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Special Issue "Solar Photovoltaic Electricity"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Jiawei Gong

North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA
E-Mail
Interests: PV solar cells; dye-sensitized solar cells; functionalized graphene materials; nanostructured metal oxides; theoretical modeling and numerical simulation of PV
Guest Editor
Prof. Qiquan Qiao

South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: polymer photovoltaics; dye-sensitized solar cells; high aspect ratio nanomaterials for photovoltaics; polymer light emitting diodes; perovskite solar cells
Guest Editor
Dr. Zhengping Zhou

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
E-Mail
Interests: multifunctional nanomaterials and polymer nanocomposites; nanomanufacturing and scale-up technologies; advanced energy storage and conversion devices (supercapacitors, li-ion batteries, and solar cells)
Guest Editor
Prof. Tingting Xu

Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: organic polymer solar cells; inorganic solar cells; perovskite solar cells; dye and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells; nanostructured semiconductors
Guest Editor
Prof. Mao Liang

Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: design and synthesis of dye sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)
Guest Editor
Dr. Wenfeng Zhang

Anhui Agriculture University, Hefei, Anhui, China
E-Mail
Interests: photovoltaic materials; energy conversion devices (polymer solar cells, perovskite solar cells)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Based on your research achievements, we are writing to invite you to contribute an original research paper or a short communication, or a comprehensive review article for publication in a Special Issue of Sustainability (IF = 1.343; http://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability). The subject of this Special Issue is “Solar photovoltaic electricity”, and will be published by June 2017.
Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced the fastest growth among all other renewable technologies, at a 50% annual growth rate in the five-year period between end-2009 through to 2014. PV technology has proven great potential to meet clean energy demands by delivering cost-effective electricity from sunlight. The applications of PV solar cells include portable electronics, building/vehicle integrated photovoltaics, utility-scale PV power plants, and PV/thermal systems. Due to competitive cost to other renewable technologies and potentially wide applications, the research of PV technology has gained extraordinary development for recent years.
Current PV research and development (R&D) mainly focuses on three aspects: (1) increasing solar cell power conversion efficiencies and long-term stability; (2) reducing the cost of materials, processing, and installations of solar PV modules; and (3) improving the reliability of all PV components. This Special Issue is intended for the dissemination of research results on the state-of-the-art science and technology in all areas of PV technology.
Potential topics of Special Issue include, but are not limited to:
•    Emerging thin-film PV technologies such as polymer solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, perovskite solar cells, and quantum dot solar cells.
•    Development of novel materials such as organic semiconductors, organic dye sensitizers, perovskites, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other 2-D materials.
•    Synthesis and processing of organic/inorganic semiconductor thin films with controlled and tunable optical and electronic properties.
•    Device prototyping and fabrication techniques via high throughput deposition schemes such as solution processing, chemical vapor deposition, and sputtering.
•    Theoretical modeling and numerical simulation for in-depth understanding of relations between cell performance and cell design as well as material parameters.
If you would be willing to write a paper for this Special Issue, we would need to receive your manuscript by 31 March 2017. Details on the manuscript preparation and categories may be found at Instructions for Authors (http://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability/instructions) for more information on the journal’s policies and the submission process.


Dr. Jiawei Gong
Prof. Qiquan Qiao
Dr. Zhengping Zhou
Prof. Tingting Xu
Prof. Mao Liang
Dr. Wenfeng Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Solar photovoltaics
  • Thin film solar cells
  • Polymer solar cells
  • Dye-sensitized solar cells
  • Perovskite solar cells
  • Synthesis and processing of PV materials
  • Theoretical modeling of PV device
  • PV battery systems

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Alternative Energy Solutions Using BIPV in Apartment Buildings of Developing Countries: A Case Study of North Cyprus
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1414; doi:10.3390/su9081414
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 23 July 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
The growth in population of North Cyprus, and the increasing demand for housing, are two important factors that are rapidly shaping the development of the island. To meet this housing demand, contractors are resorting to high-rise apartment buildings as a housing solution. The
[...] Read more.
