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Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5182-5197; doi:10.3390/v6125182

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan: An Arbovirus Attachment Factor Integral to Mosquito Salivary Gland Ducts

Department of Biology, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
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Received: 14 November 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
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Abstract

Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology in the SG lateral lobes while infection with TR339, a HSPG-independent variant, resulted in minimal SG pathology. HSPG was detected in the internal ducts of the SG lateral lobes by immunolabeling but not in the median lobe, or beyond the triad structure and external ducts. Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. Pre-incubation of Aedes albopictus cultured C7-10 cells with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) followed by adsorption of SINV resulted in earlier and greater intensity of cytopathic response to TR339 compared with AR339. Following pre-treatment of C7-10 cells with bLF, plaques from tissue culture-adapted high-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were observed at 48 h post-infection (p.i.), while plaques from low-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were not observed until 120 h p.i. Confocal optics detected this reporter virus at 30 days p.i. in the SG proximal lateral lobe, a region of HSPG-immunolocalization. Altogether these data suggest an association between SINV and HSPG in the host mosquito. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alphavirus; heparan sulfate proteoglycan; Aedine mosquitoes; salivary gland ducts; Sindbis virus; GFP Alphavirus; heparan sulfate proteoglycan; Aedine mosquitoes; salivary gland ducts; Sindbis virus; GFP
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ciano, K.A.; Saredy, J.J.; Bowers, D.F. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan: An Arbovirus Attachment Factor Integral to Mosquito Salivary Gland Ducts. Viruses 2014, 6, 5182-5197.

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