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A Method for Gauging Landscape Change as a Prelude to Urban Watershed Regeneration: The Case of the Carioca River, Rio de Janeiro
City of Rio de Janeiro, Macro Urban Planning Department/Municipal Secretary of Urban Planning–CMP/SMU/PCRJ, Rua Santa Cristina 121, Santa Teresa, Rio de Janeiro, Cep. 20241-250, Brazil
Department of Landscape Architecture, 121 Stuckeman Family Building, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
School of Architecture and Urbanism, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro–FAU/UFRJ, R. Jornalista Orlando Dantas 62 apt. 403 , Rio de Janeiro, Cep. 22231-010, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2012; in revised form: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Abstract: Natural systems undergo processes, flows, and rhythms that differ from those of urban sociocultural systems. While the former takes place over eras or many generations, the latter may occur within years or even months. Natural systems change includes no principle of intentional progress or enhancement of complexity. In contrast, sociocultural systems change occurs through inherited characteristics, learning, and cultural transmission . Both are dynamic, heterogeneous, and vulnerable to regime shifts, and are inextricably linked. The interrelations among natural and anthropogenic factors affecting sustainability vary spatially and temporally. This paper focuses on landscape changes along the Carioca River valley in Rio de Janeiro, located in the Brazilian Neotropical Southeastern Region, and its implications for local urban sustainability. The study incorporates a transdisciplinary approach that integrates landscape ecology and urban morphology methodologies to gauge landscape change and assess social-ecological systems dynamics. The methodology includes a variety of landscape change assessments; including on-site landscape ecological, landscape morphology, biological and urbanistic surveys, to gauge urban watershed quality. It presents an adapted inventory for assessment of urban tropical rivers, Neotropical Urban Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (NUSVAP), and correlates the level of stream and rainforest integrity to local urban environmental patterns and processes. How can urban regional land managers, planners and communities work together to promote shifts toward more desirable configurations and processes? An understanding of the transient behavior of social-ecological systems and how they respond to change and disturbance is fundamental to building appropriate management strategies and fostering resilience, regenerative capacity, and sustainable development in urban watersheds. The sociocultural patterns, processes and dynamics of Rio’s hillsides suggest that increasing the multifunctionality, flexibility, adaptability and connectivity of open spaces may influence carrying, adaptive and regenerative capacities of urban landscape systems.
Keywords: landscape morphology; landscape dynamics; edge effect; regenerative riparian urbanism; social-ecological systems; resilience
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Schlee, M.B.; Tamminga, K.R.; Tangari, V.R. A Method for Gauging Landscape Change as a Prelude to Urban Watershed Regeneration: The Case of the Carioca River, Rio de Janeiro. Sustainability 2012, 4, 2054-2098.
Schlee MB, Tamminga KR, Tangari VR. A Method for Gauging Landscape Change as a Prelude to Urban Watershed Regeneration: The Case of the Carioca River, Rio de Janeiro. Sustainability. 2012; 4(9):2054-2098.
Schlee, Mônica Bahia; Tamminga, Kenneth R.; Tangari, Vera Regina. 2012. "A Method for Gauging Landscape Change as a Prelude to Urban Watershed Regeneration: The Case of the Carioca River, Rio de Janeiro." Sustainability 4, no. 9: 2054-2098.