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Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4926-4945; doi:10.3390/v6124926

“Ménage à Trois”: The Evolutionary Interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and Domestic Sheep

1
MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, 464 Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61-1QH, UK
2
UMR5667, Laboratory of Plant Development and Reproduction, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d'Italie, 69007 Lyon, France
3
Department of Animal Sciences and Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, PO Box 646310 Pullman, Washington, DC, USA
4
UMR754, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, SFR BioSciences Gerland, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007 Lyon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Viruses)
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Abstract

Sheep betaretroviruses represent a fascinating model to study the complex evolutionary interplay between host and pathogen in natural settings. In infected sheep, the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with a variety of highly related endogenous JSRVs, referred to as enJSRVs. During evolution, some of them were co-opted by the host as they fulfilled important biological functions, including placental development and protection against related exogenous retroviruses. In particular, two enJSRV loci, enJS56A1 and enJSRV-20, were positively selected during sheep domestication due to their ability to interfere with the replication of related competent retroviruses. Interestingly, viruses escaping these transdominant enJSRVs have recently emerged, probably less than 200 years ago. Overall, these findings suggest that in sheep the process of endogenization is still ongoing and, therefore, the evolutionary interplay between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host has not yet reached an equilibrium. View Full-Text
Keywords: JSRV; enJSRV; retrovirus; virus-host co-evolution; restriction factors; placenta JSRV; enJSRV; retrovirus; virus-host co-evolution; restriction factors; placenta
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Armezzani, A.; Varela, M.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.; Arnaud, F. “Ménage à Trois”: The Evolutionary Interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and Domestic Sheep. Viruses 2014, 6, 4926-4945.

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