The growth in population of North Cyprus, and the increasing demand for housing, are two important factors that are rapidly shaping the development of the island. To meet this housing demand, contractors are resorting to high-rise apartment buildings as a housing solution. The study was carried out to investigate the possibilities of integrating PV systems into apartment buildings. This is a novel approach in housing within the context of North Cyprus. With the use of building information modelling (BIM) software, the possibility of this approach was tested. The study considered several cost variables and the advantages of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems integrated into apartment buildings at the design stage of the buildings. The willingness to pay (WTP) for this technology was also tested using qualitative methods and an economic analysis was carried out to ascertain the viability and feasibility of this technology. This was in line with present government policies using the net metering system. The method of analysis was carried out using a model proposed for BIPV integration in apartment buildings. The results derived from the survey data suggest that consumers prefer a price lower than €4500 for a 3 kWp integration of solar power equipment to their apartments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle Temperature Estimation for Photovoltaic Array Using an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1399; doi:10.3390/su9081399
Received: 8 July 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Module temperature is an important parameter of photovoltaic energy systems since their performance is affected by its variation. Several cooling controllers require a precise estimation of module temperature to reduce excessive heating and power losses. In this work, an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference
[...] Read more.
Module temperature is an important parameter of photovoltaic energy systems since their performance is affected by its variation. Several cooling controllers require a precise estimation of module temperature to reduce excessive heating and power losses. In this work, an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system technique is developed for temperature estimation of photovoltaic systems. For the learning process, experimental measurements comprising six environmental variables (temperature, irradiance, wind velocity, wind direction, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure) and one operational variable (photovoltaic power output) were used as training parameters. The proposed predictive model comprises a zero-order Sugeno neuro fuzzy system with two generalized bell-shaped membership functions per input and 128 fuzzy rules. The model is validated with experimental information from an instrumented photovoltaic system with a fitness correlation parameter of R = 95%. The obtained results indicate that the proposed methodology provides a reliable tool for estimation of modules temperature based on environmental variables. The developed algorithm can be implemented as part of a cooling control system of photovoltaic modules to reduce the efficiency losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Solar Photovoltaics and Energy Storage Solutions in a 100% Renewable Energy System for Finland in 2050
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1358; doi:10.3390/su9081358
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 30 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
PDF Full-text (8646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There are several barriers to achieving an energy system based entirely on renewable energy (RE) in Finland, not the least of which is doubt that high capacities of solar photovoltaics (PV) can be feasible due to long, cold and dark Finnish winters. Technologically,
[...] Read more.
There are several barriers to achieving an energy system based entirely on renewable energy (RE) in Finland, not the least of which is doubt that high capacities of solar photovoltaics (PV) can be feasible due to long, cold and dark Finnish winters. Technologically, several energy storage options can facilitate high penetrations of solar PV and other variable forms of RE. These options include electric and thermal storage systems in addition to a robust role of Power-to-Gas technology. In an EnergyPLAN simulation of the Finnish energy system for 2050, approximately 45% of electricity produced from solar PV was used directly over the course of the year, which shows the relevance of storage. In terms of public policy, several mechanisms are available to promote various forms of RE. However, many of these are contested in Finland by actors with vested interests in maintaining the status quo rather than by those without confidence in RE conversion or storage technologies. These vested interests must be overcome before a zero fossil carbon future can begin. The results of this study provides insights into how higher capacities of solar PV can be effectively promoted and managed at high latitudes, both north and south. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a GIS Tool for High Precision PV Degradation Monitoring and Supervision: Feasibility Analysis in Large and Small PV Plants
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 965; doi:10.3390/su9060965
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
PDF Full-text (22529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
It is well known that working photovoltaic (PV) plants show several maintenance needs due to wiring and module degradation, mismatches, dust, and PV cell defects and faults. There are a wide range of theoretical studies as well as some laboratory tests that show
[...] Read more.
