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Special Issue "Sustainable Nuclear Energy"

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A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Sekimoto (Website)

Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 0-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152, Japan
Interests: nuclear energy in general; reactor engineering in general; fundamentals of reactor engineering; utilization and applications of reactors; reactor types/accessories; reactor safety; nuclear fuels

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy is a key item for sustainability. Most of the presently utilized energy is fossil fuels. They emit greenhouse gas and cause global warming. Renewable energies are free from this problem. However, they have other problems such as low density and an unstable power rate. Nuclear energy is a high density and stable energy without carbon-dioxide emissions. This issue of Sustainability focuses on nuclear energy as a sustainable energy. However, it has several difficult and inherent problems. The present light water cooled reactors can only use less than 1% of original natural uranium, and their resource problem is as severe as fossil fuels. But breeder reactors can utilize larger portions of natural uranium and thorium, and can be considered to produce energy for about a million years. Nuclear energy has a more difficult and inherent problem. It utilizes the same technology as used for making nuclear bombs. Therefore, we should consider physical protection, nonproliferation and other problems related to nuclear weapons. The nuclear energy production process produces radioactive materials at the same time. This makes nuclear reactor accidents very severe and leaves difficult waste problems even after finishing reactor operations. This special issue of Sustainability will show the potential of innovative nuclear reactor / energy system for sustainable energy by solving these problems at acceptable economic costs.

Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Sekimoto
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • sustainability
  • innovative nuclear energy system
  • innovative nuclear reactor design
  • innovative nuclear fuel burning
  • safety
  • radioactive waste

