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Sustainability, Volume 2, Issue 8 (August 2010), Pages 2365-2733

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Preliminary Study of Passive Cooling Strategy Using a Combination of PCM and Copper Foam to Increase Thermal Heat Storage in Building Facade
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2365-2381; doi:10.3390/su2082365
Received: 27 June 2010 / Accepted: 23 July 2010 / Published: 27 July 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The innovation of phase change material (PCM) for thermal heat storage is one sustainable passive strategy that can be integrated into building designs. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with PCM and to propose
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The innovation of phase change material (PCM) for thermal heat storage is one sustainable passive strategy that can be integrated into building designs. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with PCM and to propose a design strategy that would improve the system. This research suggested copper foam as a medium to be integrated with microencapsulated PCM. Applications of these combined materials will benefit the industry by improving indoor environments and by delivering sufficient thermal comfort for residents as in the case study of the existing 1.6 million terrace houses in Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Renewable Energy Technology—Is It a Manufactured Technology or an Information Technology?
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2382-2402; doi:10.3390/su2082382
Received: 27 June 2010 / Accepted: 23 July 2010 / Published: 27 July 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Socio-technical or strategic approach to renewable energy deployment all suggests that the uptake of renewable energy technology such as solar photovoltaic is as much a social issue as a technical issue. Among social issues, one most direct and immediate component is the cost
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Socio-technical or strategic approach to renewable energy deployment all suggests that the uptake of renewable energy technology such as solar photovoltaic is as much a social issue as a technical issue. Among social issues, one most direct and immediate component is the cost of the renewable energy technology. Because renewable electricity provides no new functionality—a clean electron does the same work as a dirty electron does—but is relatively expensive compared with fossil fuel based electricity, there is currently an under-supply of renewable electricity. Policy instruments based on economics approaches are therefore developed to encourage the production and consumption of renewable electricity, aiming to remediate the market inefficiencies that stem from the failure in internalizing the environmental or social costs of fossil fuels. In this vein, the most discussed instruments are renewable portfolio standard or quota based system and the general category of feed-in tariff. Feed-in tariff is to support output or generation of the renewable electricity by subsidizing revenues. The existing discussions have all concerned about the relative effectiveness of these two instruments in terms of cost, prices and implementation efficiency. This paper attempts a different basis of evaluation of these two instruments in terms of cost and (network) externality effects. The cost effect is driven by deploying the renewable as a manufactured technology, and the network externality effect is driven by deploying the renewable as an information technology. The deployment instruments are studied in terms of how these two effects are leveraged in the deployment process. Our formulation lends itself to evolutionary policy interpretation. Future research directions associated with this new energy policy framework is then suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Striving for Sustainability and Resilience in the Face of Unprecedented Change: The Case of the Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak in British Columbia
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2403-2423; doi:10.3390/su2082403
Received: 2 July 2010 / Revised: 25 July 2010 / Accepted: 28 July 2010 / Published: 29 July 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A massive insect outbreak in the public forests of central British Columbia (Canada) poses a serious challenge for sustainable forest management planning. Tree mortality caused by natural disturbances has always been a part of wild and managed forests, but climate change is accentuating
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A massive insect outbreak in the public forests of central British Columbia (Canada) poses a serious challenge for sustainable forest management planning. Tree mortality caused by natural disturbances has always been a part of wild and managed forests, but climate change is accentuating the uncertainty around such losses. Policy responses to accelerate overall timber harvesting levels to prevent further tree mortality and to aggressively salvage value from dead wood before it deteriorates can be disruptive and even counter-productive in the long run. Current alternatives are to strategically redirect existing timber harvesting quotas to the most vulnerable areas, minimize overall uplifts in cutting activity, prolong the period over which harvested timber can be processed, avoid the harvesting of mixed species stands or those with good advance regeneration, employ more partial cutting or “selective logging” techniques, and relax standards for acceptable species and inter-tree spacing during post-disturbance stand recovery. At the same time, careful attention to species composition and evolving landscape risk profiles may facilitate adaptation to anticipated climate change and reduce vulnerability to future disturbances. Harvest levels must be set conservatively over the full planning horizon if it is important to assure continuity of the timber supply with few disruptions to regional socio-economics and less stress to ecosystems. Broader lessons in sustainability include the option to emphasize persistence, continuity and flexibility over the long term, though at the expense of maximized production and full resource utilization in the short term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Futures)
