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Materials, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2014), Pages 4088-4877

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Open AccessArticle Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4854-4877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064854
Received: 21 March 2014 / Revised: 25 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are
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In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical and Electrical Characterization of Entangled Networks of Carbon Nanofibers
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4845-4853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064845
Received: 1 March 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Entangled networks of carbon nanofibers are characterized both mechanically and electrically. Results for both tensile and compressive loadings of the entangled networks are presented for various densities. Mechanically, the nanofiber ensembles follow the micromechanical model originally proposed by van Wyk nearly 70 years
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Entangled networks of carbon nanofibers are characterized both mechanically and electrically. Results for both tensile and compressive loadings of the entangled networks are presented for various densities. Mechanically, the nanofiber ensembles follow the micromechanical model originally proposed by van Wyk nearly 70 years ago. Interpretations are given on the mechanisms occurring during loading and unloading of the carbon nanofiber components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Application of Hydrophilic Silanol-Based Chemical Grout for Strengthening Damaged Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4823-4844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064823
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1067 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, hydrophilic chemical grout using silanol (HCGS) was adopted to overcome the performance limitations of epoxy materials used for strengthening existing buildings and civil engineering structures. The enhanced material performances of HCGS were introduced, and applied to the section enlargement method,
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In this study, hydrophilic chemical grout using silanol (HCGS) was adopted to overcome the performance limitations of epoxy materials used for strengthening existing buildings and civil engineering structures. The enhanced material performances of HCGS were introduced, and applied to the section enlargement method, which is one of the typical structural strengthening methods used in practice. To evaluate the excellent structural strengthening performance of the HCGS, structural tests were conducted on reinforced concrete beams, and analyses on the flexural behaviors of test specimens were performed by modified partial interaction theory (PIT). In particular, to improve the constructability of the section enlargement method, an advanced strengthening method was proposed, in which the precast panel was directly attached to the bottom of the damaged structural member by HCGS, and the degree of connection of the test specimens, strengthened by the section enlargement method, were quantitatively evaluated by PIT-based analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Manufacturing and Characterization of Ti6Al4V Lattice Components Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4803-4822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064803
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1847 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper investigates the fabrication of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) titanium alloy Ti6Al4V micro-lattice structures for the production of lightweight components. Specifically, the pillar textile unit cell is used as base lattice structure and alternative lattice topologies including reinforcing vertical bars are also
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The paper investigates the fabrication of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) titanium alloy Ti6Al4V micro-lattice structures for the production of lightweight components. Specifically, the pillar textile unit cell is used as base lattice structure and alternative lattice topologies including reinforcing vertical bars are also considered. Detailed characterizations of dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, and micro-hardness are performed. In addition, compression tests are carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical strength and the energy absorbed per unit mass of the lattice truss specimens made by SLM. The built structures have a relative density ranging between 0.2234 and 0.5822. An optimization procedure is implemented via the method of Taguchi to identify the optimal geometric configuration which maximizes peak strength and energy absorbed per unit mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Photostability of 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4789-4802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064789
Received: 11 May 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We analyze the behavior of a series of newly synthesized (R-NH3)2PbX4 perovskites and, in particular, discuss the possible reasons which cause their degradation under UV illumination. Experimental results show that the degradation process depends a lot on their
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We analyze the behavior of a series of newly synthesized (R-NH3)2PbX4 perovskites and, in particular, discuss the possible reasons which cause their degradation under UV illumination. Experimental results show that the degradation process depends a lot on their molecular components: not only the inorganic part, but also the chemical structure of the organic moieties play an important role in bleaching and photo-chemical reaction processes which tend to destroy perovskites luminescent framework. In addition, we find the spatial arrangement in crystal also influences the photostability course. Following these trends, we propose a plausible mechanism for the photodegradation of the films, and also introduced options for optimized stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opto-Electronic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Sintering Behaviour of Waste Olivine and Olivine/Alumina Blends
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4773-4788; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064773
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sintering behaviour of several green compacts made with olivine or olivine/alumina powder blends has been examined. To this goal, powders were attrition milled, uniaxially pressed into specimens and air sintered at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1300 °C. The resulting samples were
