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Special Issue "Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Insect Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Rollie Clem

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: anti-viral responses in insects; apoptosis; movement of viruses within insects

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diseases caused by arboviruses are a major public health problem in many parts of the world, with dengue cases alone numbering more than 100 million every year. However, only a small fraction of mosquitoes and other blood-feeding arthropods are able to serve as vectors for arbovirus transmission, and even within individual vector species, vector competence can vary widely between different populations. This Special Issue will focus on the interactions between arboviruses and arthropod vectors which are involved in determining whether a particular arthropod population is able to serve as a vector for a specific arbovirus.  Examples of appropriate topics may include immunity pathways or antiviral responses in vectors, barriers to infection within vectors, viral genetic traits that affect transmission, and other types of interactions.  Manuscripts that describe recent advances in the development of genetic tools to manipulate arbovirus-vector interactions are also welcome.

Professor Rollie Clem
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • arbovirus
  • vector competence
  • mosquito
  • innate immunity
  • environmental factors
  • dengue
  • chikungunya
  • West Nile
  • bunyavirus
  • alphavirus

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan: An Arbovirus Attachment Factor Integral to Mosquito Salivary Gland Ducts
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5182-5197; doi:10.3390/v6125182
Received: 14 November 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology
[...] Read more.
Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology in the SG lateral lobes while infection with TR339, a HSPG-independent variant, resulted in minimal SG pathology. HSPG was detected in the internal ducts of the SG lateral lobes by immunolabeling but not in the median lobe, or beyond the triad structure and external ducts. Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. Pre-incubation of Aedes albopictus cultured C7-10 cells with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) followed by adsorption of SINV resulted in earlier and greater intensity of cytopathic response to TR339 compared with AR339. Following pre-treatment of C7-10 cells with bLF, plaques from tissue culture-adapted high-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were observed at 48 h post-infection (p.i.), while plaques from low-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were not observed until 120 h p.i. Confocal optics detected this reporter virus at 30 days p.i. in the SG proximal lateral lobe, a region of HSPG-immunolocalization. Altogether these data suggest an association between SINV and HSPG in the host mosquito. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes
Viruses 2015, 7(11), 5705-5717; doi:10.3390/v7112903
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 7 October 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 4 November 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (715 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that
[...] Read more.
Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
Open AccessReview Tissue Barriers to Arbovirus Infection in Mosquitoes
Viruses 2015, 7(7), 3741-3767; doi:10.3390/v7072795
Received: 2 May 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 8 July 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses often cause devastating diseases in vertebrate hosts, but they typically do not cause significant pathology in their arthropod vectors. Following oral acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal from a vertebrate host,
[...] Read more.
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses often cause devastating diseases in vertebrate hosts, but they typically do not cause significant pathology in their arthropod vectors. Following oral acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal from a vertebrate host, the arbovirus disease cycle requires replication in the cellular environment of the arthropod vector. Once the vector has become systemically and persistently infected, the vector is able to transmit the virus to an uninfected vertebrate host. In order to systemically infect the vector, the virus must cope with innate immune responses and overcome several tissue barriers associated with the midgut and the salivary glands. In this review we describe, in detail, the typical arbovirus infection route in competent mosquito vectors. Based on what is known from the literature, we explain the nature of the tissue barriers that arboviruses are confronted with in a mosquito vector and how arboviruses might surmount these barriers. We also point out controversial findings to highlight particular areas that are not well understood and require further research efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
Figures

