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Sustainability, Volume 2, Issue 7 (July 2010), Pages 1849-2364

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Open AccessArticle From Consumerism to the Empowerment of Consumers: The Case of Consumer Oriented Movements in France
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 1849-1868; doi:10.3390/su2071849
Received: 19 May 2010 / Revised: 4 June 2010 / Accepted: 8 June 2010 / Published: 29 June 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Political consumerism was developed during the 19th century and expanded at the turn of the century through social movements aimed at empowering civil society in the market. Many of these movements succeeded in building power on the consumption side. Today, we still witness
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Political consumerism was developed during the 19th century and expanded at the turn of the century through social movements aimed at empowering civil society in the market. Many of these movements succeeded in building power on the consumption side. Today, we still witness several forms of political consumerism. This contribution explores the possibilities and limits of consumer involvement in sustainable consumption. The main finding of this study of the political organization of consumers is that the market may not be the only arena for changing consumer behavior. Instead, social constraint and political empowerment seem to be rather more efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Consumption)
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Open AccessArticle Framing Devices in the Creation of Environmental Responsibility: A Qualitative Study from Sweden
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 1869-1886; doi:10.3390/su2071869
Received: 21 May 2010 / Revised: 3 June 2010 / Accepted: 8 June 2010 / Published: 29 June 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between identity work for environmental responsibility and sustainable development in relation to an ecological master frame. The material is based on a case study with Swedish householders and focusses on the interviewees identity
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The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between identity work for environmental responsibility and sustainable development in relation to an ecological master frame. The material is based on a case study with Swedish householders and focusses on the interviewees identity work in relation to specific and detailed environmentally friendly activities. The argument put forth is that individuals construct what is possible and reasonable by identifying themselves in relation to the multitude of others and by doing certain activities. The conclusions suggest that the householders consider themselves to have a responsibility for the environment, but that they do enough by performing specific activities such as recycling. Thereby the study shows how the individuals present their own ideas and actions in relation to an ecological master frame. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Consumption)
Open AccessArticle Citizen-Consumers as Agents of Change in Globalizing Modernity: The Case of Sustainable Consumption
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 1887-1908; doi:10.3390/su2071887
Received: 21 May 2010 / Revised: 31 May 2010 / Accepted: 4 June 2010 / Published: 30 June 2010
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The roles that individuals can adopt, or get assigned, in processes of global environmental change, can be analyzed with the help of three ideal-type forms of commitment: as environmental citizens, as political consumers, and as individual moral agents. We offer a discussion of
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The roles that individuals can adopt, or get assigned, in processes of global environmental change, can be analyzed with the help of three ideal-type forms of commitment: as environmental citizens, as political consumers, and as individual moral agents. We offer a discussion of the three roles in the context of sustainability changes in everyday life practices of consumption. Sociological accounts of (sustainability) transitions are discussed with respect to their treatment of the concept of agency vis à vis the objects, technologies, and infrastructures implied in globalizing consumption practices. Using consumption practices as basic units of analysis helps to avoid individualist and privatized accounts of the role of citizen-consumers in environmental change, while making possible a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the personal and the planetary in the process of greening everyday life consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Consumption)
Open AccessArticle Planning for Community Based Tourism in a Remote Location
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 1909-1923; doi:10.3390/su2071909
Received: 26 May 2010 / Revised: 6 June 2010 / Accepted: 16 June 2010 / Published: 1 July 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remote areas are difficult to access, tend to lack critical infrastructure, are highly susceptible to shocks in the marketplace, and are perceived by industry to possess limited development opportunities. Accordingly a community orientated and territorial approach to development planning in a remote area
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Remote areas are difficult to access, tend to lack critical infrastructure, are highly susceptible to shocks in the marketplace, and are perceived by industry to possess limited development opportunities. Accordingly a community orientated and territorial approach to development planning in a remote area will be more successful than a top down industry based approach [1]. Given the limitations of being remote, the case study community examined in this research manages and sustains a bird watching tourism product within a global market place. This paper examines how a remotely located community in the Arfak Mountains of West Papua overcomes these difficulties and plans for community based tourism (CBT) in their locale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Human Populations in Remote Places)
Open AccessArticle Institutionalizing Sustainability across the Federal Government
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 1924-1942; doi:10.3390/su2071924
Received: 16 April 2010 / Revised: 13 June 2010 / Accepted: 22 June 2010 / Published: 2 July 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A notable aspect of sustainability is its holistic and cross-cutting nature—it cannot be achieved by any single rule, statute or agency. Instead, sustainability must be institutionalized across the legal system and government as a whole. In this paper, we propose and examine five