Open AccessArticle Losing the Forest for the Trees: Environmental Reductionism in the Law
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2424-2448; doi:10.3390/su2082424
Received: 29 June 2010 / Revised: 22 July 2010 / Accepted: 23 July 2010 / Published: 29 July 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental laws and policies have saved some “trees”, but the “forest” is being lost as critical global issues including climate change, biodiversity loss, and our ecological footprint continue to worsen. Existing laws and policies mitigate the ecological damage inflicted by industrial economies and
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Environmental laws and policies have saved some “trees”, but the “forest” is being lost as critical global issues including climate change, biodiversity loss, and our ecological footprint continue to worsen. Existing laws and policies mitigate the ecological damage inflicted by industrial economies and western lifestyles. The article essentially makes the case for a sustainability approach to law that aims for transformation rather than environmental mitigation. Relevant trends in international law and domestic law reflective of a sustainability approach are discussed, and the article describes some contours of “law for sustainability” or “sustainability law”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Laws and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Low Impact Development Design—Integrating Suitability Analysis and Site Planning for Reduction of Post-Development Stormwater Quantity
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2467-2482; doi:10.3390/su2082467
Received: 29 June 2010 / Revised: 14 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 3 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A land-suitability analysis (LSA) was integrated with open-space conservation principles, based on watershed physiographic and soil characteristics, to derive a low-impact development (LID) residential plan for a three hectare site in Coshocton OH, USA. The curve number method was used to estimate total
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A land-suitability analysis (LSA) was integrated with open-space conservation principles, based on watershed physiographic and soil characteristics, to derive a low-impact development (LID) residential plan for a three hectare site in Coshocton OH, USA. The curve number method was used to estimate total runoff depths expected from different frequency storms for: (i) the pre-development condition, (ii) a conventional design, (iii) LID design based on the LSA of same building size; and (iv) LID design based on the LSA with reduced building footprints. Post-development runoff depths for the conventional design increased by 55 percent over those for the pre-development condition. Runoff depth for the same building size LSA-LID design was only 26 percent greater than that for the pre-development condition, and 17% for the design with reduced building sizes. Results suggest that prudent use of LSA may improve prospects and functionality of low-impact development, reduce stormwater flooding volumes and, hence, lower site-development costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle The Limits to Transforming the Environment and the Limits to Sociological Knowledge
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2483-2498; doi:10.3390/su2082483
Received: 11 June 2010 / Revised: 19 July 2010 / Accepted: 25 July 2010 / Published: 3 August 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper argues that the social sciences are fragmented in addressing the environmental challenge of increasing resource depletion. To address this problem, the paper puts forward a framework which encompasses several disciplinary approaches, and above all a long-term historical perspective and a realist
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This paper argues that the social sciences are fragmented in addressing the environmental challenge of increasing resource depletion. To address this problem, the paper puts forward a framework which encompasses several disciplinary approaches, and above all a long-term historical perspective and a realist sociology of science and technology which, in combination, provide a means of understanding the disruptive changes in the transformation of the environment. The paper then focuses on energy and gives an overview of the various social forces that can potentially counteract the future tensions arising from the foreseeable depletion of energy sources. It argues that only some of these countervailing forces—namely state intervention and technological innovation—provide viable potential solutions to these tensions. However, these solutions themselves face severe constraints. The paper concludes by arguing that a realistic assessment of constraints is the most useful, though limited, service that social science can contribute to our understanding of the relation between social and environmental transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Futures)
Open AccessArticle Alley Farming in Thailand
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2523-2540; doi:10.3390/su2082523
Received: 4 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 4 August 2010
PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming
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Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Case of the Lacking Carbonates and the Emergence of Early Life on Mars
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2541-2554; doi:10.3390/su2082541
Received: 2 July 2010 / Revised: 22 July 2010 / Accepted: 27 July 2010 / Published: 5 August 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mineralogical characterization of Mars by different exploration missions, provides a new image of the earliest conditions that prevailed on the planet surface. The detection of extensive deposits of phyllosillicates has been considered to be as a result of the production of hydrated