Open AccessReview The Role of RNA Interference (RNAi) in Arbovirus-Vector Interactions
Viruses 2015, 7(2), 820-843; doi:10.3390/v7020820
Received: 11 September 2014 / Revised: 10 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 February 2015 / Published: 17 February 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
RNA interference (RNAi) was shown over 18 years ago to be a mechanism by which arbovirus replication and transmission could be controlled in arthropod vectors. During the intervening period, research on RNAi has defined many of the components and mechanisms of this antiviral
[...] Read more.
RNA interference (RNAi) was shown over 18 years ago to be a mechanism by which arbovirus replication and transmission could be controlled in arthropod vectors. During the intervening period, research on RNAi has defined many of the components and mechanisms of this antiviral pathway in arthropods, yet a number of unexplored questions remain. RNAi refers to RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression. Originally, the term described silencing of endogenous genes by introduction of exogenous double-stranded (ds)RNA with the same sequence as the gene to be silenced. Further research has shown that RNAi comprises three gene regulation pathways that are mediated by small RNAs: the small interfering (si)RNA, micro (mi)RNA, and Piwi-interacting (pi)RNA pathways. The exogenous (exo-)siRNA pathway is now recognized as a major antiviral innate immune response of arthropods. More recent studies suggest that the piRNA and miRNA pathways might also have important roles in arbovirus-vector interactions. This review will focus on current knowledge of the role of the exo-siRNA pathway as an arthropod vector antiviral response and on emerging research into vector piRNA and miRNA pathway modulation of arbovirus-vector interactions. Although it is assumed that arboviruses must evade the vector’s antiviral RNAi response in order to maintain their natural transmission cycles, the strategies by which this is accomplished are not well defined. RNAi is also an important tool for arthropod gene knock-down in functional genomics studies and in development of arbovirus-resistant mosquito populations. Possible arbovirus strategies for evasion of RNAi and applications of RNAi in functional genomics analysis and arbovirus transmission control will also be reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
Open AccessReview Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions
Viruses 2014, 6(11), 4628-4663; doi:10.3390/v6114628
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (11782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding
[...] Read more.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
Open AccessReview Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions
Viruses 2014, 6(11), 4703-4730; doi:10.3390/v6114703
Received: 1 October 2014 / Revised: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 20 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus,
[...] Read more.
The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
Open AccessReview Mosquito Immunity against Arboviruses
Viruses 2014, 6(11), 4479-4504; doi:10.3390/v6114479
Received: 29 October 2014 / Revised: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control
[...] Read more.
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy, and arboviral suppression of mosquito defense mechanisms. This knowledge provides insights into co-evolutionary processes between vector and virus and also lays the groundwork for the development of novel arbovirus control strategies that target the mosquito vector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
Open AccessReview Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions
Viruses 2014, 6(11), 4373-4397; doi:10.3390/v6114373
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera
[...] Read more.
The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
Open AccessReview Mosquito-Borne Viruses and Suppressors of Invertebrate Antiviral RNA Silencing
Viruses 2014, 6(11), 4314-4331; doi:10.3390/v6114314
Received: 19 September 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 October 2014 / Published: 11 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The natural maintenance cycles of many mosquito-borne viruses require establishment of persistent non-lethal infections in the invertebrate host. While the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood, antiviral responses directed by small RNAs are important in modulating the pathogenesis of viral
[...] Read more.
The natural maintenance cycles of many mosquito-borne viruses require establishment of persistent non-lethal infections in the invertebrate host. While the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood, antiviral responses directed by small RNAs are important in modulating the pathogenesis of viral infections in disease vector mosquitoes. In yet another example of an evolutionary arms race between host and pathogen, some plant and insect viruses have evolved to encode suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). Whether or not mosquito-borne viral pathogens encode VSRs has been the subject of debate. While at first there would seem to be little evolutionary benefit to mosquito-borne viruses encoding proteins or sequences that strongly interfere with RNA silencing, we present here a model explaining how the expression of VSRs by these viruses in the vector might be compatible with the establishment of persistence. We also discuss the challenges associated with interrogating these viruses for the presence of suppressor proteins or sequences, as well as the candidates that have been identified in the genomes of mosquito-borne pathogens thus far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
Open AccessReview Arboviral Bottlenecks and Challenges to Maintaining Diversity and Fitness during Mosquito Transmission
Viruses 2014, 6(10), 3991-4004; doi:10.3390/v6103991
Received: 22 September 2014 / Revised: 18 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
The term arbovirus denotes viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, such as ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting arthropods. The infection of these vectors produces a certain set of evolutionary pressures on the virus; involving migration from the midgut, where the blood meal containing
[...] Read more.
The term arbovirus denotes viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, such as ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting arthropods. The infection of these vectors produces a certain set of evolutionary pressures on the virus; involving migration from the midgut, where the blood meal containing the virus is processed, to the salivary glands, in order to transmit the virus to the next host. During this process the virus is subject to numerous bottlenecks, stochastic events that significantly reduce the number of viral particles that are able to infect the next stage. This article reviews the latest research on the bottlenecks that occur in arboviruses and the way in which these affect the evolution and fitness of these viruses. In particular we focus on the latest research on three important arboviruses, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Chikungunya viruses and compare the differing effects of the mosquito bottlenecks on these viruses as well as other evolutionary pressures that affect their evolution and transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
Open AccessReview Role of microRNAs in Arbovirus/Vector Interactions
Viruses 2014, 6(9), 3514-3534; doi:10.3390/v6093514
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs in regulation of gene expression has been recognized. They appear to be involved in regulation of a wide range of cellular pathways that affect several biological processes such as development, the immune system, survival,
[...] Read more.
The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs in regulation of gene expression has been recognized. They appear to be involved in regulation of a wide range of cellular pathways that affect several biological processes such as development, the immune system, survival, metabolism and host-pathogen interactions. Arthropod-borne viruses impose great economic and health risks around the world. Recent advances in miRNA biology have shed some light on the role of these small RNAs in vector-virus interactions. In this review, I will reflect on our current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in arbovirus-vector interactions and the potential avenues for their utilization in limiting virus replication and/or transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)

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