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Viruses, Volume 6, Issue 12 (December 2014), Pages 4800-5197

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Genotypic Analysis of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus from Patients with Kaposi’s Sarcoma in Xinjiang, China
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4800-4810; doi:10.3390/v6124800
Received: 27 September 2014 / Revised: 9 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causal agent of all forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), including AIDS-KS, endemic KS, classic KS and iatrogenic KS. Based on Open reading frame (ORF) K1 sequence analysis, KSHV has been classified into seven major molecular subtypes (A,
[...] Read more.
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causal agent of all forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), including AIDS-KS, endemic KS, classic KS and iatrogenic KS. Based on Open reading frame (ORF) K1 sequence analysis, KSHV has been classified into seven major molecular subtypes (A, B, C, D, E, F and Z). The distribution of KSHV strains varies according to geography and ethnicity. Xinjiang is a unique region where the seroprevalence of KSHV is significantly higher than other parts of China. The genotyping of KSHV strains in this region has not been thoroughly studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of KSHV genotypes isolated from KS tissues in Classical KS and AIDS KS patients from Xinjiang, China. ORF-K1 of KSHV from tissue samples of 28 KS patients was amplified and sequenced. Two subtypes of KSHV were identified according to K1 genotyping. Twenty-three of them belonged to subtype A, while five of them were subtype C. More genotype A than genotype C strains were found in both Classical KS and AIDS KS. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of different genotype between Classical KS and AIDS KS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Virus-Like Particles of Chimeric Recombinant Porcine Circovirus Type 2 as Antigen Vehicle Carrying Foreign Epitopes
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4839-4855; doi:10.3390/v6124839
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Virus-like particles (VLPs) of chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were generated by replacing the nuclear localization signal (NLS; at 1–39 aa) of PCV2 capsid protein (Cap) with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) T-cell epitope (1446–1460 aa), CSFV B-cell epitope (693–716 aa) and
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Virus-like particles (VLPs) of chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were generated by replacing the nuclear localization signal (NLS; at 1–39 aa) of PCV2 capsid protein (Cap) with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) T-cell epitope (1446–1460 aa), CSFV B-cell epitope (693–716 aa) and CSFV T-cell epitope conjugated with B-cell epitope. The recombinant proteins were expressed using the baculovirus expression system and detected by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The abilities to form PCV2 VLPs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Immunogenicities of the three recombinant proteins were evaluated in mice. Our Results indicated that Cap protein NLS deletion or substitution with CSFV epitopes did not affect the VLPs assembly. Three chimeric Cap proteins could form VLPs and induce efficient humoral and cellular immunity against PCV2 and CSFV in mice. Results show that PCV2 VLPs can be used as an efficient antigen carrier for delivery of foreign epitopes, and a potential novel vaccine. Full article
Open AccessArticle Human Papillomavirus Species-Specific Interaction with the Basement Membrane-Resident Non-Heparan Sulfate Receptor
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4856-4879; doi:10.3390/v6124856
Received: 12 September 2014 / Revised: 22 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using a cell culture model where virus is bound to the extracellular matrix (ECM) prior to cell surface binding, we determined that human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) utilizes ECM resident laminin (LN) 332 as an attachment receptor for infectious entry. In presence of
[...] Read more.
Using a cell culture model where virus is bound to the extracellular matrix (ECM) prior to cell surface binding, we determined that human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) utilizes ECM resident laminin (LN) 332 as an attachment receptor for infectious entry. In presence of LN332, soluble heparin can function as ligand activator rather than competitive inhibitor of HPV16 infection. We also show that the ability to use LN332 binding as a productive attachment step for infectious entry is not conserved amongst HPV types. In the alpha genus, species 9 members (HPV16) attach to ECM via LN332, while members of species 7 (HPV18) are completely inhibited by heparin pre-incubation due to an inability to use LN332. Since HPV species 7 and 9 are preferentially associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, respectively, our data provide first evidence that pre-entry events may contribute to the anatomical-site preference of HPV species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Open AccessArticle CPB1 of Aedes aegypti Interacts with DENV2 E Protein and Regulates Intracellular Viral Accumulation and Release from Midgut Cells
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5028-5046; doi:10.3390/v6125028
Received: 25 September 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aedes aegypti is a principal vector responsible for the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV). To date, vector control remains the key option for dengue disease management. To develop new vector control strategies, a more comprehensive understanding of the biological interactions between DENV and
[...] Read more.