It is well known that working photovoltaic (PV) plants show several maintenance needs due to wiring and module degradation, mismatches, dust, and PV cell defects and faults. There are a wide range of theoretical studies as well as some laboratory tests that show how these circumstances may affect the PV production. Thus, it is mandatory to evaluate the whole PV plant performance and, then, its payback time, profitability, and environmental impact or carbon footprint. However, very few studies include a systematic procedure to quantify and supervise the real degradation effects and fault impacts on the field. In this paper, the authors first conducted a brief review of the most frequent PV faults and the degradation that can be found under real conditions of operation of PV plants. Then, they proposed and developed an innovative Geographic Information System (GIS) application to locate and supervise them. The designed tool was applied to both a large PV plant of 108 kWp and a small PV plant of 9 kWp installed on a home rooftop. For the large PV plant, 24 strings of PV modules were modelized and introduced into the GIS application and every module in the power plant was studied including voltage, current, power, series and parallel resistances, fill factor, normalized PV curve to standard test conditions (STC), thermography and visual analysis. For the small PV installation three strings of PV panels were studied identically. It must be noted that PV modules in this case included power optimizers. The precision of the study enabled the researchers to locate and supervise up to a third part of every PV cell in the system, which can be adequately georeferenced. The developed tool allows both the researchers and the investors to increase control of the PV plant performance, to lead to better planning of maintenance actuations, and to evaluate several PV module replacement strategies in a preventive maintenance program. The PV faults found include hot spots, snail tracks, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) discoloration, PV cell fractures, busbar discoloration, bubbles and Si discoloration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle Simplified I-V Characteristic Tester for Photovoltaic Modules Using a DC-DC Boost Converter
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 657; doi:10.3390/su9040657
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, an efficient testing system for measuring a PV module’s I-V curve is proposed. The proposed system is based on a controlled DC-DC boost converter. The advantage of using a DC-DC converter is that this converter is typically used in PV
[...] Read more.
In this paper, an efficient testing system for measuring a PV module’s I-V curve is proposed. The proposed system is based on a controlled DC-DC boost converter. The advantage of using a DC-DC converter is that this converter is typically used in PV systems to track the maximum power point and to control the charging of the battery. Consequently, this device is utilized for I-V curve extraction without the need for further external devices. The I-V curve is extracted by modifying the duty cycle of the triggering signal of the boost converter’s switch. The proposed system has been tested experimentally using a 120 Wp PV module. The results show that the proposed system can successfully extract I-V curves of PV module. Notably, the performance of the tested module, as measured by this study’s system as well as with a reference system, was found to be in the range of 61–67% of the performance given in the datasheet. Hence, this result highlights the importance of considering a measurement of the actual performance of PV modules when designing any PV system so as to avoid an undersized system. The proposed I-V testing system can be used as a simple tool to diagnose any shortages or low performance problems in PV system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle Series Connected Photovoltaic Cells—Modelling and Analysis
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 371; doi:10.3390/su9030371
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
As solar energy costs continue to drop, the number of large-scale deployment projects increases, and the need for different analysis models for photovoltaic (PV) modules in both academia and industry rises. This paper proposes a modified equivalent-circuit model for PV modules. A PV
[...] Read more.
As solar energy costs continue to drop, the number of large-scale deployment projects increases, and the need for different analysis models for photovoltaic (PV) modules in both academia and industry rises. This paper proposes a modified equivalent-circuit model for PV modules. A PV module comprises several series-connected PV cells, to generate more electrical power, where each PV cell has an internal shunt resistance. Our proposed model simplifies the standard one-diode equivalent-circuit (SEC) model by removing the shunt resistance and including its effect on the diode part of the circuit, while retaining the original model accuracy. Our proposed equivalent circuit, called here a modified SEC (MSEC), has less number of circuit elements. All of the PV cells are assumed operating under the same ambient conditions where they share the same electric voltage and current values. To ensure the simplification did not come at a reduction in the accuracy of the SEC model, we validate our MSEC model by simulating both under the same conditions, calculate, and compare their current/voltage (I/V) characteristics. Our results validate the accuracy of our model with the difference between the two models falling below 1%. Therefore, the proposed model can be adopted as an alternative representation of the equivalent circuit for PV cells and modules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle On-Grid Solar PV versus Diesel Electricity Generation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Economics and GHG Emissions
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 372; doi:10.3390/su9030372
Received: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (936 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many power utilities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have inadequate generation capacity, unreliable services, and high costs. They also face capital constraints that restrict them from making the investments necessary for capacity expansion. Capacity shortages have compelled power utilities to use leased emergency power-generating
[...] Read more.
