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Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4999-5027; doi:10.3390/v6124999

Interferon Induction by RNA Viruses and Antagonism by Viral Pathogens

1
Molecular Virology Laboratory, VA-MD College of Veterinary Medicine and Maryland Pathogen Research Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
2
Stem Cell Biology and Therapy Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
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Abstract

Interferons are a group of small proteins that play key roles in host antiviral innate immunity. Their induction mainly relies on host pattern recognition receptors (PRR). Host PRR for RNA viruses include Toll-like receptors (TLR) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors (RLR). Activation of both TLR and RLR pathways can eventually lead to the secretion of type I IFNs, which can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses against viral pathogens. Because of the important roles of interferons, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade host TLR and RLR mediated signaling. This review focuses on the mechanisms of interferon induction and antagonism of the antiviral strategy by RNA viruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: interferon induction; TLR; RLR; viral antagonism interferon induction; TLR; RLR; viral antagonism
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nan, Y.; Nan, G.; Zhang, Y.-J. Interferon Induction by RNA Viruses and Antagonism by Viral Pathogens. Viruses 2014, 6, 4999-5027.

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