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The sintering behaviour of several green compacts made with olivine or olivine/alumina powder blends has been examined. To this goal, powders were attrition milled, uniaxially pressed into specimens and air sintered at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1300 °C. The resulting samples were characterized by water absorption, shrinkage, phase composition and density. Compositions containing 5%, 10% and 20% Al2O3 have a sintering behaviour similar to that of olivine alone, reaching low residual porosity when fired at 1300 °C. Conversely, the composition containing 40% Al2O3 displays an almost flat shrinkage profile and maintains high residual porosity in the examined temperature range. Full article
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Open AccessArticle UNS S31603 Stainless Steel Tungsten Inert Gas Welds Made with Microparticle and Nanoparticle Oxides
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4755-4772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064755
Received: 13 February 2014 / Revised: 19 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of austenitic stainless steel assisted by microparticle oxides and that assisted by nanoparticle oxides. SiO2 and Al2O3 were used to investigate the effects
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of austenitic stainless steel assisted by microparticle oxides and that assisted by nanoparticle oxides. SiO2 and Al2O3 were used to investigate the effects of the thermal stability and the particle size of the activated compounds on the surface appearance, geometric shape, angular distortion, delta ferrite content and Vickers hardness of the UNS S31603 stainless steel TIG weld. The results show that the use of SiO2 leads to a satisfactory surface appearance compared to that of the TIG weld made with Al2O3. The surface appearance of the TIG weld made with nanoparticle oxide has less flux slag compared with the one made with microparticle oxide of the same type. Compared with microparticle SiO2, the TIG welding with nanoparticle SiO2 has the potential benefits of high joint penetration and less angular distortion in the resulting weldment. The TIG welding with nanoparticle Al2O3 does not result in a significant increase in the penetration or reduction of distortion. The TIG welding with microparticle or nanoparticle SiO2 uses a heat source with higher power density, resulting in a higher ferrite content and hardness of the stainless steel weld metal. In contrast, microparticle or nanoparticle Al2O3 results in no significant difference in metallurgical properties compared to that of the C-TIG weld metal. Compared with oxide particle size, the thermal stability of the oxide plays a significant role in enhancing the joint penetration capability of the weld, for the UNS S31603 stainless steel TIG welds made with activated oxides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Aggregate Coated with Modified Sulfur on the Properties of Cement Concrete
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4739-4754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064739
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes the mixing design of concrete having modified sulfur-coated aggregate (MSCA) to enhance the durability of Portland cement concrete. The mechanical properties and durability of the proposed MSCA concrete were evaluated experimentally. Melting-modified sulfur was mixed with aggregate in order to
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This paper proposes the mixing design of concrete having modified sulfur-coated aggregate (MSCA) to enhance the durability of Portland cement concrete. The mechanical properties and durability of the proposed MSCA concrete were evaluated experimentally. Melting-modified sulfur was mixed with aggregate in order to coat the aggregate surface at a speed of 20 rpm for 120 s. The MSCA with modified sulfur corresponding to 5% of the cement weight did not significantly affect the flexural strength in a prism concrete beam specimen, regardless of the water-cement ratio (W/C). However, a dosage of more than 7.5% decreased the flexural strength. On the other hand, the MSCA considerably improved the resistance to the sulfuric acid and the freezing-thawing, regardless of the sulfur dosage in the MSCA. The coating modified sulfur of 5% dosage consequently led to good results for the mechanical properties and durability of MSCA concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Ytterbium-Phosphate Glass for Microstructured Fiber Laser
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4723-4738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064723
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the paper, we report on the development of a synthesis and melting method of phosphate glasses designed for active microstructured fiber manufacturing. Non-doped glass synthesized in a P2O5-Al2O3-BaO-ZnO-MgO-Na2O oxide system served as
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In the paper, we report on the development of a synthesis and melting method of phosphate glasses designed for active microstructured fiber manufacturing. Non-doped glass synthesized in a P2O5-Al2O3-BaO-ZnO-MgO-Na2O oxide system served as the matrix material; meanwhile, the glass was doped with 6 mol% (18 wt%) of Yb2O3, as fiber core. The glasses were well-fitted in relation to optical (refractive index) and thermal proprieties (thermal expansion coefficient, rheology). The fiber with the Yb3+-doped core, with a wide internal photonic microstructure for a laser pump, as well as with a high relative hole size in the photonic outer air-cladding, was produced. The laser built on the basis of this fiber enabled achieving 8.07 W of output power with 20.5% slope efficiency against the launched pump power, in single-mode operation M2 = 1.59, from a 53 cm-long cavity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Corrosion Prevention of Aluminum Nanoparticles by a Polyurethane Coating
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4710-4722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064710
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to prevent corrosion, aluminum nanoparticles were coated with a polyurethane polymer. The coverage of the polyurethane polymer was controlled from 0 to 100%, which changed the corrosion rate of the nanoparticles quantitatively. The surface of the polymer coating was investigated by
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In order to prevent corrosion, aluminum nanoparticles were coated with a polyurethane polymer. The coverage of the polyurethane polymer was controlled from 0 to 100%, which changed the corrosion rate of the nanoparticles quantitatively. The surface of the polymer coating was investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and the corrosion resistance of the nanoparticles was estimated by a wet/dry corrosion test on a Pt plate with a NaCl solution. From a TEM with EDAX analysis, the 10 mass% polymer coated Al particles in the synthesis were almost 100% covered on the surface by a polymer film of 10 nm thick. On the other hand, the 3 mass% polymer coated Al was almost 40% covered by a film. In the AFM, the potential around the Al particles had a relatively low value with the polymer coating, which indicated that the conductivity of the Al was isolated from the Pt plate by the polymer. Both the corrosion and H2 evolution reaction rates were quantitatively reduced by the mass% of polymer coating. In the case of the 10 mass% coated sample, there was no corrosion of Al nanoparticles. This fact suggested that the electrochemical reaction was suppressed by the polymer coating. Moreover, the reaction rate of Al nanoparticles was suppressed in proportion to the coverage percentage of the coating. Thus, to conclude, it was found that the corrosion rate of Al nanoparticles could be quantitatively suppressed by the coverage percentage of the polymer coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
