porter point of view”, or is it a “luxury
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The interest of scientists and companies in understanding the business implications of environmental investment is timely; however, a dilemma remains at the firm level: is the environment a “strategic competitive factor”, as in the “Porter point of view”, or is it a “luxury good”, as in the “Wagner point of view”? Our research contributes to this debate through a review of the papers published in scientific journals between 2000 and 2015 that discussed the direction of the relationship between the environmental and business performances of enterprises. The objectives of the research are: (a) to verify if there is an agreement in the scientific literature of the last 15 years about the “Porter–Wagner dilemma” when focusing at the firm level; (b) to underline the prevalent cause and effect directions of the relationship between environmental and business performance; and (c) to investigate the reasons for any disagreements in this topic among the scientists. The results show that the main agreement regards the positive bi-directional relationship, as a virtuous cyclic approach with mutual effects between business and environmental performance; nevertheless, more complex hypotheses emerge, such as nonlinear and/or conditional relationship, that need to be further explored. On the other hand, the Porter–Wagner dilemma remains, and the main reason for the non-agreement among scientists can be due to the several non-homogeneous variables considered in the analyses. Thereafter, as lesson for scientists, the priority is to share univocal methods to measure firms’ environmental and business performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurial Sustainability: New Innovative Knowledge)
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Open AccessArticle Emerging Development Pathways of Urban Livestock Production in Rapidly Growing West Africa Cities
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111199
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri-) urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and
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In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri-) urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and 187 structured questionnaires were completed in livestock-keeping households in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Tamale (Ghana). Categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify homogenous groups of livestock-keeping households. Cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis revealed factors that influence livestock husbandry, showing their impacts on resource use by livestock keepers in the two cities. A diversity of livestock species was kept, mostly integrated with crop farming. Yet, some households specialized in either sheep, pig or commercial milk production, and partly intensified their production. The decision to specialize and/or intensify livestock production is site-specific and influenced by the education level of the household head and security of land ownership. Higher inputs in livestock systems do not necessarily lead to higher outputs, and specialization inevitably leads to higher manure wastages. Therefore, links of livestock producers to crop farmers and markets for livestock manure must be strengthened to enable recycling of resources and limit negative externalities of specialized livestock production. Strategies need to be identified to improve livestock productivity by enhancing outputs as input use increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture and Development)
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Open AccessArticle The Ethical City: A Rationale for an Urgent New Urban Agenda
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111197
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
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Abstract
The ethical city, in contrast to many other adjectives used to describe our cities, implies an approach to urban development that is about doing the right thing for and by urban citizens. Acknowledging the rich traditions of urban development studies and human ethics,
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The ethical city, in contrast to many other adjectives used to describe our cities, implies an approach to urban development that is about doing the right thing for and by urban citizens. Acknowledging the rich traditions of urban development studies and human ethics, this article draws on examples of existing practices in cities that reflect a principled and ethical approach to leadership, governance, planning, economic development, sustainability and citizen engagement. An increased focus on ethics and justice is central in shaping how we respond effectively to global pressing issues such as climate change while at the same time tackling diverse social and economic problems in our cities including inequality, marginalization and lack of access to opportunities for the most vulnerable. While an ethical city points towards sustainability, resilience, inclusion and shared prosperity, the opposite direction could lead to corruption, poverty and social disaffection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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