Many power utilities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have inadequate generation capacity, unreliable services, and high costs. They also face capital constraints that restrict them from making the investments necessary for capacity expansion. Capacity shortages have compelled power utilities to use leased emergency power-generating units, mainly oil-fired diesel generators, as a short-term solution. An economic analysis is carried out to compare the economic net present value (ENPV) of fuel savings, as well as the greenhouse gas (GHG) savings, from investing capital in a solar PV power-generation plant with those from investing the same amount of funds into a diesel power plant. The results show that ENPV is negative for the solar PV plant, whereas it has a large positive value for the diesel plant. In addition, the diesel plant would be almost three times as effective in reducing GHG emissions as the same value of investment in the solar PV plant. Even with solar investment costs falling, it will take 12 to 24 years of continuous decline before solar PV becomes cost-effective for SSA. The capital cost of solar PV would need to drop to US$1058.4 per kW to yield the same level of ENPV as the diesel plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle Effectiveness Evaluation for a Commercialized PV-Assisted Charging Station
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 323; doi:10.3390/su9020323
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Photovoltaic–assisted Charging Station (PVCS) is regarded as one of the most promising charging facilities for future electric vehicle (EV) energy supplementation. In this paper, the operation mode and profitability of a commercialized PVCS are analyzed under the energy policy of China. In
[...] Read more.
The Photovoltaic–assisted Charging Station (PVCS) is regarded as one of the most promising charging facilities for future electric vehicle (EV) energy supplementation. In this paper, the operation mode and profitability of a commercialized PVCS are analyzed under the energy policy of China. In order to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of using the PVCS to provide guidance for the investors of the stations, a set of evaluation indexes is introduced, including the quality of service, the environmental and economic benefits, and the impacts on the grid. Furthermore, an easily-achieved charging strategy which considers the quality of service and the self-consumption of PV energy is proposed. Finally, an effectiveness evaluation for different operational scenarios of the PVCS is completed, based on the actual statistical data. The simulation and evaluation results indicate that the PVCS has the potential to produce satisfactory environmental/economic benefits and to reduce the impacts and dependence of an EV’s charging load on the grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle A Feasibility Assessment of Photovoltaic Power Systems in Ireland; a Case Study for the Dublin Region
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 302; doi:10.3390/su9020302
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) power generation is one of the cleanest sources for producing renewable energy; however uptake on the Irish renewable energy market to date has been low. There is a lack of support for solar PV systems in Ireland; there is currently no
[...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) power generation is one of the cleanest sources for producing renewable energy; however uptake on the Irish renewable energy market to date has been low. There is a lack of support for solar PV systems in Ireland; there is currently no solar PV energy feed-in-tariff as there are for other renewable energy systems in Ireland. Despite the current lack of support, the Government has indicated that support for the uptake of solar PV installations will be provided through the provision of a feed-in tariff in the future. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of installing PV systems under Irish climatic conditions at a location based in Dublin, Ireland, from a technical, environmental and economic point of view. This was achieved by carrying out a life cycle assessment of potential environmental impacts, and analysis of energy and economic payback times relating to the proposed PV system. Four possible renewable feed-in-tariffs (based on existing feed-in-tariffs for other renewable energy systems) were considered to determine the effect of such tariffs on the overall economics of the proposed PV system. Results show that life cycle GHG emissions are 69 g CO2-eq per kWh generated by the system, significantly lower than the current electricity grid mix emissions of 469 g CO2-eq per kWh. It will take 5.23 years of operation of the solar plant to generate the same amount of energy (in terms of primary energy equivalent) that was used to produce the system itself. The economic payback time varies from 19.3 and 34.4 years depending on the rate of renewable energy feed-in-tariff applied. The costs for the production of PV electricity in this study are higher than is usual in countries where the solar PV market is more developed, e.g., Germany, due to constraints with building integration and lack of experienced PV installers. As more PV is deployed, the Irish PV installer base will increase and ‘learning by doing’ effects will allow installers to install projects more efficiently and quickly under Irish conditions, leading to significantly reduced costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle The Importance of Accurate Solar Data for Designing Solar Photovoltaic Systems—Case Studies in Spain
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 247; doi:10.3390/su9020247
Received: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Renewable energies have experienced a great growth in recent years, and nowadays participate in the set of energies used in developed and developing countries to produce electricity. Among these technologies, photovoltaic energy, which produces clean electricity from the Sun, is the one that
[...] Read more.