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The mineralogical characterization of Mars by different exploration missions, provides a new image of the earliest conditions that prevailed on the planet surface. The detection of extensive deposits of phyllosillicates has been considered to be as a result of the production of hydrated silicates through alteration and precipitation under neutral to sub-alkaline conditions. Although extensive deposits of carbonates should precipitate beneath a thick CO2-bearing atmosphere, only a few outcrops of Mg-rich carbonates have been detected on Mars. Paradoxically those carbonates occur in association with geological units exposed to acidic paleoenvironments. Given such geochemical conditions on Earth, the carbon cycle is intimately associated with life, then, we can assume that the presence or absence of microbial communities should have impacted the distribution of those carbonate compounds on Mars. In this paper, we suggest three potential geobiological scenarios to explain how the emergence of life on Mars would have impacted the carbon cycle and, hence, the formation of carbonates on a planetary scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astrobiology and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Application of an Expanded Sequestration Estimate to the Domestic Energy Footprint of the Republic of Ireland
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2555-2572; doi:10.3390/su2082555
Received: 4 June 2010 / Accepted: 16 July 2010 / Published: 6 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The need for global comparability has led to the recent standardization of ecological footprint methods. The use of global averages and necessary methodological assumptions has questioned the ability of the ecological footprint to represent local or national specific concerns. This paper attempts to
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The need for global comparability has led to the recent standardization of ecological footprint methods. The use of global averages and necessary methodological assumptions has questioned the ability of the ecological footprint to represent local or national specific concerns. This paper attempts to incorporate greater national relevancy by expanding the sequestration estimate used to calculate the annual carbon footprint of domestic Irish energy use. This includes expanding existing study boundaries to include additional carbon pools such as the litter, dead and soil pools. This generated an overall estimate of 4.38 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year (t C/ha/yr), resulting in an ecological footprint estimate of 0.49 hectares per capita (ha/cap) The method employed in this paper also incorporated the potential role of grassland as a carbon sink. The caveat that the resultant value is dependent on the choice of study boundary is discussed. Including the lateral movement of carbon embodied in farm products (effectively placing the boundary around the farm gate) reduces the estimate of grassland carbon sequestration by approximately 44% to 1.82 t C/ha/yr. When a footprint calculated using an overall sequestration estimate (based on the distribution of Irish grassland and forestry) is translated into global hectares (gha), the standardized value is reduced by 35%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Footprint Indicator)
Open AccessCommunication Sustainability in Near-shore Marine Systems: Promoting Natural Resilience
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2593-2600; doi:10.3390/su2082593
Received: 1 July 2010 / Revised: 6 August 2010 / Accepted: 13 August 2010 / Published: 16 August 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accumulation of atmospheric CO2 is increasing the temperature and concentration of CO2 in near-shore marine systems. These changes are occurring concurrently with increasing alterations to local conditions, including nutrient pollution and exploitation of selected biota. While the body of evidence for
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Accumulation of atmospheric CO2 is increasing the temperature and concentration of CO2 in near-shore marine systems. These changes are occurring concurrently with increasing alterations to local conditions, including nutrient pollution and exploitation of selected biota. While the body of evidence for the negative effects of climate change is rapidly increasing, there is still only limited recognition that it may combine with local stressors to accelerate degradation. By recognizing such synergies, however, it may be possible to actively manage and improve local conditions to ameliorate the effects of climate change in the medium-term (e.g., by reducing nutrient pollution or restoring populations of herbivores). Ultimately, however, the most effective way to increase the sustainability of near-shore marine systems into the future will be to decrease our reliance on carbon-based sources of energy to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Futures)
Open AccessArticle Political Economy, Capitalism and Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2601-2616; doi:10.3390/su2082601
Received: 13 July 2010 / Revised: 5 August 2010 / Accepted: 10 August 2010 / Published: 18 August 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
After a critical review of conventional approaches to sustainability, this paper contrasts orthodox (neoclassical) economic theory with a political economy approach, arguing that such an approach focusing on the historically specific organizational form of production and the inherent characteristics of the capitalist mode
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After a critical review of conventional approaches to sustainability, this paper contrasts orthodox (neoclassical) economic theory with a political economy approach, arguing that such an approach focusing on the historically specific organizational form of production and the inherent characteristics of the capitalist mode of production is crucial for exploring the preconditions, the content and the prospects of sustainability. Analyzing briefly these characteristics and the developmental trends of capitalism, we locate the basic causes behind the currently exacerbated economic and ecological crisis, and on these grounds we briefly explore the required systemic transformations necessary to ensure a socially and ecologically, truly sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Political Economy and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle The Century Ahead: Searching for Sustainability