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Sustainable, Full-Scope Nuclear Fission Energy at Planetary Scale
Sustainability 2012, 4(11), 3088-3123; doi:10.3390/su4113088
Received: 25 July 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A nuclear fission-based energy system is described that is capable of supplying the energy needs of all of human civilization for a full range of human energy use scenarios, including both very high rates of energy use and strikingly-large amounts of total [...] Read more.
A nuclear fission-based energy system is described that is capable of supplying the energy needs of all of human civilization for a full range of human energy use scenarios, including both very high rates of energy use and strikingly-large amounts of total energy-utilized. To achieve such “planetary scale sustainability”, this nuclear energy system integrates three nascent technologies: uranium extraction from seawater, manifestly safe breeder reactors, and deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste. In addition to these technological components, it also possesses the sociopolitical quality of manifest safety, which involves engineering to a very high degree of safety in a straightforward manner, while concurrently making the safety characteristics of the resulting nuclear systems continually manifest to society as a whole. Near-term aspects of this nuclear system are outlined, and representative parameters given for a system of global scale capable of supplying energy to a planetary population of 10 billion people at a per capita level enjoyed by contemporary Americans, i.e., of a type which might be seen a half-century hence. In addition to being sustainable from a resource standpoint, the described nuclear system is also sustainable with respect to environmental and human health impacts, including those resulting from severe accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle A Phased Development of Breed-and-Burn Reactors for Enhanced Nuclear Energy Sustainability
Sustainability 2012, 4(10), 2745-2764; doi:10.3390/su4102745
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 24 September 2012 / Accepted: 28 September 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several options for designing fast reactors to operate in the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode are compared and a strategy is outlined for early introduction of B&B reactors followed by a gradual increase in the fuel utilization of such reactors. In the first phase the fast reactor core will consist of a subcritical B&B blanket driven by a relatively small critical seed. As the required discharge burnup/radiation-damage to both driver and blanket fuel had already been proven, and as the depleted uranium fueled B&B blanket could generate close to 2/3 of the core power and will have very low fuel cycle cost, the deployment of such fast reactors could start in the near future. The second phase consists of deploying self-sustaining stationary wave B&B reactors. It will require development of fuel technology that could withstand peak burnups of ~30% and peak radiation damage to the cladding of ~550 dpa. The third phase requires development of a fuel reconditioning technology that will enable using the fuel up to an average burnup of ~50%—the upper bound permitted by neutron balance considerations when most of the fission products are not separated from the fuel. The increase in the uranium ore utilization relative to that provided by contemporary power reactors is estimated to be 20, 40 and 100 folds for, respectively, phase 1, 2 and 3. The energy value of the depleted uranium stockpiles (“waste”) accumulated in the US is equivalent to, when used in the B&B reactors, up to 20 centuries of the total 2010 USA supply of electricity. Therefore, a successful development of B&B reactors could provide a great measure of energy sustainability and cost stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle Self-Sustaining Thorium Boiling Water Reactors
Sustainability 2012, 4(10), 2472-2497; doi:10.3390/su4102472
Received: 14 August 2012 / Revised: 14 September 2012 / Accepted: 17 September 2012 / Published: 1 October 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A thorium-fueled water-cooled reactor core design approach that features a radially uniform composition of fuel rods in stationary fuel assembly and is fuel-self-sustaining is described. This core design concept is similar to the Reduced moderation Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR) proposed by Hitachi to fit within an ABWR pressure vessel, with the following exceptions: use of thorium instead of depleted uranium for the fertile fuel; elimination of the internal blanket; and elimination of absorbers from the axial reflectors, while increasing the length of the fissile zone. The preliminary analysis indicates that it is feasible to design such cores to be fuel-self-sustaining and to have a comfortably low peak linear heat generation rate when operating at the nominal ABWR power level of nearly 4000 MWth. However, the void reactivity feedback tends to be too negative, making it difficult to have sufficient shutdown reactivity margin at cold zero power condition. An addition of a small amount of plutonium from LWR used nuclear fuel was found effective in reducing the magnitude of the negative void reactivity effect and enables attaining adequate shutdown reactivity margin; it also flattens the axial power distribution. The resulting design concept offers an efficient incineration of the LWR generated plutonium in addition to effective utilization of thorium. Additional R&D is required in order to arrive at a reliable practical and safe design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options
Sustainability 2012, 4(10), 2377-2398; doi:10.3390/su4102377
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 24 August 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 27 September 2012
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Abstract
The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC) is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an appropriate form of [...] Read more.
The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC) is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an appropriate form of the fuel is irradiated through a nuclear reactor only once before it is disposed of as waste. The discharged fuel contains materials that can be suitable for use as fuel. Thus, different types of fuel recycling technologies may be introduced in order to more fully utilize the energy potential of the fuel, or reduce the environmental impacts and proliferation concerns about the discarded fuel materials. Nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis is applied in this paper to attain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of fuel cycle alternatives. Through the use of the nuclear fuel cycle analysis code CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis), the impact of a number of recycling technologies and the associated fuel cycle options is explored in the context of the U.S. energy scenario over 100 years. Particular focus is given to the quantification of Uranium utilization, the amount of Transuranic Material (TRU) generated and the economics of the different options compared to the base-line case, the OTC option. It is concluded that LWRs and the OTC are likely to dominate the nuclear energy supply system for the period considered due to limitations on availability of TRU to initiate recycling technologies. While the introduction of U-235 initiated fast reactors can accelerate their penetration of the nuclear energy system, their higher capital cost may lead to continued preference for the LWR-OTC cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle Recent Research of Thorium Molten-Salt Reactor from a Sustainability Viewpoint