Aedes aegypti is a principal vector responsible for the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV). To date, vector control remains the key option for dengue disease management. To develop new vector control strategies, a more comprehensive understanding of the biological interactions between DENV and Ae. aegypti is required. In this study, a cDNA library derived from the midgut of female adult Ae. aegypti was used in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screenings against DENV2 envelope (E) protein. Among the many interacting proteins identified, carboxypeptidase B1 (CPB1) was selected, and its biological interaction with E protein in Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells was further validated. Our double immunofluorescent assay showed that CPB1-E interaction occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells. Overexpression of CPB1 in mosquito cells resulted in intracellular DENV2 genomic RNA or virus particle accumulation, with a lower amount of virus release. Therefore, we postulated that in Ae. aegypti midgut cells, CPB1 binds to the E protein deposited on the ER intraluminal membranes and inhibits DENV2 RNA encapsulation, thus inhibiting budding from the ER, and may interfere with immature virus transportation to the trans-Golgi network. Full article
Open AccessArticle Genomic Sequencing and Biological Characteristics of a Novel Escherichia Coli Bacteriophage 9g, a Putative Representative of a New Siphoviridae Genus
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5077-5092; doi:10.3390/v6125077
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacteriophage 9g was isolated from horse feces using Escherichia coli C600 as a host strain. Phage 9g has a slightly elongated capsid 62 × 76 nm in diameter and a non-contractile tail about 185 nm long. The complete genome sequence of this bacteriophage
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Bacteriophage 9g was isolated from horse feces using Escherichia coli C600 as a host strain. Phage 9g has a slightly elongated capsid 62 × 76 nm in diameter and a non-contractile tail about 185 nm long. The complete genome sequence of this bacteriophage consists of 56,703 bp encoding 70 predicted open reading frames. The closest relative of phage 9g is phage PhiJL001 infecting marine alpha-proteobacterium associated with Ircinia strobilina sponge, sharing with phage 9g 51% of amino acid identity in the main capsid protein sequence. The DNA of 9g is resistant to most restriction endonucleases tested, indicating the presence of hypermodified bases. The gene cluster encoding a biosynthesis pathway similar to biosynthesis of the unusual nucleoside queuosine was detected in the phage 9g genome. The genomic map organization is somewhat similar to the typical temperate phage gene layout but no integrase gene was detected. Phage 9g efficiently forms stable associations with its host that continues to produce the phage over multiple passages, but the phage can be easily eliminated via viricide treatment indicating that no true lysogens are formed. Since the sequence, genomic organization and biological properties of bacteriophage 9g are clearly distinct from other known Enterobacteriaceae phages, we propose to consider it as the representative of a novel genus of the Siphoviridae family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5135-5144; doi:10.3390/v6125135
Received: 17 September 2014 / Revised: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous
[...] Read more.
The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16), the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Viruses and Their Use for Microbial Pest Control)
Open AccessArticle Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan: An Arbovirus Attachment Factor Integral to Mosquito Salivary Gland Ducts
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5182-5197; doi:10.3390/v6125182
Received: 14 November 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology
[...] Read more.
Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology in the SG lateral lobes while infection with TR339, a HSPG-independent variant, resulted in minimal SG pathology. HSPG was detected in the internal ducts of the SG lateral lobes by immunolabeling but not in the median lobe, or beyond the triad structure and external ducts. Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. Pre-incubation of Aedes albopictus cultured C7-10 cells with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) followed by adsorption of SINV resulted in earlier and greater intensity of cytopathic response to TR339 compared with AR339. Following pre-treatment of C7-10 cells with bLF, plaques from tissue culture-adapted high-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were observed at 48 h post-infection (p.i.), while plaques from low-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were not observed until 120 h p.i. Confocal optics detected this reporter virus at 30 days p.i. in the SG proximal lateral lobe, a region of HSPG-immunolocalization. Altogether these data suggest an association between SINV and HSPG in the host mosquito. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Alpharetroviral Vectors: From a Cancer-Causing Agent to a Useful Tool for Human Gene Therapy
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4811-4838; doi:10.3390/v6124811
Received: 26 September 2014 / Revised: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 20 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (786 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gene therapy using integrating retroviral vectors has proven its effectiveness in several clinical trials for the treatment of inherited diseases and cancer. However, vector-mediated adverse events related to insertional mutagenesis were also observed, emphasizing the need for safer therapeutic vectors. Paradoxically, alpharetroviruses, originally
[...] Read more.
Gene therapy using integrating retroviral vectors has proven its effectiveness in several clinical trials for the treatment of inherited diseases and cancer. However, vector-mediated adverse events related to insertional mutagenesis were also observed, emphasizing the need for safer therapeutic vectors. Paradoxically, alpharetroviruses, originally discovered as cancer-causing agents, have a more random and potentially safer integration pattern compared to gammaretro- and lentiviruses. In this review, we provide a short overview of the history of alpharetroviruses and explain how they can be converted into state-of-the-art gene delivery tools with improved safety features. We discuss development of alpharetroviral vectors in compliance with regulatory requirements for clinical translation, and provide an outlook on possible future gene therapy applications. Taken together, this review is a broad overview of alpharetroviral vectors spanning the bridge from their parental virus discovery to their potential applicability in clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retroviral Vectors)
Open AccessReview Morphologic Differentiation of Viruses beyond the Family Level
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4902-4913; doi:10.3390/v6124902
Received: 23 October 2014 / Revised: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2064 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electron microscopy has been instrumental in the identification of viruses by being able to characterize a virus to the family level. There are a few cases where morphologic or morphogenesis factors can be used to differentiate further, to the genus level. These include
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Electron microscopy has been instrumental in the identification of viruses by being able to characterize a virus to the family level. There are a few cases where morphologic or morphogenesis factors can be used to differentiate further, to the genus level. These include viruses in the families Poxviridae, Reoviridae, Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Filoviridae, and Bunyaviridae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electron Microscopy in Virus Diagnostics and Research)
Open AccessReview In between: Gypsy in Drosophila melanogaster Reveals New Insights into Endogenous Retrovirus Evolution
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4914-4925; doi:10.3390/v6124914
Received: 30 September 2014 / Revised: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retroviruses are RNA viruses that are able to synthesize a DNA copy of their genome and insert it into a chromosome of the host cell. Sequencing of different eukaryote genomes has revealed the presence of many such endogenous retroviral sequences. The mechanisms by
[...] Read more.
Retroviruses are RNA viruses that are able to synthesize a DNA copy of their genome and insert it into a chromosome of the host cell. Sequencing of different eukaryote genomes has revealed the presence of many such endogenous retroviral sequences. The mechanisms by which these retroviral sequences have colonized the genome are still unknown, and the endogenous retrovirus gypsy of Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful experimental model for deciphering this process in vivo. Gypsy is expressed in a layer of somatic cells, and then transferred into the oocyte by an unknown mechanism. This critical step is the start of the endogenization process. Moreover gypsy has been shown to have infectious properties, probably due to its envelope gene acquired from a baculovirus. Recently we have also shown that gypsy maternal transmission is reduced in the presence of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia. These studies demonstrate that gypsy is a unique and powerful model for understanding the endogenization of retroviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Viruses)
Open AccessReview “Ménage à Trois”: The Evolutionary Interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and Domestic Sheep
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4926-4945; doi:10.3390/v6124926
Received: 17 October 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sheep betaretroviruses represent a fascinating model to study the complex evolutionary interplay between host and pathogen in natural settings. In infected sheep, the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with a variety of highly related endogenous JSRVs, referred to as enJSRVs.
[...] Read more.