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2626-2651; doi:10.3390/su2082626
Received: 10 July 2010 / Revised: 12 August 2010 / Accepted: 17 August 2010 / Published: 20 August 2010
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The global future lies before us as a highly uncertain and contested landscape with numerous perils along the way. This study explores possible pathways to sustainability by considering in quantitative detail four contrasting scenarios for the twenty-first century. The analysis reveals vividly the
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The global future lies before us as a highly uncertain and contested landscape with numerous perils along the way. This study explores possible pathways to sustainability by considering in quantitative detail four contrasting scenarios for the twenty-first century. The analysis reveals vividly the risks of conventional development approaches and the real danger of socio-ecological descent. Nonetheless, the paper underscores that a Great Transition scenario—turning toward a civilization of enhanced human well-being and environmental resilience—remains an option, and identifies a suite of strategic and value changes for getting there. A fundamental shift in the development paradigm is found to be an urgent necessity for assuring a sustainable future and, as well, a hopeful opportunity for creating a world of enriched lives, human amity, and a healthy ecosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Futures)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2676-2685; doi:10.3390/su2082676
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 11 August 2010 / Accepted: 19 August 2010 / Published: 20 August 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer
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With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Groundwater)
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Open AccessArticle Using Scenario Visioning and Participatory System Dynamics Modeling to Investigate the Future: Lessons from Minnesota 2050
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2686-2706; doi:10.3390/su2082686
Received: 10 July 2010 / Revised: 17 August 2010 / Accepted: 18 August 2010 / Published: 24 August 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Both scenario visioning and participatory system dynamics modeling emphasize the dynamic and uncontrollable nature of complex socio-ecological systems, and the significance of multiple feedback mechanisms. These two methodologies complement one another, but are rarely used together. We partnered with regional organizations in Minnesota
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Both scenario visioning and participatory system dynamics modeling emphasize the dynamic and uncontrollable nature of complex socio-ecological systems, and the significance of multiple feedback mechanisms. These two methodologies complement one another, but are rarely used together. We partnered with regional organizations in Minnesota to design a future visioning process that incorporated both scenarios and participatory system dynamics modeling. The three purposes of this exercise were: first, to assist regional leaders in making strategic decisions that would make their communities sustainable; second, to identify research gaps that could impede the ability of regional and state groups to plan for the future; and finally, to introduce more systems thinking into planning and policy-making around environmental issues. We found that scenarios and modeling complemented one another, and that both techniques allowed regional groups to focus on the sustainability of fundamental support systems (energy, food, and water supply). The process introduced some creative tensions between imaginative scenario visioning and quantitative system dynamics modeling, and between creating desired futures (a strong cultural norm) and inhabiting the future (a premise of the Minnesota 2050 exercise). We suggest that these tensions can stimulate more agile, strategic thinking about the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Futures)
Open AccessArticle Promoting Cultural Sustainability in the Context of Public Health: A Thai Perspective
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2707-2718; doi:10.3390/su2082707
Received: 12 July 2010 / Revised: 23 August 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 24 August 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last 4 decades, the concept of sustainable development has emerged in response to environmental and economic crises related to the consumption of non-renewable resources. The challenge of developing a sustainable economy has moved beyond the disciplines of economics, environmental and political
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Over the last 4 decades, the concept of sustainable development has emerged in response to environmental and economic crises related to the consumption of non-renewable resources. The challenge of developing a sustainable economy has moved beyond the disciplines of economics, environmental and political science to include an ecological approach involving the public health community. The role of cultural values in defining and addressing the issue of sustainability from a public health perspective varies among nations and is dependent on multiple factors. This paper highlights the challenges related to sustainability and current health problems in Thailand. An innovative educational approach from Mahidol University, a leading public health institution, incorporates the principles of a sufficiency economy while integrating the school’s mission of preserving and applying national and local culture and wisdom to sustain and improve quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Political Economy and Sustainability)

Review

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Open AccessReview Extending the Influence of Scenario Development in Sustainability Planning and Strategy
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2449-2466; doi:10.3390/su2082449