Sustainability 2012, 4(10), 2399-2418; doi:10.3390/su4102399
Received: 3 July 2012 / Revised: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 24 August 2012 / Published: 27 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The most important target of the concept “sustainability” is to achieve fairness between generations. Its expanding interpolation leads to achieve fairness within a generation. Thus, it is necessary to discuss the role of nuclear power from the viewpoint of this definition. The [...] Read more.
The most important target of the concept “sustainability” is to achieve fairness between generations. Its expanding interpolation leads to achieve fairness within a generation. Thus, it is necessary to discuss the role of nuclear power from the viewpoint of this definition. The history of nuclear power has been the control of the nuclear fission reaction. Once this is obtained, then the economy of the system is required. On the other hand, it is also necessary to consider the internalization of the external diseconomy to avoid damage to human society caused by the economic activity itself, due to its limited capacity. An extreme example is waste. Thus, reducing radioactive waste resulting from nuclear power is essential. Nuclear non-proliferation must be guaranteed. Moreover, the FUKUSHIMA accident revealed that it is still not enough that human beings control nuclear reaction. Further, the most essential issue for sustaining use of one technology is human resources in manufacturing, operation, policy-making and education. Nuclear power will be able to satisfy the requirements of sustainability only when these subjects are addressed. The author will review recent activities of a thorium molten-salt reactor (MSR) as a cornerstone for a sustainable society and describe its objectives and forecasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power
Sustainability 2012, 4(9), 2293-2316; doi:10.3390/su4092293
Received: 27 June 2012 / Revised: 15 August 2012 / Accepted: 24 August 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative [...] Read more.
On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral) design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing mode. The reactor is distinct in that it has a high level of self-protection and passive safety, it is factory manufactured and the assembled reactor can be transported by railway. Multipurpose application of the reactor is presumed, primarily, it can be used for regional power to produce electricity, heat and for water desalination. The Project is being realized within the framework of state-private partnership with joint venture OJSC “AKME-Engineering” established on a parity basis by the State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” and the Limited Liability Company “EuroSibEnergo”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle Core Design and Deployment Strategy of Heavy Water Cooled Sustainable Thorium Reactor
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1933-1945; doi:10.3390/su4081933
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our previous studies on water cooled thorium breeder reactor based on matured pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant technology concluded that reduced moderated core by arranging fuel pins in a triangular tight lattice array and using heavy water as coolant is appropriate for [...] Read more.
Our previous studies on water cooled thorium breeder reactor based on matured pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant technology concluded that reduced moderated core by arranging fuel pins in a triangular tight lattice array and using heavy water as coolant is appropriate for achieving better breeding performance and higher burn-up simultaneously [1–6]. One optimum core that produces 3.5 GW thermal energy using Th-233U oxide fuel shows a breeding ratio of 1.07 and averaged burn-up of about 80 GWd/t with long cycle length of 1300 days. The moderator to fuel volume ratio is 0.6 and required enrichment of 233U for the fresh fuel is about 7%. The coolant reactivity coefficient is negative during all cycles despite it being a large scale breeder reactor. In order to introduce this sustainable thorium reactor, three-step deployment scenario, with intermediate transition phase between current light water reactor (LWR) phase and future sustainer phase, is proposed. Both in transition phase and sustainer phase, almost the same core design can be applicable only by changing fissile materials mixed with thorium from plutonium to 233U with slight modification in the fuel assembly design. Assuming total capacity of 60 GWe in current LWR phase and reprocessing capacity of 800 ton/y with further extensions to 1600 ton/y, all LWRs will be replaced by heavy water cooled thorium reactors within about one century then thorium reactors will be kept operational owing to its potential to sustain fissile fuels while reprocessing all spent fuels until exhaustion of massive thorium resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Optimized Design and Discussion on Middle and Large CANDLE Reactors
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1888-1907; doi:10.3390/su4081888
Received: 2 June 2012 / Revised: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
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Abstract
CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) reactors have been intensively researched in the last decades [1–6]. Research shows that this kind of [...] Read more.
CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide number densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) reactors have been intensively researched in the last decades [1–6]. Research shows that this kind of reactor is highly economical, safe and efficiently saves resources, thus extending large scale fission nuclear energy utilization for thousands of years, benefitting the whole of society. For many developing countries with a large population and high energy demands, such as China and India, middle (1000 MWth) and large (2000 MWth) CANDLE fast reactors are obviously more suitable than small reactors [2]. In this paper, the middle and large CANDLE reactors are investigated with U-Pu and combined ThU-UPu fuel cycles, aiming to utilize the abundant thorium resources and optimize the radial power distribution. To achieve these design purposes, the present designs were utilized, simply dividing the core into two fuel regions in the radial direction. The less active fuel, such as thorium or natural uranium, was loaded in the inner core region and the fuel with low-level enrichment, e.g. 2.0% enriched uranium, was loaded in the outer core region. By this simple core configuration and fuel setting, rather than using a complicated method, we can obtain the desired middle and large CANDLE fast cores with reasonable core geometry and thermal hydraulic parameters that perform safely and economically; as is to be expected from CANDLE. To assist in understanding the CANDLE reactor’s attributes, analysis and discussion of the calculation results achieved are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Small Modular Reactors for Enhancing Energy Security in Developing Countries
