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Sustainability, Volume 4, Issue 8 (August 2012), Pages 1647-1945

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle The Ganges and the GAP: An Assessment of Efforts to Clean a Sacred River
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1647-1668; doi:10.3390/su4081647
Received: 2 June 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For centuries, the Ganges River in India has been the locus of sacred rites for the Hindus. The religious significance of the Ganges is physically manifested in ghats (stepped landings) that form the land-water interface. Besides serving as a site for religious bathing
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For centuries, the Ganges River in India has been the locus of sacred rites for the Hindus. The religious significance of the Ganges is physically manifested in ghats (stepped landings) that form the land-water interface. Besides serving as a site for religious bathing and cremation, the ghats are also tied to people’s livelihoods and are an inseparable part of their daily lives. Today, the increasingly urbanized Ganges basin sustains more than 40 percent of India’s population. At the same time, industrialization and the pressures of a growing population along its banks have contributed to alarming levels of pollution in the river. In 1985, the federal government of India launched the Ganga Action Plan (GAP) with the primary objective of cleaning the river. However, characterized by centralized planning and control with little public participation, the GAP had limited impact. In 2011, the government launched yet another clean up program—the National Ganga River Basin Project—with support from the World Bank. In this paper, we take a closer look at the programs to highlight the tenuous relationship between the need for ‘efficient’ management of environmental problems and public participation. Can public participation fit into the technocratic model that is often adopted by environmental programs? What approaches to participation kindle authorship and empowerment among those who share a deep relationship with the river and the ghats? Can religious practices be accommodated within scientific frameworks of adaptive management and resilience? We argue that rethinking the relationship between pollution control programs and participation is crucial for any effort to clean the Ganges, restore its waterfront, and catalyze broader regeneration in the Ganges basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Regeneration and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Induction of Human, Social, and Cultural Capitals through an Experimental Approach to Stormwater Management
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1669-1682; doi:10.3390/su4081669
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Decentralized stormwater management is based on the dispersal of stormwater management practices (SWMP) throughout a watershed to manage stormwater runoff volume and potentially restore natural hydrologic processes. This approach to stormwater management is increasingly popular but faces constraints related to land access and
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Decentralized stormwater management is based on the dispersal of stormwater management practices (SWMP) throughout a watershed to manage stormwater runoff volume and potentially restore natural hydrologic processes. This approach to stormwater management is increasingly popular but faces constraints related to land access and citizen engagement. We tested a novel method of environmental management through citizen-based stormwater management on suburban private land. After a nominal induction of human capital through an education campaign, two successive (2007, 2008) reverse auctions engaged residents to voluntarily bid on installation of SWMPs on their property. Cumulatively, 81 rain gardens and 165 rain barrels were installed on approximately one-third of the 350 eligible residential properties in the watershed, resulting in an estimated 360 m3 increase in stormwater detention capacity. One surprising result was the abundance of zero dollar bids, indicating even a limited-effort human capital campaign was sufficient to enroll many participants. In addition, we used statistical methods to illustrate the significant role of social capital in forming clusters of adjacent properties that participated in bidding. This indicated that as participants shared their experiences, neighbors may have become more willing to trust the program and enroll. Significant agglomerations of participating properties may indicate a shift in neighborhood culture regarding stormwater management with positive implications for watershed health through the sustained induction of alternate capitals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Regeneration and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle An Approach to Litter Generation and Littering Practices in a Mexico City Neighborhood
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1733-1754; doi:10.3390/su4081733
Received: 17 April 2012 / Revised: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban litter is generated by human societies everywhere. Some litter is recyclable waste. In this study, the acronym RMSW is used to refer to recyclable municipal solid waste generated in streets. Public attitude towards RMSW generation, generators’ perceptions, and quantification of RMSW in
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Urban litter is generated by human societies everywhere. Some litter is recyclable waste. In this study, the acronym RMSW is used to refer to recyclable municipal solid waste generated in streets. Public attitude towards RMSW generation, generators’ perceptions, and quantification of RMSW in streets were examined in a Mexico City neighborhood, where litter presence causes major environmental problems affecting the population year after year. Interviews with neighborhood residents and item counts were carried out from 2010 to 2011. In all, 58% of interviewees reported generating RMSW at variable frequencies while 42% said they did not generate this kind of waste. Laziness, lack of vigilance by municipal authorities, no litter bins in streets, and imitation were the main causes identified by interviewees as reasons for littering. Potential litter generators may be of any age, educational level or income. Interviewees’ perception of RMSW generation was compared with item counts in the neighborhood studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Waste Management)
Open AccessArticle The Tragedy of the Commons from a Game-Theoretic Perspective
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1776-1786; doi:10.3390/su4081776
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Twenty years after the declarations from the Earth Summit in Rio, the world faces an unattenuated host of problems that threaten the goal of sustainable development. The challenge to cooperatively solve socio-ecological problems has been portrayed in Garrett Hardin’s essay “The Tragedy of
[...] Read more.
