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Sustainability, Volume 4, Issue 9 (September 2012), Pages 1946-2365

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Open AccessArticle Identifying Social Impacts in Product Supply Chains:Overview and Application of the Social Hotspot Database
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 1946-1965; doi:10.3390/su4091946
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One emerging tool to measure the social-related impacts in supply chains is Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA), a derivative of the well-established environmental LCA technique. LCA has recently started to gain popularity among large corporations and initiatives, such as The Sustainability Consortium or
[...] Read more.
One emerging tool to measure the social-related impacts in supply chains is Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA), a derivative of the well-established environmental LCA technique. LCA has recently started to gain popularity among large corporations and initiatives, such as The Sustainability Consortium or the Sustainable Apparel Coalition. Both have made the technique a cornerstone of their applied-research program. The Social Hotspots Database (SHDB) is an overarching, global database that eases the data collection burden in S-LCA studies. Proposed “hotspots” are production activities or unit processes (also defined as country-specific sectors) in the supply chain that may be at risk for social issues to be present. The SHDB enables efficient application of S-LCA by allowing users to prioritize production activities for which site-specific data collection is most desirable. Data for three criteria are used to inform prioritization: (1) labor intensity in worker hours per unit process and (2) risk for, or opportunity to affect, relevant social themes or sub-categories related to Human Rights, Labor Rights and Decent Work, Governance and Access to Community Services (3) gravity of a social issue. The Worker Hours Model was developed using a global input/output economic model and wage rate data. Nearly 200 reputable sources of statistical data have been used to develop 20 Social Theme Tables by country and sector. This paper presents an overview of the SHDB development and features, as well as results from a pilot study conducted on strawberry yogurt. This study, one of seven Social Scoping Assessments mandated by The Sustainability Consortium, identifies the potential social hotspots existing in the supply chain of strawberry yogurt. With this knowledge, companies that manufacture or sell yogurt can refine their data collection efforts in order to put their social responsibility performance in perspective and effectively set up programs and initiatives to improve the social conditions of production along their product supply chain. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ecology in Urban Planning: Mitigating the Environmental Damage of Municipal Solid Waste
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 1966-1983; doi:10.3390/su4091966
Received: 25 July 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The principles of well-known indices of sustainability—the Ecological Footprint (EF) and the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)—have been compared to discuss the essence of attitude, substantial differences and transferability into urban planning. An overview indicates that ideologically the EF is a more appropriate tool
[...] Read more.
The principles of well-known indices of sustainability—the Ecological Footprint (EF) and the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)—have been compared to discuss the essence of attitude, substantial differences and transferability into urban planning. An overview indicates that ideologically the EF is a more appropriate tool for ecological tasks due to its clear background of natural limits and the ability of “leakage” tracing. Furthermore the European Common Initiative is discussed as it proposes feasible indices monitoring actions towards local sustainability that could be considered in urban planning. Taking two Lithuanian cities as an example, integration of part of one index (regarding municipal solid wastes) into the ecological section of urban planning is presented. It has been estimated that in 10 years an average Lithuanian should generate an amount of municipal solid waste whose ecological impact will be equal to 19,900 kg of CO2-eq in 20 years time. Lastly considering urban planning scope and the EF practice, two opportunities are discussed: (1) tree planting and (2) waste incineration. Full article
Open AccessArticle Birding for and with People: Integrating Local Participation in Avian Monitoring Programs within High Biodiversity Areas in Southern Mexico
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 1984-1998; doi:10.3390/su4091984
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 27 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biological monitoring is a powerful tool for understanding ecological patterns and processes, implementing sound management practices, and determining wildlife conservation strategies. In Mexico, regional long-term bird monitoring has been undertaken only over the last decade. Two comprehensive programs have incorporated bird monitoring as
[...] Read more.