Sheep betaretroviruses represent a fascinating model to study the complex evolutionary interplay between host and pathogen in natural settings. In infected sheep, the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with a variety of highly related endogenous JSRVs, referred to as enJSRVs. During evolution, some of them were co-opted by the host as they fulfilled important biological functions, including placental development and protection against related exogenous retroviruses. In particular, two enJSRV loci, enJS56A1 and enJSRV-20, were positively selected during sheep domestication due to their ability to interfere with the replication of related competent retroviruses. Interestingly, viruses escaping these transdominant enJSRVs have recently emerged, probably less than 200 years ago. Overall, these findings suggest that in sheep the process of endogenization is still ongoing and, therefore, the evolutionary interplay between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host has not yet reached an equilibrium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Viruses)
Open AccessReview Porcine Bocavirus: Achievements in the Past Five Years
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4946-4960; doi:10.3390/v6124946
Received: 18 August 2014 / Revised: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Porcine bocavirus is a recently discovered virus that infects pigs and is classified within the Bocavirus genus (family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae). The viral genome constitutes linear single-stranded DNA and has three open reading frames that encode four proteins: NS1, NP1
[...] Read more.
Porcine bocavirus is a recently discovered virus that infects pigs and is classified within the Bocavirus genus (family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae). The viral genome constitutes linear single-stranded DNA and has three open reading frames that encode four proteins: NS1, NP1, VP1, and VP2. There have been more than seven genotypes discovered to date. These genotypes have been classified into three groups based on VP1 sequence. Porcine bocavirus is much more prevalent in piglets that are co-infected with other pathogens than in healthy piglets. The virus can be detected using PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, cell cultures, indirect immunofluorescence, and other molecular virology techniques. Porcine bocavirus has been detected in various samples, including stool, serum, lymph nodes, and tonsils. Because this virus was discovered only five years ago, there are still many unanswered questions that require further research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and primary research achievements regarding porcine bocavirus. Full article
Open AccessReview KSHV LANA—The Master Regulator of KSHV Latency
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4961-4998; doi:10.3390/v6124961
Received: 30 October 2014 / Revised: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 11 December 2014
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), like other human herpes viruses, establishes a biphasic life cycle referred to as dormant or latent, and productive or lytic phases. The latent phase is characterized by the persistence of viral episomes in a highly ordered chromatin structure
[...] Read more.
Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), like other human herpes viruses, establishes a biphasic life cycle referred to as dormant or latent, and productive or lytic phases. The latent phase is characterized by the persistence of viral episomes in a highly ordered chromatin structure and with the expression of a limited number of viral genes. Latency Associated Nuclear Antigen (LANA) is among the most abundantly expressed proteins during latency and is required for various nuclear functions including the recruitment of cellular machineries for viral DNA replication and segregation of the replicated genomes to daughter cells. LANA achieves these functions by recruiting cellular proteins including replication factors, chromatin modifying enzymes and cellular mitotic apparatus assembly. LANA directly binds to the terminal repeat region of the viral genome and associates with nucleosomal proteins to tether to the host chromosome. Binding of LANA to TR recruits the replication machinery, thereby initiating DNA replication within the TR. However, other regions of the viral genome can also initiate replication as determined by Single Molecule Analysis of the Replicated DNA (SMARD) approach. Recent, next generation sequence analysis of the viral transcriptome shows the expression of additional genes during latent phase. Here, we discuss the newly annotated latent genes and the role of major latent proteins in KSHV biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus) Printed Edition available
Figures

Open AccessReview Interferon Induction by RNA Viruses and Antagonism by Viral Pathogens
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4999-5027; doi:10.3390/v6124999
Received: 11 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interferons are a group of small proteins that play key roles in host antiviral innate immunity. Their induction mainly relies on host pattern recognition receptors (PRR). Host PRR for RNA viruses include Toll-like receptors (TLR) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors
[...] Read more.