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A notable aspect of sustainability is its holistic and cross-cutting nature—it cannot be achieved by any single rule, statute or agency. Instead, sustainability must be institutionalized across the legal system and government as a whole. In this paper, we propose and examine five mechanisms for institutionalizing sustainability across the federal legal system: (1) an Executive Order on sustainability; (2) a sustainability impact assessment process; (3) a non-partisan Congressional Joint Committee on Sustainability; (4) a federal Sustainability Commission; and (5) a Sustainability Law Reform Commission. Each is modeled on an existing institution in the United States or another jurisdiction. We discuss and compare the advantages and disadvantages of each mechanism, and discuss how the mechanisms might best be used, singly or in combination, to institutionalize sustainability across the federal government. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Laws and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Impact of Land Use Policy on Urban-Rural Sustainability Using the FoPIA Approach in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 1991-2009; doi:10.3390/su2071991
Received: 2 June 2010 / Accepted: 19 June 2010 / Published: 5 July 2010
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a sustainability impact assessment (SIA) of policy induced land use changes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The regional problems include rapid expansions of urban areas, due to high population pressure, and the conversion of paddy fields and forests into
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This paper presents the results of a sustainability impact assessment (SIA) of policy induced land use changes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The regional problems include rapid expansions of urban areas, due to high population pressure, and the conversion of paddy fields and forests into settlements. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of two land use policies on social, economic, and environmental Land Use Functions (LUFs) in Yogyakarta. The following scenarios were developed for the SIA: a forest protection scenario (S1), a paddy field conservation scenario (S2), and a counterfactual (no policy) scenario of ‘Business As Usual’ (BAU). The Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment (FoPIA) was applied to conduct an expert-based impact assessment. For the specification of the regional sustainability context, a set of nine key LUFs and associated indicators were developed, including three social, three economic, and three environmental sustainability criteria. The resulting scenario impacts of the assessment differed considerably, with positive impacts of the S1 and S2 scenarios on seven of nine LUFs, and negative impacts of the BAU scenario on six LUFs. The perception of the FoPIA method by the regional stakeholders was positive. We conclude that this method contributes toward an enhanced regional understanding of policy effects and sustainability, particularly in data-poor environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Building Sustainability Assessment
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2010-2023; doi:10.3390/su2072010
Received: 20 May 2010 / Revised: 9 June 2010 / Accepted: 19 June 2010 / Published: 5 July 2010
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D
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Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Delineation of Suitable Cropland Areas Using a GIS Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation Approach in the Tam Dao National Park Region, Vietnam
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2024-2043; doi:10.3390/su2072024
Received: 30 May 2010 / Revised: 22 June 2010 / Accepted: 29 June 2010 / Published: 7 July 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (742 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land degradation is recognized as one of the major threats to the buffer zones of protected areas (PAs) in Vietnam. In particular, the expansion of land degradation into the PAs is exerting pressure on biodiversity conservation efforts. This degradation is partially the result
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Land degradation is recognized as one of the major threats to the buffer zones of protected areas (PAs) in Vietnam. In particular, the expansion of land degradation into the PAs is exerting pressure on biodiversity conservation efforts. This degradation is partially the result of mismanagement: the utilization of the land is often unmatched with the inherent suitability of the land. Identification of the spatial distribution of suitable areas for cropland is essential for sustainable land-use recommendation. This paper aims to delineate the areas suitable for cropland in the Tam Dao National Park (TDNP) region using a GIS-based multi-criteria evaluation of biophysical factors and Landsat ETM+ imagery. GIS is used to generate the factors, while MCE is used to aggregate them into a land suitability index. The results indicate the location and extent of crop farming areas at different suitability levels, i.e., most suitable (28.10%), moderately suitable (23.96%), marginally suitable (28.77%), and least suitable (19.17%). The current cropland covers 46.5% of the study area, while most and moderately suitable areas are estimated to be 52.06% of the territory. The results can be used to identify priority areas for crop farming and sustainable land-use management. The GIS-MCE approach provides an effective assessment tool for land-use managers working in protected areas of Vietnam. Full article
Open AccessArticle Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2044-2069; doi:10.3390/su2072044
Received: 2 June 2010 / Revised: 25 June 2010 / Accepted: 29 June 2010 / Published: 9 July 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational
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Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of linked regional driver-response models and will use a multicriteria scenario-evaluation framework that builds on GIS analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to climate patterns, regional water budgets, and regional LULC change in the SCW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Forum for Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2070-2083; doi:10.3390/su2072070
Received: 17 June 2010 / Accepted: 29 June 2010 / Published: 9 July 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the
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Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP). The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region. Full article
Open AccessArticle Eco-Self-Build Housing Communities: Are They Feasible and Can They Lead to Sustainable and Low Carbon Lifestyles?