Biological monitoring is a powerful tool for understanding ecological patterns and processes, implementing sound management practices, and determining wildlife conservation strategies. In Mexico, regional long-term bird monitoring has been undertaken only over the last decade. Two comprehensive programs have incorporated bird monitoring as the main tool for assessing the impact of human productive activities on birds and habitats at local and regional levels: the Integrated Ecosystem Management (IEM) and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Mexico (CBMM). These programs are implemented in supremely important biodiverse regions in the southern and southeastern states of Mexico. Bird monitoring activities are based on the recruitment and participation of local people linked to sustainable productive projects promoted by the CBMM or IEM. Through a series of training workshops delivered by specialists, local monitors receive equipment and coordinate to become part of a large monitoring network that facilitates regional covertures. This data currently being obtained by local people will enable the mid- and long-term assessment of the impacts of sustainable human productive activities on birds and biodiversity. Community-based bird monitoring programs are a promising opportunity for enhancing scientific knowledge, improving sustainable practices, and supporting wildlife conservation in areas of high biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development in Natural Protected Areas)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Roof Pitch on Air Flow and Heating Load of Sealed and Vented Attics for Gable-Roof Residential Buildings
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 1999-2021; doi:10.3390/su4091999
Received: 29 June 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 20 August 2012 / Published: 30 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4050 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pitch value is an important consideration in residential gable roof design and construction. However, how roof pitch, coupled with air flows in attic space, affects the energy performance of building attics has been barely investigated. In this paper, a 2D unsteady computational fluid
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Pitch value is an important consideration in residential gable roof design and construction. However, how roof pitch, coupled with air flows in attic space, affects the energy performance of building attics has been barely investigated. In this paper, a 2D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is employed to investigate the effects of roof pitch on air flow and heating load of both sealed and vented attics for gable-roof residential buildings. The simulation results show that air flow in the sealed attics is steady and asymmetric, while that in the vented attics is a combination of an essentially symmetric base flow and a periodically oscillating flow. For both the sealed and vented attic cases, the heating load is found to increase with the roof pitch, and the heat transfer of turbulent air flow in attic space can be satisfactorily correlated by a simple relationship between appropriately defined Nusselt number and Rayleigh number. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Design and Construction)
Open AccessArticle Urban Vulnerability in Bantul District, Indonesia—Towards Safer and Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2022-2037; doi:10.3390/su4092022
Received: 4 April 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 30 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Assuring safer and sustainable development in seismic prone areas requires predictive measurements, i.e., hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment. This research aims to assess urban vulnerability due to seismic hazard through a risk based spatial plan. The idea is to indicate current and
[...] Read more.
Assuring safer and sustainable development in seismic prone areas requires predictive measurements, i.e., hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment. This research aims to assess urban vulnerability due to seismic hazard through a risk based spatial plan. The idea is to indicate current and future potential losses due to specified hazards with given spatial and temporal units. Herein, urban vulnerability refers to the classic separation between social and physical vulnerability assessments. The research area covers six sub-districts in Bantul, Indonesia. It experienced 6.2 Mw earthquakes on May, 27th, 2006 and suffered a death toll of 5700, economic losses of up to 3.1 billion US$ and damage to nearly 80% of a 508 km2 area. The research area experienced the following regional issues: (1) seismic hazard; (2) rapid land conversion and (3) domination of low-income group. This research employs spatial multi criteria evaluations (SMCE) for social vulnerability (SMCE-SV) and for physical vulnerability (SMCE-PV). The research reveals that (1) SMCE-SV and SMCE-PV are empirically possible to indicate the urban vulnerability indices; and (2) integrating the urban vulnerability assessment into a spatial plan requires strategic, technical, substantial and procedural integration. In summary, without adequate knowledge and political support, any manifestation towards safer and sustainable development will remain meager and haphazard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development in Natural Protected Areas)
Open AccessArticle A Method for Gauging Landscape Change as a Prelude to Urban Watershed Regeneration: The Case of the Carioca River, Rio de Janeiro
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2054-2098; doi:10.3390/su4092054
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural systems undergo processes, flows, and rhythms that differ from those of urban sociocultural systems. While the former takes place over eras or many generations, the latter may occur within years or even months. Natural systems change includes no principle of intentional progress
[...] Read more.