Interferons are a group of small proteins that play key roles in host antiviral innate immunity. Their induction mainly relies on host pattern recognition receptors (PRR). Host PRR for RNA viruses include Toll-like receptors (TLR) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors (RLR). Activation of both TLR and RLR pathways can eventually lead to the secretion of type I IFNs, which can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses against viral pathogens. Because of the important roles of interferons, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade host TLR and RLR mediated signaling. This review focuses on the mechanisms of interferon induction and antagonism of the antiviral strategy by RNA viruses. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview Architectural Insight into Inovirus-Associated Vectors (IAVs) and Development of IAV-Based Vaccines Inducing Humoral and Cellular Responses: Implications in HIV-1 Vaccines
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5047-5076; doi:10.3390/v6125047
Received: 17 September 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
PDF Full-text (1396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inovirus-associated vectors (IAVs) are engineered, non-lytic, filamentous bacteriophages that are assembled primarily from thousands of copies of the major coat protein gp8 and just five copies of each of the four minor coat proteins gp3, gp6, gp7 and gp9. Inovirus display studies have
[...] Read more.
Inovirus-associated vectors (IAVs) are engineered, non-lytic, filamentous bacteriophages that are assembled primarily from thousands of copies of the major coat protein gp8 and just five copies of each of the four minor coat proteins gp3, gp6, gp7 and gp9. Inovirus display studies have shown that the architecture of inoviruses makes all coat proteins of the inoviral particle accessible to the outside. This particular feature of IAVs allows foreign antigenic peptides to be displayed on the outer surface of the virion fused to its coat proteins and for more than two decades has been exploited in many applications including antibody or peptide display libraries, drug design, and vaccine development against infectious and non-infectious diseases. As vaccine carriers, IAVs have been shown to elicit both a cellular and humoral response against various pathogens through the display of antibody epitopes on their coat proteins. Despite their high immunogenicity, the goal of developing an effective vaccine against HIV-1 has not yet materialized. One possible limitation of previous efforts was the use of broadly neutralizing antibodies, which exhibited autoreactivity properties. In the past five years, however, new, more potent broadly neutralizing antibodies that do not exhibit autoreactivity properties have been isolated from HIV-1 infected individuals, suggesting that vaccination strategies aimed at producing such broadly neutralizing antibodies may confer protection against infection. The utilization of these new, broadly neutralizing antibodies in combination with the architectural traits of IAVs have driven the current developments in the design of an inovirus-based vaccine against HIV-1. This article reviews the applications of IAVs in vaccine development, with particular emphasis on the design of inoviral-based vaccines against HIV-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AIDS Vaccine 2014)
Open AccessReview Phocine Distemper Virus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5093-5134; doi:10.3390/v6125093
Received: 10 November 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection
[...] Read more.
Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)
Open AccessReview Cetacean Morbillivirus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5145-5181; doi:10.3390/v6125145
Received: 7 November 2014 / Revised: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (2600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It
[...] Read more.
We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Although most CeMV strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), from Western Australia, and a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), from Brazil, are divergent. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in cetaceans. It shares higher amino acid identity with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, reflecting the evolutionary history of these mammalian taxa. In Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may result in a higher affinity for the virus. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute disease may develop fatal secondary infections and chronic encephalitis. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes probably serve as reservoirs and vectors. Transmission likely occurs through the inhalation of aerosolized virus but mother to fetus transmission was also reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCommentary Immunology of Bats and Their Viruses: Challenges and Opportunities
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4880-4901; doi:10.3390/v6124880
Received: 6 October 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS
[...] Read more.
Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS and MERS coronaviruses. As is usual with reservoir hosts, these viruses apparently cause little or no pathology in bats. Despite the importance of bats as reservoir hosts of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic agents, virtually nothing is known about the host/virus relationships; principally because few colonies of bats are available for experimental infections, a lack of reagents, methods and expertise for studying bat antiviral responses and immunology, and the difficulty of conducting meaningful field work. These challenges can be addressed, in part, with new technologies that are species-independent that can provide insight into the interactions of bats and viruses, which should clarify how the viruses persist in nature, and what risk factors might facilitate transmission to humans and livestock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Bats)
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