Received: 24 June 2010 / Revised: 15 July 2010 / Accepted: 21 July 2010 / Published: 30 July 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is wide agreement that a transition toward deeper forms of sustainability would require transformational changes at many levels, transcending current patterns of incremental progress. Transformational changes might only occur, in many instances, over time frames that extend well beyond those of mainstream
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There is wide agreement that a transition toward deeper forms of sustainability would require transformational changes at many levels, transcending current patterns of incremental progress. Transformational changes might only occur, in many instances, over time frames that extend well beyond those of mainstream approaches to planning. The need for more explicit attention to longer term futures is reflected in the increasing use of scenario-based processes applied to sustainability challenges. The full potential of scenario development remains, however, largely untapped; many audiences have yet to be engaged, intrigued and influenced by them. This review article explores key barriers to more effective use of scenario development in relation to sustainability challenges, including: (1) the persistent predictive orientation of sustainability planning exercises; (2) the relatively low level of interest in weak signals and their implications; (3) institutionalized aversion to long term planning; and (4) the predominance of an essentialist perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Futures)
Open AccessReview Multifunctional Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Land Use Planning in the United States
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2499-2522; doi:10.3390/su2082499
Received: 11 June 2010 / Revised: 1 July 2010 / Accepted: 4 August 2010 / Published: 4 August 2010
Cited by 63 | PDF Full-text (952 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing movement
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Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing movement to produce food in cities of developed countries including the United States. In these regions, urban agriculture offers a new frontier for land use planners and landscape designers to become involved in the development and transformation of cities to support community farms, allotment gardens, rooftop gardening, edible landscaping, urban forests, and other productive features of the urban environment. Despite the growing interest in urban agriculture, urban planners and landscape designers are often ill-equipped to integrate food-systems thinking into future plans for cities. The challenge (and opportunity) is to design urban agriculture spaces to be multifunctional, matching the specific needs and preferences of local residents, while also protecting the environment. This paper provides a review of the literature on urban agriculture as it applies to land use planning in the United States. The background includes a brief historical perspective of urban agriculture around the world, as well as more recent examples in the United States. Land use applications are considered for multiple scales, from efforts that consider an entire city, to those that impact a single building or garden. Barriers and constraints to urban agriculture are discussed, followed by research opportunities and methodological approaches that might be used to address them. This work has implications for urban planners, landscape designers, and extension agents, as opportunities to integrate urban agriculture into the fabric of our cities expand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessReview The Role of Formal and Informal Forces in Shaping Consumption and Implications for Sustainable Society: Part II
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2573-2592; doi:10.3390/su2082573
Received: 10 July 2010 / Accepted: 9 August 2010 / Published: 10 August 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Looking at consumption from a societal perspective, we can see that purchasing and behavior decisions are influenced by many factors, not the least which are what the people around us and in the media are doing. Other factors include economic influences, the marketing
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Looking at consumption from a societal perspective, we can see that purchasing and behavior decisions are influenced by many factors, not the least which are what the people around us and in the media are doing. Other factors include economic influences, the marketing of products and technological innovations, and regulations governing consumption. This article, Part II, argues that in order to understand consumption, we need to move beyond the dominant (economic) understanding of consumers and consumer behavior, and think about the origins of our preferences, needs, and desires. A thorough understanding of consumption is informed by the contributions of sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists, and behavioral scientists, who study the socio-cultural, social, and psychological contexts in which consumer behavior is embedded. These disciplines offer rich and complex explanations of human behavior, which in turn illuminate the discussion on how consumer behavior can be made more sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Consumption)
Open AccessReview Issues of Sustainability of Coastal Groundwater Resources: Benin, West Africa
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2652-2675; doi:10.3390/su2082652
Received: 13 July 2010 / Revised: 3 August 2010 / Accepted: 19 August 2010 / Published: 20 August 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The largest city in Benin, West Africa (Cotonou), is reliant upon groundwater for its public water supply. This groundwater is derived from the Godomey well field which is located approximately 5 Km north of the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and in close