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1806-1832; doi:10.3390/su4081806
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, small modular reactors (SMRs) have been attracting considerable attention around the world. SMR designs incorporate innovative approaches to achieve simplicity, modularity and speed of build, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, and reduced financial risk. The incremental capacity expansion associated [...] Read more.
In recent years, small modular reactors (SMRs) have been attracting considerable attention around the world. SMR designs incorporate innovative approaches to achieve simplicity, modularity and speed of build, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, and reduced financial risk. The incremental capacity expansion associated with SMR deployment could provide a better match (than the large-scale reactors) to the limited grid capacity of many developing countries. Because of their lower capital requirements, SMRs could also effectively address the energy needs of small developing countries with limited financial resources. Although SMRs can have substantially higher specific capital costs as compared to large-scale reactors, they may nevertheless enjoy significant economic benefits due to shorter build times, accelerated learning effects and co-siting economies, temporal and sizing flexibility of deployment, and design simplification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle Safety-Related Optimization and Analyses of an Innovative Fast Reactor Concept
Sustainability 2012, 4(6), 1274-1291; doi:10.3390/su4061274
Received: 4 May 2012 / Revised: 11 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (906 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since a fast reactor core with uranium-plutonium fuel is not in its most reactive configuration under operating conditions, redistribution of the core materials (fuel, steel, sodium) during a core disruptive accident (CDA) may lead to recriticalities and as a consequence to severe [...] Read more.
Since a fast reactor core with uranium-plutonium fuel is not in its most reactive configuration under operating conditions, redistribution of the core materials (fuel, steel, sodium) during a core disruptive accident (CDA) may lead to recriticalities and as a consequence to severe nuclear power excursions. The prevention, or at least the mitigation, of core disruption is therefore of the utmost importance. In the current paper, we analyze an innovative fast reactor concept developed within the CP-ESFR European project, focusing on the phenomena affecting the initiation and the transition phases of an unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accident. Key phenomena for the initiation phase are coolant boiling onset and further voiding of the core that lead to a reactivity increase in the case of a positive void reactivity effect. Therefore, the first level of optimization involves the reduction, by design, of the positive void effect in order to avoid entering a severe accident. If the core disruption cannot be avoided, the accident enters into the transition phase, characterized by the progression of core melting and recriticalities due to fuel compaction. Dedicated features that enhance and guarantee a sufficient and timely fuel discharge are considered for the optimization of this phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycles and World Regional Issues
Sustainability 2012, 4(6), 1214-1238; doi:10.3390/su4061214
Received: 27 March 2012 / Revised: 3 May 2012 / Accepted: 29 May 2012 / Published: 12 June 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present paper we have attempted to associate quantified impacts with a forecasted nuclear energy development in different world regions, under a range of hypotheses on the energy demand growth. It gives results in terms of availability of uranium resources, required [...] Read more.
In the present paper we have attempted to associate quantified impacts with a forecasted nuclear energy development in different world regions, under a range of hypotheses on the energy demand growth. It gives results in terms of availability of uranium resources, required deployment of fuel cycle facilities and reactor types. In particular, the need to achieve short doubling times with future fast reactors is investigated and quantified in specific world regions. It has been found that a crucial feature of any world scenario study is to provide not only trends for an idealized “homogeneous” description of the global world, but also trends for different regions in the world. These regions may be selected using rather simple criteria (mostly of a geographical type), in order to apply different hypotheses for energy demand growth, fuel cycle strategies and the implementation of various reactor types for the different regions. This approach was an attempt to avoid focusing on selected countries, in particular on those where no new significant energy demand growth is expected, but instead to provide trends and conclusions that account for the features of countries that will be major players in the world energy development in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle Approaches and Software for Multi-Objective Optimization of Nuclear Power Structures
Sustainability 2012, 4(4), 721-739; doi:10.3390/su4040721
Received: 29 February 2012 / Revised: 11 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 April 2012 / Published: 20 April 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1052 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The work presents the approaches and software developed for multi-objective optimization of nuclear power structures: the modules for energy planning package MESSAGE intended for modeling purposes of developing nuclear power systems and multi-objective evaluation of its effectiveness and an integrated approach based [...] Read more.
The work presents the approaches and software developed for multi-objective optimization of nuclear power structures: the modules for energy planning package MESSAGE intended for modeling purposes of developing nuclear power systems and multi-objective evaluation of its effectiveness and an integrated approach based on the method of system dynamics and parameter space investigation, allowing the problem of optimizing a nuclear power system structure in multi-objective formulation to be solved. Some results of implementation of these tools for multi-objective optimization of nuclear power structures are shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)