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2084-2116; doi:10.3390/su2072084
Received: 11 June 2010 / Accepted: 22 June 2010 / Published: 12 July 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (979 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper concerns how sustainable and low carbon living can be enabled in new housing developments in the UK. It is here recognized that consumption of energy and resources is not just what goes into the building, but also long-term through occupancy and
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This paper concerns how sustainable and low carbon living can be enabled in new housing developments in the UK. It is here recognized that consumption of energy and resources is not just what goes into the building, but also long-term through occupancy and activities. Current approaches, which require housing developers to reduce the carbon emissions of the homes they build through a mixture of energy efficiency and renewable energy systems, do not sufficiently contribute to the carbon emission reductions which are necessary for meeting UK Government targets and to avoid dangerous climate change. Purchasing a home ties people in to not just direct consumption of energy (heating, hot water, electricity), but also effects other areas of consumption such as the embedded energy in the building and activities associated with the location and the type of development. Conventional business models for new housing development, operating under current government regulations, policies and targets have failed to develop housing which encourages the adoption of sustainable lifestyles taking whole life consumption into account. An alternative business model of eco-self-build communities is proposed as a way to foster desired behavior change. The feasibility of eco-self-build communities and their scope for supporting low carbon sustainable lifestyles is assessed through stakeholder interviews, and through quantitative assessment of costs, carbon emission reduction potential, and other sustainability impacts of technical and lifestyle options and their combinations. The research shows that eco-self-build communities are both feasible and have the ability to deliver low carbon lifestyles. In comparison to conventional approaches to building new housing, they have further advantages in terms of delivering wider social, environmental as well as economic sustainability objectives. If implemented correctly they could succeed in making sustainable lifestyles attractive, and foster the development of pro- environmental social norms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Consumption)
Open AccessArticle The Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Louisiana State University: A Case Study of the Energy Requirements of Public Higher Education in the United States
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2117-2134; doi:10.3390/su2072117
Received: 4 June 2010 / Revised: 29 June 2010 / Accepted: 7 July 2010 / Published: 13 July 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Higher education institutions play a leading role in sustainability efforts nationwide. Not only do these institutions require large quantities of energy to function but also their research role often lays the groundwork for social transformation. The purpose of this study was to estimate
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Higher education institutions play a leading role in sustainability efforts nationwide. Not only do these institutions require large quantities of energy to function but also their research role often lays the groundwork for social transformation. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual greenhouse gas emissions primarily from energy usage at Louisiana State University. Total energy use is 2.43 million MMBtu resulting in per capita GHG emissions of 6.1 Metric Tons CO2e, which is low compared to many other universities because of lower utility costs. This calculation does not account for total indirect energy use by the university community. Several alternatives for reducing energy use and emissions are considered. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biosecurity on Poultry Farms from On-Farm Fluidized Bed Combustion and Energy Recovery from Poultry Litter
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2135-2143; doi:10.3390/su2072135
Received: 9 June 2010 / Revised: 29 June 2010 / Accepted: 7 July 2010 / Published: 14 July 2010
PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The spreading of poultry litter in recent years has led to a serious increase in levels of eutrophication, nitrate leaching, high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), ammonia toxicity, high chlorine concentrations and pathogen contamination. The review presented here details the optimum standards that should
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The spreading of poultry litter in recent years has led to a serious increase in levels of eutrophication, nitrate leaching, high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), ammonia toxicity, high chlorine concentrations and pathogen contamination. The review presented here details the optimum standards that should be met when storing litter for On-Farm Fluidized Bed Combustion. Storage conditions are paramount to a fuel combusting to its highest possible potential. Safety measures such as the prevention of leaching and spontaneous combustion must be adhered to, so too should the prevention and containment of possible diseases and pathogens to minimize the effects of contamination. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Learning from the Neighbors: Economic and Environmental Impacts from Intensive Shrimp Farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2144-2162; doi:10.3390/su2072144