Natural systems undergo processes, flows, and rhythms that differ from those of urban sociocultural systems. While the former takes place over eras or many generations, the latter may occur within years or even months. Natural systems change includes no principle of intentional progress or enhancement of complexity. In contrast, sociocultural systems change occurs through inherited characteristics, learning, and cultural transmission [1]. Both are dynamic, heterogeneous, and vulnerable to regime shifts, and are inextricably linked. The interrelations among natural and anthropogenic factors affecting sustainability vary spatially and temporally. This paper focuses on landscape changes along the Carioca River valley in Rio de Janeiro, located in the Brazilian Neotropical Southeastern Region, and its implications for local urban sustainability. The study incorporates a transdisciplinary approach that integrates landscape ecology and urban morphology methodologies to gauge landscape change and assess social-ecological systems dynamics. The methodology includes a variety of landscape change assessments; including on-site landscape ecological, landscape morphology, biological and urbanistic surveys, to gauge urban watershed quality. It presents an adapted inventory for assessment of urban tropical rivers, Neotropical Urban Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (NUSVAP), and correlates the level of stream and rainforest integrity to local urban environmental patterns and processes. How can urban regional land managers, planners and communities work together to promote shifts toward more desirable configurations and processes? An understanding of the transient behavior of social-ecological systems and how they respond to change and disturbance is fundamental to building appropriate management strategies and fostering resilience, regenerative capacity, and sustainable development in urban watersheds. The sociocultural patterns, processes and dynamics of Rio’s hillsides suggest that increasing the multifunctionality, flexibility, adaptability and connectivity of open spaces may influence carrying, adaptive and regenerative capacities of urban landscape systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Regeneration and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Capability Framework for Sustainable Manufacturing of Sports Apparel and Footwear
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2127-2145; doi:10.3390/su4092127
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 24 August 2012 / Accepted: 27 August 2012 / Published: 5 September 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sporting goods sector is characterized by large volumes of production, high levels of consumption and short product life cycles resulting in high disposal rates and waste. Manufacturing of sports products is distributed globally through tier-based supply chains and complex logistics systems. Companies
[...] Read more.
The sporting goods sector is characterized by large volumes of production, high levels of consumption and short product life cycles resulting in high disposal rates and waste. Manufacturing of sports products is distributed globally through tier-based supply chains and complex logistics systems. Companies within such supply chains have different levels of capability in sustainable manufacturing, which impacts on the sustainability of the overall business. Reducing environmental impacts is of particular concern for companies at present, due to heightened requirements for the reduction of energy and water consumption, waste and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article describes outcomes of a research project conducted in collaboration with a global sporting goods manufacturer that focused on the development of relevant capabilities across their supply chain for sustainable manufacturing of sports apparel and footwear. The article presents the developed sustainable manufacturing framework and capability assessment results obtained for selected companies within the supply chain of this global manufacturer in Asia. Full article
Open AccessArticle Empowering the Citizen-Consumer: Re-Regulating Consumer Information to Support the Transition to Sustainable and Health Promoting Food Systems in Canada
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2146-2175; doi:10.3390/su4092146
Received: 22 June 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 August 2012 / Published: 11 September 2012
PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Both health and sustainability are stated public policy objectives in Canada, but food information rules and practices may not be optimal to support their achievement. In the absence of a stated consensus on the purposes of public information about food, the information provided
[...] Read more.
Both health and sustainability are stated public policy objectives in Canada, but food information rules and practices may not be optimal to support their achievement. In the absence of a stated consensus on the purposes of public information about food, the information provided is frequently determined by the marketers of product. No institution or agency has responsibility for determining the overall coherence of consumer food messages relative to these broader social goals of health and sustainability. Individual firms provide information that shows their products to best advantage, which may contradict what is provided about the product by another firm or government agency. Individual consumers do not have the resources to determine easily the completeness of any firm's messages, particularly in light of the size of food industry advertising budgets. Government rules confound this problem because there is also little coherence between the parts of government that have responsibility for point of purchase, advertising rules, and labelling. The healthy eating messages of health departments are often competing with contradictory messages permitted by the regulatory framework of other arms of government. Investments in programs that successfully promote environmental stewardship in agriculture are undercut in the market because consumers cannot support those efforts with their dollars. This problem exists despite the emergence of “citizen-consumers” who have a broader approach to food purchasing than individual maximization. Only recently have some health professionals and sustainable agriculture proponents turned their attention to these factors and designed interventions that take them into account. In this paper, which builds upon earlier work by MacRae [1], we outline key short, medium and long term initiatives to facilitate the citizen-consumer phenomenon and better support consumers in their efforts to promote health and sustainability in the Canadian food system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Branding and Marketing)