Review

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Open AccessReview Sustainability and the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR)
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1683-1710; doi:10.3390/su4081683
Received: 16 June 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (865 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability as a multifaceted and holistic concept is analyzed. Sustainability involves human relationship with elements such as natural environment, economy, power, governance, education and technology with the ultimate purpose of carrying forward an ever-advancing civilization. The Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) is [...] Read more.
Sustainability as a multifaceted and holistic concept is analyzed. Sustainability involves human relationship with elements such as natural environment, economy, power, governance, education and technology with the ultimate purpose of carrying forward an ever-advancing civilization. The Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) is an innovative, small, simple in design, inherently safe, non-proliferating, and environmentally friendly concept that its deployment can generate energy in a sustainable manner contributing to the prosperity of humanity. The development of FBNR will provide electricity as well as desalinated water through a simple but advanced technology for the developing, as well as developed countries. FBNR is environmentally friendly due to its inherent safety and the convenience of using its spent fuel as the source of radiation for irradiation purposes in agriculture, industry, and medicine. Politically, if a ping pong game brought peace between China and USA, a program of development of FBNR supported by the peace loving international community can become a more mature means to bring peace among certain apparently hostile nations who crave sustainable energy, desalinated water and simple advanced technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessReview Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source
Sustainability 2012, 4(6), 1173-1187; doi:10.3390/su4061173
Received: 13 April 2012 / Revised: 8 May 2012 / Accepted: 23 May 2012 / Published: 7 June 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides a review and analysis of the challenges that nuclear power must overcome in order to be considered sustainable. The results make it clear that not only do innovative technical solutions need to be generated for the fundamental inherent environmental [...] Read more.
This paper provides a review and analysis of the challenges that nuclear power must overcome in order to be considered sustainable. The results make it clear that not only do innovative technical solutions need to be generated for the fundamental inherent environmental burdens of nuclear energy technology, but the nuclear industry must also address difficult issues of equity both in the present and for future generations. The results show that if the concept of just sustainability is applied to the nuclear energy sector a global large-scale sustainable nuclear energy system to replace fossil fuel combustion requires the following: (i) a radical improvement in greenhouse gas emissions intensity by improved technology and efficiency through the entire life cycle to prevent energy cannibalism during rapid growth; (ii) the elimination of nuclear insecurity to reduce the risks associated with nuclear power so that the free market can indemnify it without substantial public nuclear energy insurance subsidies; (iii) the elimination of radioactive waste at the end of life and minimization of environmental impact during mining and operations; and (iv) the nuclear industry must regain public trust or face obsolescence as a swarm of renewable energy technologies quickly improve both technical and economic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
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Other

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Open AccessDissertation The Contribution of Multilateral Nuclear Approaches (MNAs) to the Sustainability of Nuclear Energy
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1755-1775; doi:10.3390/su4081755
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multilateral Nuclear Approaches (MNAs) is a concept of international and/or multilateral control of nuclear material and/or nuclear fuel cycle facilities. It is a strategy for contributing to and promoting the sustainability of nuclear energy while enhancing nuclear nonproliferation, by ensuring nuclear fuel [...] Read more.
Multilateral Nuclear Approaches (MNAs) is a concept of international and/or multilateral control of nuclear material and/or nuclear fuel cycle facilities. It is a strategy for contributing to and promoting the sustainability of nuclear energy while enhancing nuclear nonproliferation, by ensuring nuclear fuel supplies and fuel cycle services, and risk control and reducing risk regarding nuclear safety. In order to establish such a MNA, the authors draw out 12 features of the MNA by analyzing various past and current MNA proposals, together with the current environment surrounding nuclear energy use. Those proposals are: (A) nuclear nonproliferation, (B) assurance of supply of nuclear material and fuel cycle services, (C) access to technologies, (D) multilateral involvement, (E) siting—choice of host state, (F) legal aspects, (G) political and public acceptance, (H) economics, (I) nuclear safety, (J) nuclear liability, (K) transportation, and (L) geopolitics. These proposals are also expected to serve as a guidepost and evaluation criteria of MNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)

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