Received: 28 May 2010 / Revised: 2 July 2010 / Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 14 July 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (765 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intensive shrimp farming is a lucrative and highly risky business. Before entering this industry, most farmers spend time observing the operation of pilot farms. This stage is important to master essential techniques and judge the profitability and risk associated with shrimp farming. Learning
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Intensive shrimp farming is a lucrative and highly risky business. Before entering this industry, most farmers spend time observing the operation of pilot farms. This stage is important to master essential techniques and judge the profitability and risk associated with shrimp farming. Learning is a complex process that leads to misconceptions about the nature of short-term and long-term risks. This paper uses computer simulation to illuminate the dynamic nature of the learning processes, land conversion, shrimp production and environmental contamination. The model is based on conditions of the Dai Hoa Loc Commune in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Initial simulations match statistical data by revealing the high risk: high initial profits from the pilot farms followed by conversion from rice land to shrimp farms. When rapid conversion occurs, the region is vulnerable to excessive accumulation of nutrients, a decline in shrimp yields and financial failure. In contrast, low stock densities deliver a lower profit which is insufficient to stimulate mass land conversion. The paper concludes with testing recovery strategies for farmers who have suffered the longer term impacts of high stocking density. Results show that yield recovery is possible by improving the channel and imposing regulatory control over stocking density. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of Metal Structure Corrosion Damage: A State of the Art Report
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2163-2175; doi:10.3390/su2072163
Received: 25 May 2010 / Revised: 18 June 2010 / Accepted: 5 July 2010 / Published: 15 July 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The durability of metal structures is strongly influenced by damage due to atmospheric corrosion, whose control is a key aspect for design and maintenance of both new constructions and historical buildings. Nevertheless, only general provisions are given in European codes to prevent the
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The durability of metal structures is strongly influenced by damage due to atmospheric corrosion, whose control is a key aspect for design and maintenance of both new constructions and historical buildings. Nevertheless, only general provisions are given in European codes to prevent the effects of corrosion during the lifetime of metal structures. In particular, design guidelines such as Eurocode 3 do not provide models for the evaluation of corrosion depth that are able to predict the rate of thickness loss as a function of different influencing parameters. In this paper, the modeling approaches of atmospheric corrosion damage of metal structures, which are available in both ISO standards and the literature, are presented. A comparison among selected degradation models is shown in order to evaluate the possibility of developing a general approach to the evaluation of thickness loss due to corrosion. Full article
Open AccessArticle Improving the Net Benefits from Tourism for People Living in Remote Northern Australia
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2197-2218; doi:10.3390/su2072197
Received: 6 June 2010 / Revised: 27 June 2010 / Accepted: 29 June 2010 / Published: 15 July 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tourism can be an important source of livelihoods at a destination level. Yet, while there are economic benefits associated with more tourists, there can also be costs to destinations in the form of negative environmental and social impacts. This paper illustrates tourism-related dilemmas
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Tourism can be an important source of livelihoods at a destination level. Yet, while there are economic benefits associated with more tourists, there can also be costs to destinations in the form of negative environmental and social impacts. This paper illustrates tourism-related dilemmas for two remote regions within Australia’s tropical savannas where increasing visitor numbers are straining not only the very environmental assets that attract tourist, but also the host communities. The paper draws on research conducted under the auspices of the Tropical Savannas Management Cooperative Research Centre. Tourism impacts on the regions are described and, where possible, quantified and distributional effects discussed. Evidence is provided that host populations in the remote of Australia’s tropical savannas are willing to trade off environmental and social costs for economic benefits, but that this situation may not be ecologically sustainable. The regions are parts of much larger destinations and consequently peripheral to their concerns. The onus for sustainable tourism and regional development strategies therefore falls on local decision makers. The research presented here provides a framework for local decision makers and stakeholders to ask questions, collect relevant data, and proceed with informed debates and choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Human Populations in Remote Places)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable Technologies and Social Costs for Eliminating Contamination of an Aquifer