Renewable energies have experienced a great growth in recent years, and nowadays participate in the set of energies used in developed and developing countries to produce electricity. Among these technologies, photovoltaic energy, which produces clean electricity from the Sun, is the one that has grown faster, and its implementation all over the world is a guarantee of a solid and efficient energy technology. Nevertheless, in order to design very efficient solar energy systems, it is crucial to have a good solar radiation database. There are databases where it is possible to find information on solar radiation, but only for horizontal surfaces. Afterwards, it is necessary to transform the horizontal solar radiation data to tilt solar radiation data. This transformation is not easy, and the application of complex mathematical equations, and expressions, and difficult algorithms must be done. An application called virtual laboratory “OrientSol 3.0” which allows the user to easily obtain the solar radiation for any tilt surface has been developed by us. Thus, our main objectives in this paper are to present the developed virtual laboratory and to explain its main features and core functionalities. In order to point out the difficulties and complexity of the transformation of horizontal solar radiation data to tilt solar radiation data, we will present some examples of the results this application provides and compare the solar radiation data supplied with this application with some other solar radiation data obtained from other databases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle The Optimization of Distributed Photovoltaic Comprehensive Efficiency Based on the Construction of Regional Integrated Energy Management System in China
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1201; doi:10.3390/su8111201
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 20 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the context of energy crisis, environmental pollution, and energy abandoning in the large-scale centralized clean energy generation, distributed energy has become an inevitable trend in the development of China’s energy system. Distributed photovoltaic boasts great potential for development in China due to
[...] Read more.
In the context of energy crisis, environmental pollution, and energy abandoning in the large-scale centralized clean energy generation, distributed energy has become an inevitable trend in the development of China’s energy system. Distributed photovoltaic boasts great potential for development in China due to resource advantages and policy support. However, we need improve the efficiency of photovoltaic generation, which is restricted by technology and dislocation of supply and demand. With a view to optimizing the efficiency of distributed photovoltaic, based on the concept of comprehensive efficiency, this paper discusses the influencing factors and chooses the optimization direction according to system dynamics (SD). The optimizing content is further clarified on the basis of energy management system. From the perspective of technology, this paper puts forward optimization methods from resource side, energy conversion and demand side, and the simulation results of applying the three methods verify the feasibility of the method. Comprehensive efficiency would be improved as the result of regional integrated energy management system and policy mechanisms. The conclusions of this paper will provide theoretical basis and optimized reference for the improvement of distributed photovoltaic comprehensive utilization in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Application of Floating Photovoltaic Energy Generation Systems in South Korea
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1333; doi:10.3390/su8121333
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
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Abstract
In order to mitigate air pollution problems caused mainly by the excessive emission of carbon dioxide, in 2012, the South Korean government decided to introduce a renewable portfolio standards (RPS) program that requires electricity providers to gradually increase their production of renewable energy.
[...] Read more.
In order to mitigate air pollution problems caused mainly by the excessive emission of carbon dioxide, in 2012, the South Korean government decided to introduce a renewable portfolio standards (RPS) program that requires electricity providers to gradually increase their production of renewable energy. In order to meet the government’s target through this RPS program, electricity providers in Korea have looked to various types of new and renewable energy resources, such as biomass, wind, and solar. Recently, floating photovoltaic (PV) systems have attracted increased interest in Korea as a desirable renewable energy alternative. This paper provides a discussion of recent research into floating PV systems and the installation of floating PV power plants in Korea from 2009 to 2014. To date, thirteen floating PV power plants have been installed in Korea, and several plans are underway by many different organizations, including government-funded companies, to install more floating PV power plants with various generation capacities. These building trends are expected to continue due to the Korean government’s RPS program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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