Twenty years after the declarations from the Earth Summit in Rio, the world faces an unattenuated host of problems that threaten the goal of sustainable development. The challenge to cooperatively solve socio-ecological problems has been portrayed in Garrett Hardin’s essay “The Tragedy of the Commons”. While this paper remains controversial, it has inspired a vast number of theoretical, experimental, and empirical contributions that have clarified the mechanisms of collective action problems and suggested ways to overcome these. This article reviews the recent game-theoretic research in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tragedy or Transcendence: Reflections on 'The Tragedy of the Commons')
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Open AccessArticle The Race for Evolutionary Success
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1787-1805; doi:10.3390/su4081787
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Earth appears to be at the beginning of sixth massive species extinction. This paper balances a review of the forces threatening species survival with a comprehensive scan of factors that could act as counterweights. These factors could lead to four types of
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The Earth appears to be at the beginning of sixth massive species extinction. This paper balances a review of the forces threatening species survival with a comprehensive scan of factors that could act as counterweights. These factors could lead to four types of evolution—cultural, regulatory, ecological, and technological—that could individually or in combination avert massive species extinction if humans implement solutions faster than new problems arise. Implications and future research opportunities are also explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation or Extinction)
Open AccessArticle Small Modular Reactors for Enhancing Energy Security in Developing Countries
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1806-1832; doi:10.3390/su4081806
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, small modular reactors (SMRs) have been attracting considerable attention around the world. SMR designs incorporate innovative approaches to achieve simplicity, modularity and speed of build, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, and reduced financial risk. The incremental capacity expansion associated with
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In recent years, small modular reactors (SMRs) have been attracting considerable attention around the world. SMR designs incorporate innovative approaches to achieve simplicity, modularity and speed of build, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, and reduced financial risk. The incremental capacity expansion associated with SMR deployment could provide a better match (than the large-scale reactors) to the limited grid capacity of many developing countries. Because of their lower capital requirements, SMRs could also effectively address the energy needs of small developing countries with limited financial resources. Although SMRs can have substantially higher specific capital costs as compared to large-scale reactors, they may nevertheless enjoy significant economic benefits due to shorter build times, accelerated learning effects and co-siting economies, temporal and sizing flexibility of deployment, and design simplification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle Enhancing Meso Level Research in Sustainability Science—Challenges and Research Needs
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1833-1847; doi:10.3390/su4081833
Received: 8 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (685 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Growing numbers of promising visions of the future and scenarios that may lead toward building sustainable societies are being developed. At the same time, advanced technologies and research seeds that could increase the likelihood of achieving such visions are also being rigorously conceived.