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2219-2231; doi:10.3390/su2072219
Received: 30 May 2010 / Revised: 25 June 2010 / Accepted: 9 July 2010 / Published: 16 July 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This case study deals with long-term contamination of the Leuna aquifer, which is intended to be restored using sustainable technologies financed by the state. The contamination can only be solved using active rather than passive intervention, because the aquifer has an extraordinarily low
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This case study deals with long-term contamination of the Leuna aquifer, which is intended to be restored using sustainable technologies financed by the state. The contamination can only be solved using active rather than passive intervention, because the aquifer has an extraordinarily low natural attenuation capacity for the specific pollutants. Due to the longevity of the contamination source, the groundwater treatment technology that was chosen for the site must operate for a minimum of 20 years but probably much longer. Since the polluter-pay principle cannot be applied, the estimated dynamic primary remediation costs must be accepted as a political or social cost, which must be paid by current and future generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Groundwater)
Open AccessArticle A Multi-Agent Planning Support-System for Assessing Externalities of Urban Form Scenarios: Results of Case Studies
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2253-2278; doi:10.3390/su2072253
Received: 21 May 2010 / Revised: 9 June 2010 / Accepted: 8 July 2010 / Published: 19 July 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between various planning-ideas and sustainability is described, using a dedicated multi-agent model and demonstrated by a case study. The analysis supports planning based on preferences and behavior of a target population. Two objectives are addressed: (1) Examine the effect of different
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The relationship between various planning-ideas and sustainability is described, using a dedicated multi-agent model and demonstrated by a case study. The analysis supports planning based on preferences and behavior of a target population. Two objectives are addressed: (1) Examine the effect of different planning ideas-scenarios on the development of the built-environment and, in particular, how different planning scenarios can contribute to a sustainable built environment, and (2) Demonstrate the relevancy of the multi-agent model as a tool for planning and evaluating planning alternatives. Four planning scenarios are included and three performance indicators measuring aspects of sustainability (accessibility, mobility, and viability) are employed in the analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Out of the Rubble and Towards a Sustainable Future: The “Greening” of Greensburg, Kansas
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2302-2319; doi:10.3390/su2072302
Received: 3 June 2010 / Revised: 29 June 2010 / Accepted: 14 July 2010 / Published: 20 July 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Following a devastating tornado there in 2007, the tiny city of Greensburg, Kansas has engaged in a sustainability-oriented recovery process through which it hopes to serve as a model for other communities planning for a sustainable future. This article uses innovation theory to
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Following a devastating tornado there in 2007, the tiny city of Greensburg, Kansas has engaged in a sustainability-oriented recovery process through which it hopes to serve as a model for other communities planning for a sustainable future. This article uses innovation theory to consider how and why the sustainability focus emerged in Greensburg and to explore the potential transferability of those factors to other contexts. An analysis of 535 newspaper articles reveals key factors as: the shared vision of persistent local leaders, the framing of sustainability as an “opportunity” with an energy efficiency focus, community pride and resilience, and a “clean slate” rebuilding effort with substantial available funding. While Greensburg’s future is intimately connected to the specifics of its recent past, the analysis does reveal lessons that other communities can draw from in crafting sustainability plans of their own. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Futures)
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Open AccessArticle Grassland Governance and Common-Interest Communities
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2320-2348; doi:10.3390/su2072320
Received: 24 June 2010 / Revised: 13 July 2010 / Accepted: 13 July 2010 / Published: 21 July 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the United States, today’s ranches are engaging in small-scale nature-based endeavors to diversify their income base. But the geographic boundary of the land they own creates a relatively small area within which to operate, and fragmented ownership diminishes the ability of any
[...] Read more.
