Special Issue "Electron Microscopy in Virus Diagnostics and Research"
A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015)
For about 75 years electron microscopy is used to investigate viruses. While the focus of applications has changed over the years, it is still important to visualize virus structures and the cellular context in which they occur. Electron microscopy provides an “open view” about all matter present in a sample which helps to find even the unexpected. Besides a bare description of structures, information collected by electron microscopy allows to generate new hypothesis and ideas about many aspects of the virus life cycle, especially if applied in conjunction with other methods.
The major idea of this special issue of Viruses is to compile high quality papers which show how electron microscopy is used in research and diagnostics of viruses today.
Contributions may cover the following fields of applications:
- development of techniques and methods
- structural biology of viruses
- cell biology of infection, replication, assembly and egress
- description of new viruses
- clinical aspects of viral infections
Reports of original data and reviews about relevant aspects are highly welcome.
Dr. Michael Laue
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.
- electron microscopy
- infectious disease
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Evaluation of Virus Inactivation by Formaldehyde to Support Biosafety of Diagnostic Electron Microscopy
Authors: Möller, L.1; Hanisch, M. 2; Kurth, A. 4; Nitsche, A. 3; Schwebke, I. 2; Laue, M. 1
Affiliations: 1Advanced Light and Electron Microscopy (ZBS 4)
2Hospital Hygiene, Infection Prevention and Control (FG 14)
3Highly Pathogenic Viruses (ZBS 1)
4Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory (ZBS 5)
Robert Koch Institute, D-13353 Berlin, Germany
Abstract: Formaldehyde (FA) inactivation of infectious agents is well established in the field of diagnostic electron microscopy of viruses. However, published experimental data that directly prove inactivation by the procedures used are lacking. Usually, inactivation is performed more or less directly before preparation of the samples for microscopy is taking place. The process must transform viruses in a non-infectious but structurally intact form to allow a proper diagnosis based on morphology. FA provides an essential advantage in comparison to other disinfectants, because it preserves the ultrastructure of biological material without interfering significantly with the preparation protocol (i.e. the negative staining). To check the efficiency of FA inactivation we have used vaccinia virus, adenovirus and murine norovirus as models and treated them with different protocols using formaldehyde. Critical factors for the inactivation efficiency were concentration of the FA, duration and temperature of the treatment as well as the complexity of the virus. Our results show that inactivation at low temperature (4 to 8°C) is not sufficient regardless of its duration and that increasing the temperature (up to 37° C) is completing and shortening the inactivation process which improves both biosafety and speed of diagnostic electron microscopy.