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Growing numbers of promising visions of the future and scenarios that may lead toward building sustainable societies are being developed. At the same time, advanced technologies and research seeds that could increase the likelihood of achieving such visions are also being rigorously conceived. Even so, we face challenges and barriers in achieving these visions due to large gaps between individual technology seeds and shared visions. In this paper we propose a “vision-meso-seeds” model as a practical framework for addressing sustainability transition and demonstrate meso level research whose primary aim is to design a matching of promising seeds at the micro level and societal visions at the macro level, facilitating an achievement of the set visions with quantified targets. In particular we highlight the importance of matching various strategies and measures derived from the top-down (vision-oriented) approach and bottom-up (seeds-oriented) approach in the meso level research. We argue that the meso level research shall constitute one of the emerging core fields in sustainability science and suggest that accumulation of knowledge through case studies be needed to enhance and verify theory, specific methods and approach necessary for advancing the meso level research in the context of sustainability science. Full article
Open AccessArticle On Thermally Interacting Multiple Boreholes with Variable Heating Strength: Comparison between Analytical and Numerical Approaches
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1848-1866; doi:10.3390/su4081848
Received: 20 July 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The temperature response in the soil surrounding multiple boreholes is evaluated analytically and numerically. The assumption of constant heat flux along the borehole wall is examined by coupling the problem to the heat transfer problem inside the borehole and presenting a model with
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The temperature response in the soil surrounding multiple boreholes is evaluated analytically and numerically. The assumption of constant heat flux along the borehole wall is examined by coupling the problem to the heat transfer problem inside the borehole and presenting a model with variable heat flux along the borehole length. In the analytical approach, a line source of heat with a finite length is used to model the conduction of heat in the soil surrounding the boreholes. In the numerical method, a finite volume method in a three dimensional meshed domain is used. In order to determine the heat flux boundary condition, the analytical quasi-three-dimensional solution to the heat transfer problem of the U-tube configuration inside the borehole is used. This solution takes into account the variation in heating strength along the borehole length due to the temperature variation of the fluid running in the U-tube. Thus, critical depths at which thermal interaction occurs can be determined. Finally, in order to examine the validity of the numerical method, a comparison is made with the results of line source method. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sustainability Indicators for the Use of Resources—The Exergy Approach
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1867-1878; doi:10.3390/su4081867
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reached an all-time high in 2010, rising 45% in the past 20 years. The rise of peoples’ concerns regarding environmental problems such as global warming and waste management problem has led to a movement to convert the current
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Global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reached an all-time high in 2010, rising 45% in the past 20 years. The rise of peoples’ concerns regarding environmental problems such as global warming and waste management problem has led to a movement to convert the current mass-production, mass-consumption, and mass-disposal type economic society into a sustainable society. The Rio Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, and other similar environmental milestone activities and happenings, documented the need for better and more detailed knowledge and information about environmental conditions, trends, and impacts. New thinking and research with regard to indicator frameworks, methodologies, and actual indicators are also needed. The value of the overall indicators depends on the production procedure of each material, and indicates their environmental impact. The use of “exergy indicators” based on the exergy content of materials and the use of the second law of thermodynamics in this work presents the relationship between exergy content and environmental impact. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1879-1887; doi:10.3390/su4081879
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
PDF Full-text (203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to