In the United States, today’s ranches are engaging in small-scale nature-based endeavors to diversify their income base. But the geographic boundary of the land they own creates a relatively small area within which to operate, and fragmented ownership diminishes the ability of any single landowner to produce nature-based income. Collective action among nearby landowners can produce a set of resources from which all members of the group can profit. Such action can enhance the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of grasslands and the populations that use them. This article shows that common-interest communities can be used to provide and allocate wildlife and other resources on ranchlands, enabling individual landowners to generate more income from selling nature-based experiences to customers. Common-interest communities are familiar in urban settings but they have not yet been used in this setting. Thus, the article proposes a new approach to ranchland management based upon a familiar set of largely private legal arrangements. More broadly, the article illustrates the relevance of private law and private property to sustainable development by explaining how property owners can use private law to engage in environmentally beneficial and economically profitable enterprises on the vast privately owned landscape of the U.S. Great Plains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Laws and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Combining Life Cycle Thinking with Social Theory: Case Study of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) in the Philippines
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2349-2364; doi:10.3390/su2072349
Received: 6 June 2010 / Revised: 30 June 2010 / Accepted: 14 July 2010 / Published: 22 July 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resource depletion remains central to human economic activity with resulting negative consequences for the local and global environment. Material and energy consumption patterns are also increasing globally, as developing countries follow the trail blazed by more industrialized countries. Consumers play a role in
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Resource depletion remains central to human economic activity with resulting negative consequences for the local and global environment. Material and energy consumption patterns are also increasing globally, as developing countries follow the trail blazed by more industrialized countries. Consumers play a role in shifting towards more sustainable forms of consumption. However, consumer-oriented public-policy measures are often restricted to informational campaigns based on moral and price arguments. A multidisciplinary approach to sustainable consumption must go beyond this limited vision of consumers if transitions toward more environmentally friendly consumption patterns are to be made possible. Both a biophysical and social understanding of consumption is necessary. This paper proposes a systemic approach to consumption studies, combining an assessment of consumption patterns with an understanding of the drivers behind them. The concepts will be illustrated using a case study of the government-led promotion of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Conclusions will include general policy-recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Consumption)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Use of Incineration MSW Ash: A Review
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 1943-1968; doi:10.3390/su2071943
Received: 15 May 2010 / Revised: 1 June 2010 / Accepted: 28 June 2010 / Published: 2 July 2010
Cited by 90 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study reviews the characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes, with a main focus on the chemical properties of the ashes. Furthermore, the possible treatment methods for the utilization of ash, namely, separation processes, solidification/stabilization and thermal processes, are also discussed.
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This study reviews the characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes, with a main focus on the chemical properties of the ashes. Furthermore, the possible treatment methods for the utilization of ash, namely, separation processes, solidification/stabilization and thermal processes, are also discussed. Seven types of MSWI ash utilization are reviewed, namely, cement and concrete production, road pavement, glasses and ceramics, agriculture, stabilizing agent, adsorbents and zeolite production. The practical use of MSWI ash shows a great contribution to waste minimization as well as resources conservation. Full article
Open AccessReview The Search for Sustainable Subsurface Habitats on Mars, and the Sampling of Impact Ejecta
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 1969-1990; doi:10.3390/su2071969
Received: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 22 June 2010 / Published: 5 July 2010
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Abstract
On Earth, the deep subsurface biosphere of both the oceanic and the continental crust is well known for surviving harsh conditions and environments characterized by high temperatures, high pressures, extreme pHs, and the absence of sunlight. The microorganisms of the terrestrial deep biosphere
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On Earth, the deep subsurface biosphere of both the oceanic and the continental crust is well known for surviving harsh conditions and environments characterized by high temperatures, high pressures, extreme pHs, and the absence of sunlight. The microorganisms of the terrestrial deep biosphere have an excellent capacity for adapting to changing geochemistry, as the alteration of the crust proceeds and the conditions of their habitats slowly change. Despite an almost complete isolation from surface conditions and the surface biosphere, the deep biosphere of the crustal rocks has endured over geologic time. This indicates that the deep biosphere is a self-sufficient system, independent of the global events that occur at the surface, such as impacts, glaciations, sea level fluctuations, and climate changes. With our sustainable terrestrial subsurface biosphere in mind, the subsurface on Mars has often been suggested as the most plausible place to search for fossil Martian life, or even present Martian life. Since the Martian surface is more or less sterile, subsurface settings are the only place on Mars where life could have been sustained over geologic time. To detect a deep biosphere in the Martian basement, drilling is a requirement. However, near future Mars sample return missions are limited by the mission’s payload, which excludes heavy drilling equipment and restrict the missions to only dig the topmost meter of the Martian soil. Therefore, the sampling and analysis of Martian impact ejecta has been suggested as a way of accessing the deeper Martian subsurface without using heavy drilling equipment. Impact cratering is a natural geological process capable of excavating and exposing large amounts of rock material from great depths up to the surface. Several studies of terrestrial impact deposits show the preservation of pre-impact biosignatures, such as fossilized organisms and chemical biological markers. Therefore, if the Martian subsurface contains a record of life, it is reasonable to assume that biosignatures derived from the Martian subsurface could also be preserved in the Martian impact ejecta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astrobiology and Sustainability)