Open AccessArticle A Climate Change Adaptation Planning Process for Low-Lying, Communities Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2176-2208; doi:10.3390/su4092176
Received: 5 June 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 11 September 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (9597 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada, provides guidelines for flood risk management, it is local governments’ responsibility to delineate their own flood vulnerability, assess their risk, and integrate these with planning policies to implement adaptive action. However, barriers such as the
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While the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada, provides guidelines for flood risk management, it is local governments’ responsibility to delineate their own flood vulnerability, assess their risk, and integrate these with planning policies to implement adaptive action. However, barriers such as the lack of locally specific data and public perceptions about adaptation options mean that local governments must address the need for adaptation planning within a context of scientific uncertainty, while building public support for difficult choices on flood-related climate policy and action. This research demonstrates a process to model, visualize and evaluate potential flood impacts and adaptation options for the community of Delta, in Metro Vancouver, across economic, social and environmental perspectives. Visualizations in 2D and 3D, based on hydrological modeling of breach events for existing dike infrastructure, future sea level rise and storm surges, are generated collaboratively, together with future adaptation scenarios assessed against quantitative and qualitative indicators. This ‘visioning package’ is being used with staff and a citizens’ Working Group to assess the performance, policy implications and social acceptability of the adaptation strategies. Recommendations based on the experience of the initiative are provided that can facilitate sustainable future adaptation actions and decision-making in Delta and other jurisdictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation or Extinction)
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Open AccessArticle Environmental Attitudes and Environmental Behavior—Which Is the Horse and Which Is the Cart?
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2210-2246; doi:10.3390/su4092210
Received: 13 August 2012 / Revised: 3 September 2012 / Accepted: 3 September 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present article challenges the prevailing perception in the field of environmental education that acquisition of environmental behavior is an ultimate goal of the educational process, in comparison to acquisition of environmental attitudes, which is perceived as a minor goal. The article presents
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The present article challenges the prevailing perception in the field of environmental education that acquisition of environmental behavior is an ultimate goal of the educational process, in comparison to acquisition of environmental attitudes, which is perceived as a minor goal. The article presents a compilation of results obtained from two studies that shed new light on the relationship between influences on environmental attitudes and influences on environmental behavior. The results suggest that: (a) among adults, the strategies required for influencing attitudes are different from those required for influencing behaviors; (b) the mechanisms for achieving influence among children are different from those among adults; and (c) conventional educational approaches, such as behavior modification, can influence behavior more easily than they can influence attitudes. The results provide grounds for questioning the prevailing belief that individual acquisition of responsible environmental behavior can drive changes on the global political scale. We suggest increasing the focus of environmental education on construction of attitudes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Towards a Sustainability Education Framework: Challenges, Concepts and Strategies—The Contribution from Urban Planning Perspectives
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2247-2269; doi:10.3390/su4092247
Received: 5 July 2012 / Revised: 30 August 2012 / Accepted: 4 September 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Education for sustainability is becoming a critical component in achieving a sustainable life and protecting our planet and human habitats. However, a review of the sustainability literature reveals a great deal of confusion and misinterpretation regarding the concepts, themes, and goals of education
[...] Read more.
Education for sustainability is becoming a critical component in achieving a sustainable life and protecting our planet and human habitats. However, a review of the sustainability literature reveals a great deal of confusion and misinterpretation regarding the concepts, themes, and goals of education for sustainability. Education for sustainability, including the themes that should be derived and taught, lacks an interdisciplinary conceptual framework. In addition, the literature of education for sustainability mostly lacks the aspects of urban and community planning and the significant contribution of the planning profession. This paper proposes a new conceptual framework, Sustainability Education Framework, which is composed of concepts that derived from different disciplines. At the heart of the conceptual framework rests the normative category and its concepts. The epistemological foundation of the conceptual framework of education for sustainability is based on the unresolved paradox between ‘sustainability’ and ‘development’. Full article
Open AccessArticle Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2270-2292; doi:10.3390/su4092270
Received: 11 July 2012 / Revised: 7 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and
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Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriately addressed in moving towards engineering sustainability are examined in this article. These include appropriate selection of resources bearing in mind sustainability criteria, the use of sustainable engineering processes, enhancement of the efficiency of engineering processes and resource use, and a holistic adoption of environmental stewardship in engineering activities. In addition, other key sustainability measures are addressed, such as economics, equity, land use, lifestyle, sociopolitical factors and population. Conclusions are provided related both to pathways for engineering sustainability and to the broader ultimate objective of sustainability. Full article
Open AccessArticle Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2293-2316; doi:10.3390/su4092293
Received: 27 June 2012 / Revised: 15 August 2012 / Accepted: 24 August 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology
[...] Read more.
