Special Issue "Endogenous Viruses"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2014
Prof. Dr. Welkin Johnson
Biology Department Higgins 545, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA
Phone: +1 617-552-4223
Interests: retroviruses; primate lentiviruses (HIV and SIV); co-evolution of viruses and their hosts
The genomes of living organisms are richly imbued with endogenous viral sequences, accumulated across the broad expanse of evolutionary time. While the most abundant and best studied of these are the endogenous retroviruses (ERV), we now appreciate that all manner of viruses have contributed sequences to host germline DNA. It is also clear that endogenous viral sequences can be found in organisms representing all the domains of life, from the smallest microbes to the largest plants and animals on earth. Endogenous viruses reflect the natural history of both virus and host, and are likely to have played significant roles in organismal evolution. In this Special Issue, we seek to explore all aspects of endogenous viruses, including the mechanisms and biological consequences of endogenization, the potential contributions of endogenous viruses to host evolution and ecology, and the use of endogenous loci for reconstructing the natural history of viruses and their hosts.
Prof. Dr. Welkin Johnson
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Gammaretroviruses of Red Squirrels
Authors: Rachael Tarlinton
Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK; Tel. +44 0115 9516273; E-Mail: Rachael.Tarlinton@nottingham.ac.uk
Abstract: Red squirrels in the UK have suffered precipitious population declines following the introduction of the exotic grey squirrel and their viruses (most noticeably pox viruses). Recent reports of disease syndromes such as amyloidosis and fatal exudative dermatitis in ecologically important offshore island populations have led to investigations for possible immunosuppressive agents in these populations. We have identified two partial gammaretroviral sequences in red squirrels that are polymorphic across red squirrel populations. One of these is present at a statistically significant higher prevalence in offshore island populations, this virus is phylogenetically most closely related to a gammaretrovirus of dogs (rather than to other rodent viruses) indicating a possible cross-species transmission event.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Detection of Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses in Xenotransplantation
Authors: Magdalena Kimsa 1*, Urszula Mazurek 2, Peter Nicholson 2, Krzysztof Lopata 2, Barbara Strzalka-Mrozik 2, Malgorzata Kimsa 2 and Joanna Gola 2
1 Department of Food and Nutrition, Medical University of Silesia, Jednosci 8, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland; E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Department of Molecular Biology, Medical University of Silesia, Narcyzow 1, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Abstract: The shortage of organs and other tissues for use in human transplantation procedures can be supplied with material taken from pigs. Clinical exposure carries the risk of the potential transmission of porcine pathogens to a novel, human host, with as yet unknown consequences. Of particular concern in this respect are porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) belonging to gammaretroviruses. Three subtypes of PERVs have been identified, of which both PERV-A and PERV-B have the ability to infect human cells in vitro. While the third subtype, PERV-C, does not show this ability, recombinant PERV-A/C forms have demonstrated infectivity in human cell culture. In view of the risk presented by these observations, the International Xenotransplantation Association recently recommended four strategies to prevent transmission of PERVs during xenotransplantation i.e. careful screening of the source pig herd for PERVs, selection of pigs which exhibit low-level expression of PERV-A and PERV-B, selection of pigs which do not contain PERV-C in their germ line, to prevent recombination with PERV-A, and screening of xenotransplant recipients for PERV transmission using assays which are sufficiently sensitive to enable differentiation between transmission and chimerism. The purpose of this article is to review the techniques available for the detection of PERV DNA, RNA, reverse transcriptase activity and proteins and anti-PERV antibodies to enable carrying out these recommendations.
Keywords: porcine endogenous retroviruses; xenotransplantation; transmission; detection
Last update: 31 January 2014