Open AccessReview Drought, Sustainability, and the Law
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2176-2196; doi:10.3390/su2072176
Received: 28 May 2010 / Revised: 17 June 2010 / Accepted: 12 July 2010 / Published: 15 July 2010
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Abstract
Researchers and responsible officials have made considerable progress in recent years in efforts to anticipate, plan for, and respond to drought. Some of those efforts are beginning to shift from purely reactive, relief-oriented measures to programs designed to prevent or to mitigate drought
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Researchers and responsible officials have made considerable progress in recent years in efforts to anticipate, plan for, and respond to drought. Some of those efforts are beginning to shift from purely reactive, relief-oriented measures to programs designed to prevent or to mitigate drought impacts. Considerably less attention has been given to laws that may affect practices and policies that either increase or decrease drought vulnerability. Water law regimes, drought response and relief legislation, and laws governing broader but related issues of economic policy—especially agricultural policy—should be evaluated more comprehensively to enhance incentives for more ―water sustainable‖ practices in agriculture and other sectors of the economy. Those changes will be increasingly important if current climate change models are correct in their prediction that many parts of the world can expect more frequent and more severe conditions of meteorological drought in the ensuing decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Laws and Sustainability)
Open AccessReview The Role of Formal and Informal Forces in Shaping Consumption and Implications for a Sustainable Society. Part I
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2232-2252; doi:10.3390/su2072232
Received: 27 May 2010 / Revised: 17 June 2010 / Accepted: 7 July 2010 / Published: 16 July 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Addressing climate change and the collapse of ecosystems without threatening the economy, while simultaneously improving the well-being of all people and ensuring social justice and equality, seems to be the largest challenge in the history of mankind. So far, all the efforts to
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Addressing climate change and the collapse of ecosystems without threatening the economy, while simultaneously improving the well-being of all people and ensuring social justice and equality, seems to be the largest challenge in the history of mankind. So far, all the efforts to address growing environmental and human problems through technological solutions and policy measures have been largely outpaced by growing population and increasing consumption levels. Therefore, an understanding of the essential driving forces and complexities of consumption, and of how environmental impacts from rising consumption can be reduced, is becoming increasingly important. This understanding can be achieved by analyzing not only economic frameworks, political settings, business models, and technological innovations, but also social norms, psychological factors, and collective and individual decision-making processes. This article, Part I, provides a meta-analysis of the main political, economic, technological, and business drivers of contemporary consumption and offers a systematic discussion of the relevance of these factors for the instigation of change towards sustainable patterns and levels of consumption. The main conclusion from Part I and II is that a systems-thinking approach is required in order to understand how various political, technical, social, economic, and psychological drivers overlap and influence each other in creating our consumer society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Consumption)
Open AccessReview Discourses of Consumption in US-American Culture
Sustainability 2010, 2(7), 2279-2301; doi:10.3390/su2072279
Received: 8 June 2010 / Revised: 23 June 2010 / Accepted: 12 July 2010 / Published: 20 July 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper explores varieties and examples of discourses of consumption, focusing primarily on US-American cultural discourses. The international community has in recent years developed an extremely valuable body of literature examining strategies for facilitating sustainable consumption; economic ramifications of varying consumption behaviors; attitudes
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This paper explores varieties and examples of discourses of consumption, focusing primarily on US-American cultural discourses. The international community has in recent years developed an extremely valuable body of literature examining strategies for facilitating sustainable consumption; economic ramifications of varying consumption behaviors; attitudes and social structures that encourage or discourage sustainable consumption; approaches to consumption as a component of a sustainable or “green” lifestyle; and considerations of consumption practices in relation to inequities between North and South. The United States has made relatively few contributions to this body of literature thus far. But although the U.S. has not been one of the primary sources of academic literature on sustainable consumption, several types of discourses on consumption have become prominent in U.S. popular culture. These types of discourses include examinations of the moral status of consumption; investigations of the environmental or health consequences of modern consumption behaviors; explorations and critiques of green consumerism; and discourses that either construct or critique the commodification of the nonhuman world to produce objects for consumption. Throughout this paper I outline and offer examples of these strains of popular discourse, drawing on a newly-emerging body of U.S. literature and critically analyzing instances of discourse about sustainable consumption in film, television, internet, and print media. I conclude by examining new perspectives on sustainable coexistence that offer transformative possibilities for establishing relationships with the more-than-human world that are not based primarily on consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Consumption)

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