On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral) design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing mode. The reactor is distinct in that it has a high level of self-protection and passive safety, it is factory manufactured and the assembled reactor can be transported by railway. Multipurpose application of the reactor is presumed, primarily, it can be used for regional power to produce electricity, heat and for water desalination. The Project is being realized within the framework of state-private partnership with joint venture OJSC “AKME-Engineering” established on a parity basis by the State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” and the Limited Liability Company “EuroSibEnergo”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle Conservation in Context: A Comparison of Conservation Perspectives in a Mexican Protected Area
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2317-2333; doi:10.3390/su4092317
Received: 6 July 2012 / Revised: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 6 September 2012 / Published: 19 September 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The conservation of biodiversity in protected areas depends on the interests and agendas of stakeholders involved in the planning and enforcing of management actions. The challenge, therefore, has been to identify and include the perspectives of multiple participants important to local conservation. This
[...] Read more.
The conservation of biodiversity in protected areas depends on the interests and agendas of stakeholders involved in the planning and enforcing of management actions. The challenge, therefore, has been to identify and include the perspectives of multiple participants important to local conservation. This paper describes the social context in which local conservation is conducted in a natural protected area in Yucatan, Mexico. In particular, it examines the agreement and expectations among local stakeholders on the main goals the reserve should achieve. Through participatory observation and semi-structured interviews, we analyzed the perceptions on conservation of the five groups relevant to the area management: 1) local people; 2) conservation government agency; 3) scientists; 4) non-governmental organization, and 5) a tourist agency. All actors agreed that the protected area should fulfill two main goals: i) to conserve biodiversity and, ii) to improve local welfare and development. In general, ecotourism is perceived as the best option for protecting the forest and promoting local development. Traditional agriculture, on the other hand, is perceived as the main conservation threat, but recognized as a crucial component of local wellbeing. We discuss these results in the context of the Yucatan Peninsula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development in Natural Protected Areas)
Open AccessArticle Riparian Forest Restoration: Conflicting Goals, Trade-Offs, and Measures of Success
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2334-2347; doi:10.3390/su4092334
Received: 29 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 September 2012 / Published: 19 September 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Restoration projects can have varying goals, depending on the specific focus, rationale, and aims for restoration. When restoration projects use project-specific goals to define activities and gauge success without considering broader ecological context, determination of project implications and success can be confounding. We
[...] Read more.
Restoration projects can have varying goals, depending on the specific focus, rationale, and aims for restoration. When restoration projects use project-specific goals to define activities and gauge success without considering broader ecological context, determination of project implications and success can be confounding. We used case studies from the Middle Rio Grande (MRG), southwest USA, to demonstrate how restoration outcomes can rank inconsistently when narrowly-based goals are used. Resource managers have chosen MRG for restoration due to impacts to the natural flood regime, reduced native tree recruitment, and establishment of non-native plants. We show restoration “success” ranks differently based upon three goals: increasing biodiversity, increasing specific ecosystem functions, or restoring native communities. We monitored 12 restored and control sites for seven years. Treatments ranked higher in reducing exotic woody populations, and increasing proportions of native plants and groundwater salvage, but generally worse at removing fuels, and increasing species and habitat structural diversity. Managers cannot rely on the term “restoration” to sufficiently describe a project’s aim. Specific desired outcomes must be defined and monitored. Long-term planning should include flexibility to incorporate provisions for adaptive management to refine treatments to avoid unintended ecological consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Ecosystem Restoration)
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Geographic Expression of Urban Sustainability: A Scenario Based Approach Incorporating Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2348-2365; doi:10.3390/su4092348
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 30 August 2012 / Accepted: 31 August 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban sustainability involves a re-examination of urban development including environmental, social and economic policies and practices that acknowledge the role of cities in global environmental change. However, sustainability remains a broadly defined concept that has been applied to mean everything from environmental protection,
[...] Read more.