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Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation in recent years (2004–2010), and its sustainable management principle. This paper also presents updated information about the governmental regulations and policies for promoting these biosolids as material resources, as well as validating the regulatory levels of toxic constituents in the biosludge and its derived product (e.g., organic fertilizer). Based on the preliminary benefit analysis of utilizing biosludge as raw material for organic fertilizer, reusing biosludge, being a beneficial resource, should be superior to those by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Waste Management)
Open AccessArticle Optimized Design and Discussion on Middle and Large CANDLE Reactors
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1888-1907; doi:10.3390/su4081888
Received: 2 June 2012 / Revised: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
PDF Full-text (2447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) reactors have been intensively researched in the last decades [1–6]. Research shows that this kind of reactor
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CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) reactors have been intensively researched in the last decades [1–6]. Research shows that this kind of reactor is highly economical, safe and efficiently saves resources, thus extending large scale fission nuclear energy utilization for thousands of years, benefitting the whole of society. For many developing countries with a large population and high energy demands, such as China and India, middle (1000 MWth) and large (2000 MWth) CANDLE fast reactors are obviously more suitable than small reactors [2]. In this paper, the middle and large CANDLE reactors are investigated with U-Pu and combined ThU-UPu fuel cycles, aiming to utilize the abundant thorium resources and optimize the radial power distribution. To achieve these design purposes, the present designs were utilized, simply dividing the core into two fuel regions in the radial direction. The less active fuel, such as thorium or natural uranium, was loaded in the inner core region and the fuel with low-level enrichment, e.g. 2.0% enriched uranium, was loaded in the outer core region. By this simple core configuration and fuel setting, rather than using a complicated method, we can obtain the desired middle and large CANDLE fast cores with reasonable core geometry and thermal hydraulic parameters that perform safely and economically; as is to be expected from CANDLE. To assist in understanding the CANDLE reactor’s attributes, analysis and discussion of the calculation results achieved are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Core Design and Deployment Strategy of Heavy Water Cooled Sustainable Thorium Reactor
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1933-1945; doi:10.3390/su4081933
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our previous studies on water cooled thorium breeder reactor based on matured pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant technology concluded that reduced moderated core by arranging fuel pins in a triangular tight lattice array and using heavy water as coolant is appropriate for achieving
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Our previous studies on water cooled thorium breeder reactor based on matured pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant technology concluded that reduced moderated core by arranging fuel pins in a triangular tight lattice array and using heavy water as coolant is appropriate for achieving better breeding performance and higher burn-up simultaneously [1–6]. One optimum core that produces 3.5 GW thermal energy using Th-233U oxide fuel shows a breeding ratio of 1.07 and averaged burn-up of about 80 GWd/t with long cycle length of 1300 days. The moderator to fuel volume ratio is 0.6 and required enrichment of 233U for the fresh fuel is about 7%. The coolant reactivity coefficient is negative during all cycles despite it being a large scale breeder reactor. In order to introduce this sustainable thorium reactor, three-step deployment scenario, with intermediate transition phase between current light water reactor (LWR) phase and future sustainer phase, is proposed. Both in transition phase and sustainer phase, almost the same core design can be applicable only by changing fissile materials mixed with thorium from plutonium to 233U with slight modification in the fuel assembly design. Assuming total capacity of 60 GWe in current LWR phase and reprocessing capacity of 800 ton/y with further extensions to 1600 ton/y, all LWRs will be replaced by heavy water cooled thorium reactors within about one century then thorium reactors will be kept operational owing to its potential to sustain fissile fuels while reprocessing all spent fuels until exhaustion of massive thorium resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Sustainability and the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR)
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1683-1710; doi:10.3390/su4081683
Received: 16 June 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (865 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability as a multifaceted and holistic concept is analyzed. Sustainability involves human relationship with elements such as natural environment, economy, power, governance, education and technology with the ultimate purpose of carrying forward an ever-advancing civilization. The Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) is an
[...] Read more.