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The largest city in Benin, West Africa (Cotonou), is reliant upon groundwater for its public water supply. This groundwater is derived from the Godomey well field which is located approximately 5 Km north of the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and in close proximity to Lake Nokoue—a shallow lake containing water with elevated concentration of chloride and other elements. Historical data indicate increased chloride concentration in a number of wells nearest to the lake, with unknown contribution from groundwater encroachment from the coastal area. Hence, there is substantial interest in better characterizing this groundwater system for the purpose of determining appropriate management practices and degree of sustainability. Among the efforts attempted to date are a series of numerical models ranging from assessment of flow to a recent effort to include density-dependent transport from the lake. In addition, substantial field characterization has been pursued including assessment of shallow water chemistry along the region of the coastal lagoon and border of the lake, characterization of hydraulic response to pumpage in the aquifer system, estimation of the distribution of electrical resistivity with depth along the coastal lagoons, and installation of multi-level piezometers at seven locations in the lake. When integrated across methods, these numerical and field results indicate that the lake remains a primary concern in terms of a source of salinity in the aquifer. Further, the coastal region appears to be more complex than previously suggested and may represent a future source of salt-water encroachment as suggested by current presence of saline waters at relatively shallow depths along the coast. Finally, hydraulic testing suggests that both natural and pumping-based fluctuations in water levels are present in this system. Substantial additional characterization and modeling efforts may provide a significantly greater understanding of the behavior of this complex groundwater system and, thereby, an improved ability to manage the potential for negative impacts from salt-water and anthropogenic contaminants entering this sole source of fresh water for southern Benin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Groundwater)
Open AccessReview Climate Change and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2719-2733; doi:10.3390/su2082719
Received: 10 July 2010 / Revised: 24 July 2010 / Accepted: 24 August 2010 / Published: 24 August 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years it has become clear that climate change is an inevitable process. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the expectation is that climate change will have an especially negative impact, not only a result of projected warming and rainfall deficits, but also because of
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In recent years it has become clear that climate change is an inevitable process. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the expectation is that climate change will have an especially negative impact, not only a result of projected warming and rainfall deficits, but also because of the vulnerability of the population. The impact upon food security will be of great significance, and may be defined as being composed of three components: availability, access, and utilization. To further investigate the link, a systematic literature review was done of the peer-reviewed literature related to climate change and food security, employing the realist review method. Analysis of the literature found consistent predictions of decreased crop productivity, land degradation, high market prices, negative impacts on livelihoods, and increased malnutrition. Adaptation strategies were heavily discussed as a means of mitigating a situation of severe food insecurity across the entire region. This is linked to issues of development, whereby adaptation is essential to counteract the negative impacts and improve the potential of the population to undergo development processes. Findings additionally revealed a gap in the literature about how nutrition will be affected, which is of importance given the links between poor nutrition and lack of productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Security and Environmental Sustainability)

Other

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Open AccessCommentary Comments on ‘Straka, T.J.; Layton, P.A. Natural Resources Management: Life Cycle Assessment and Forest Certification and Sustainability Issues. Sustainability 2010, 2, 604–623’
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2617-2620; doi:10.3390/su2082617
Received: 13 June 2010 / Accepted: 17 August 2010 / Published: 18 August 2010
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Abstract
Unreferenced statement on page 608: “A fundamental difference between FSC and PEFC is the stakeholders. While FSC was founded mainly by environmental groups, PEFC had strong forest industry and trade groups among its founders. This is one reason FSC is not a member
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Unreferenced statement on page 608: “A fundamental difference between FSC and PEFC is the stakeholders. While FSC was founded mainly by environmental groups, PEFC had strong forest industry and trade groups among its founders. This is one reason FSC is not a member of PEFC. Both the ATFS and SFI are recognized by PEFC as acceptable standards”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources Management: Life Cycle Assessment)
Open AccessReply Response to Comments of Ben Gunneberg
Sustainability 2010, 2(8), 2621-2625; doi:10.3390/su2082621
Received: 18 July 2010 / Accepted: 17 August 2010 / Published: 18 August 2010
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Abstract
An unreferenced statement on page 608 is challenged as being incorrect. FSC and PEFC are competitors and issues on the differences between the programs are often arguable. We do agree that a small portion of the statement could have been more clearly stated,
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An unreferenced statement on page 608 is challenged as being incorrect. FSC and PEFC are competitors and issues on the differences between the programs are often arguable. We do agree that a small portion of the statement could have been more clearly stated, but the intent of the statement was essentially correct. The original article contained 80 references and not every sentence could be referenced. We include 18 additional references below to strengthen and clarify our statement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources Management: Life Cycle Assessment)

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