Urban sustainability involves a re-examination of urban development including environmental, social and economic policies and practices that acknowledge the role of cities in global environmental change. However, sustainability remains a broadly defined concept that has been applied to mean everything from environmental protection, social cohesion, economic growth, neighborhood design, alternative energy, and green building design. To guide sustainability initiatives and assess progress toward more sustainable development patterns this construct requires a means to place this concept into a decision-centric context where change can be evaluated and the exploitation of resources, the direction of investment, the orientation of technological development, and institutional programs can be made more consistent with future as well as present needs. In this study the problem of sustainability assessment was examined and a method that couples scenario analysis with spatial multicriteria decision analysis was introduced. The integration of a spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) model for sustainable development with scenario planning resulted in an interpretation of sustainability that is more appropriate for local conditions and useful when exploring sustainability’s semantic uncertainties, particularly those alternate perspectives that influence future environments. Full article

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Open AccessDiscussion Refocusing Seafood Sustainability as a Journey Using the Law of the Minimum
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2038-2050; doi:10.3390/su4092038
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Globally, seafood is an important protein source because it is a nutritious food source produced with relative efficiency compared to other proteins. Because of problems related to overfishing and deleterious environmental impacts, over the last decade, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increased their focus
[...] Read more.
Globally, seafood is an important protein source because it is a nutritious food source produced with relative efficiency compared to other proteins. Because of problems related to overfishing and deleterious environmental impacts, over the last decade, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increased their focus on seafood sustainability while businesses have incorporated this issue into their corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting. Sustainability is a concept that can be addressed in terms of scale of issues considered (narrow vs. broad) as well as the scope of how they are measured (undemanding or demanding). Currently, the message of seafood sustainability is becoming complicated in that the journey toward sustainability is being referred to as having achieved a state of sustainability. In addition, companies making a “sustainable” declaration are often at different points in the “scale/scope” arena. As a result, buyers, retailers and consumers have difficulty differentiating between these products. Furthermore, they often assume that a “sustainable” product has no further need for improvement, when in fact this is rarely the case. This change in reference from a continual process (a journey) to a static point (it is sustainable) limits further advances in seafood sustainability and the drive for continual improvement. Herein, the “Law of the Minimum”, growth toward an end goal will occur until one factor becomes limiting, is adopted as an analogy for sustainability. By refocusing the sustainability discussion on a progressive series of challenges to be met, the discussion will return to the journey as the central point. Doing so will help refresh the dialogue around seafood, and to create new opportunities for improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Branding and Marketing)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: System Dynamics Modeling of Individual Transferable Quota Fisheries and Suggestions for Rebuilding Stocks, Sustainability 2011, 3, 184-215
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2051-2053; doi:10.3390/su4092051
Received: 26 August 2012 / Accepted: 26 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
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Abstract The author wishes to make the following correction to this paper. Due to mislabeling, replace: [...] Full article
Open AccessOpinion Responsible Mining: The Key to Profitable Resource Development
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2099-2126; doi:10.3390/su4092099
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Better mining corporations want to adopt “Responsible Mining”. This paper outlines the essentials of responsible mining and offers a guide to corporations who want become responsible. Eight principles are discussed: (1) Social and environmental assessment, (2) Transparency, (3) Acceptance by stakeholders, (4) Food
[...] Read more.
Better mining corporations want to adopt “Responsible Mining”. This paper outlines the essentials of responsible mining and offers a guide to corporations who want become responsible. Eight principles are discussed: (1) Social and environmental assessment, (2) Transparency, (3) Acceptance by stakeholders, (4) Food production trumps questionable mining, (5) Compliance with international standards, (6) Corporate prequalification, (7) Insurance and performance bonds, and (8) Royalties, taxes and fees. These principles are followed by a discussion of No-Go Zones to mining: why some types of sites should be off-limits to all mining. The Annex on Compensatory Offsets suggests that, on occasion, there may be exceptions to a No-Go Zone. Full article
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Identification and Induction of Human, Social, and Cultural Capitals through an Experimental Approach to Stormwater Management, Sustainability 2012, 4, 1669-1682
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2209; doi:10.3390/su4092209
Received: 11 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 13 September 2012
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Abstract The authors wish to insert this additional sentence in the Acknowledgments section: “The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.” [...] Full article

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