Sustainability as a multifaceted and holistic concept is analyzed. Sustainability involves human relationship with elements such as natural environment, economy, power, governance, education and technology with the ultimate purpose of carrying forward an ever-advancing civilization. The Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) is an innovative, small, simple in design, inherently safe, non-proliferating, and environmentally friendly concept that its deployment can generate energy in a sustainable manner contributing to the prosperity of humanity. The development of FBNR will provide electricity as well as desalinated water through a simple but advanced technology for the developing, as well as developed countries. FBNR is environmentally friendly due to its inherent safety and the convenience of using its spent fuel as the source of radiation for irradiation purposes in agriculture, industry, and medicine. Politically, if a ping pong game brought peace between China and USA, a program of development of FBNR supported by the peace loving international community can become a more mature means to bring peace among certain apparently hostile nations who crave sustainable energy, desalinated water and simple advanced technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessReview Energy Costs of Energy Savings in Buildings: A Review
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1711-1732; doi:10.3390/su4081711
Received: 30 March 2012 / Revised: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is often claimed that the cheapest energy is the one you do not need to produce. Nevertheless, this claim could somehow be unsubstantiated. In this article, the authors try to shed some light on this issue by using the concept of energy
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It is often claimed that the cheapest energy is the one you do not need to produce. Nevertheless, this claim could somehow be unsubstantiated. In this article, the authors try to shed some light on this issue by using the concept of energy return on investment (EROI) as a yardstick. This choice brings semantic issues because in this paper the EROI is used in a different context than that of energy production. Indeed, while watts and negawatts share the same physical unit, they are not the same object, which brings some ambiguities in the interpretation of EROI. These are cleared by a refined definition of EROI and an adapted nomenclature. This review studies the research in the energy efficiency of building operation, which is one of the most investigated topics in energy efficiency. This study focuses on the impact of insulation and high efficiency windows as means to exemplify the concepts that are introduced. These results were normalized for climate, life time of the building, and construction material. In many cases, energy efficiency measures imply a very high EROI. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, this is not the case and it might be more profitable to produce the required energy than to try to save it. Full article
Open AccessReview Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Caribbean Small Island Developing States: Integrating Local and External Knowledge
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1908-1932; doi:10.3390/su4081908
Received: 12 July 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are vulnerable to climate change impacts including sea level rise, invasive species, ocean acidification, changes in rainfall patterns, increased temperatures, and changing hazard regimes including hurricanes, floods and drought. Given high dependencies in Caribbean SIDS on natural
[...] Read more.
Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are vulnerable to climate change impacts including sea level rise, invasive species, ocean acidification, changes in rainfall patterns, increased temperatures, and changing hazard regimes including hurricanes, floods and drought. Given high dependencies in Caribbean SIDS on natural resources for livelihoods, a focus on ecosystems and their interaction with people is essential for climate change adaptation. Increasingly, ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) approaches are being highlighted as an approach to address climate change impacts. Specifically, EbA encourages the use of local and external knowledge about ecosystems to identify climate change adaptation approaches. This paper critically reviews EbA in Caribbean SIDS, focusing on the need to integrate local and external knowledge. An analysis of current EbA in the Caribbean is undertaken alongside a review of methodologies used to integrate local and external expertise for EbA. Finally key gaps, lessons learnt and suggested ways forward for EbA in Caribbean SIDS and potentially further afield are identified. Full article

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessDissertation The Contribution of Multilateral Nuclear Approaches (MNAs) to the Sustainability of Nuclear Energy
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1755-1775; doi:10.3390/su4081755
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multilateral Nuclear Approaches (MNAs) is a concept of international and/or multilateral control of nuclear material and/or nuclear fuel cycle facilities. It is a strategy for contributing to and promoting the sustainability of nuclear energy while enhancing nuclear nonproliferation, by ensuring nuclear fuel supplies
[...] Read more.
Multilateral Nuclear Approaches (MNAs) is a concept of international and/or multilateral control of nuclear material and/or nuclear fuel cycle facilities. It is a strategy for contributing to and promoting the sustainability of nuclear energy while enhancing nuclear nonproliferation, by ensuring nuclear fuel supplies and fuel cycle services, and risk control and reducing risk regarding nuclear safety. In order to establish such a MNA, the authors draw out 12 features of the MNA by analyzing various past and current MNA proposals, together with the current environment surrounding nuclear energy use. Those proposals are: (A) nuclear nonproliferation, (B) assurance of supply of nuclear material and fuel cycle services, (C) access to technologies, (D) multilateral involvement, (E) siting—choice of host state, (F) legal aspects, (G) political and public acceptance, (H) economics, (I) nuclear safety, (J) nuclear liability, (K) transportation, and (L) geopolitics. These proposals are also expected to serve as a guidepost and evaluation criteria of MNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)

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