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Open AccessReview Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Immunosensors for Clinically Significant Biomarkers
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4669-4709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064669
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanotechnology has played a crucial role in the development of biosensors over the past decade. The development, testing, optimization, and validation of new biosensors has become a highly interdisciplinary effort involving experts in chemistry, biology, physics, engineering, and medicine. The sensitivity, the specificity
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Nanotechnology has played a crucial role in the development of biosensors over the past decade. The development, testing, optimization, and validation of new biosensors has become a highly interdisciplinary effort involving experts in chemistry, biology, physics, engineering, and medicine. The sensitivity, the specificity and the reproducibility of biosensors have improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their design. In general, nanomaterials-based electrochemical immunosensors amplify the sensitivity by facilitating greater loading of the larger sensing surface with biorecognition molecules as well as improving the electrochemical properties of the transducer. The most common types of nanomaterials and their properties will be described. In addition, the utilization of nanomaterials in immunosensors for biomarker detection will be discussed since these biosensors have enormous potential for a myriad of clinical uses. Electrochemical immunosensors provide a specific and simple analytical alternative as evidenced by their brief analysis times, inexpensive instrumentation, lower assay cost as well as good portability and amenability to miniaturization. The role nanomaterials play in biosensors, their ability to improve detection capabilities in low concentration analytes yielding clinically useful data and their impact on other biosensor performance properties will be discussed. Finally, the most common types of electroanalytical detection methods will be briefly touched upon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Two Octaves Supercontinuum Generation in Lead-Bismuth Glass Based Photonic Crystal Fiber
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4658-4668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064658
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we report a two octave spanning supercontinuum generation in a bandwidth of 700–3000 nm in a single-mode photonic crystal fiber made of lead-bismuth-gallate glass. To our knowledge this is the broadest supercontinuum reported in heavy metal oxide glass based fibers.
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In this paper we report a two octave spanning supercontinuum generation in a bandwidth of 700–3000 nm in a single-mode photonic crystal fiber made of lead-bismuth-gallate glass. To our knowledge this is the broadest supercontinuum reported in heavy metal oxide glass based fibers. The fiber was fabricated using an in-house synthesized glass with optimized nonlinear, rheological and transmission properties in the range of 500–4800 nm. The photonic cladding consists of 8 rings of air holes. The fiber has a zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) at 1460 nm. Its dispersion is determined mainly by the first ring of holes in the cladding with a relative hole size of 0.73. Relative hole size of the remaining seven rings is 0.54, which allows single mode performance of the fiber in the infrared range and reduces attenuation of the fundamental mode. The fiber is pumped into anomalous dispersion with 150 fs pulses at 1540 nm. Observed spectrum of 700–3000 nm was generated in 2 cm of fiber with pulse energy below 4 nJ. A flatness of 5 dB was observed in 950–2500 nm range. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improved Strength and Toughness of Carbon Woven Fabric Composites with Functionalized MWCNTs
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4640-4657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064640
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon woven
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This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon woven fabric plates to be tested on flexure and shear. In addition to the neat epoxy, three loadings of COOH-MWCNTs were examined: 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt% of epoxy. While no significant statistical difference in the flexure response of the on-axis specimens was observed, significant increases in the flexure strength, modulus and toughness of the off-axis specimens were observed. The average increase in flexure strength and flexure modulus with the addition of 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs improved by 28% and 19%, respectively. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate fiber domination in on-axis flexure behavior and matrix domination in off-axis flexure behavior. Furthermore, the 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs increased the toughness of carbon woven composites tested on shear by 33%. Microstructural investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) proves the existence of chemical bonds between the COOH-MWCNTs and the epoxy matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle The Micropillar Structure on Silk Fibroin Film Influence Intercellular Connection Mediated by Nanotubular Structures
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4628-4639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064628
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tunneling nanotubes are important membrane channels for cell-to-cell communication. In this study, we investigated the effect of the microenvironment on nanotubular structures by preparing a three-dimensional silk fibroin micropillar structure. In previous reports, tunneling nanotubes were described as stretched membrane channels between interconnected
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Tunneling nanotubes are important membrane channels for cell-to-cell communication. In this study, we investigated the effect of the microenvironment on nanotubular structures by preparing a three-dimensional silk fibroin micropillar structure. In previous reports, tunneling nanotubes were described as stretched membrane channels between interconnected cells at their nearest distance. They hover freely in the cell culture medium and do not contact with the substratum. Interestingly, the micropillars could provide supporting points for nanotubular connection on silk fibroin films, where nanotubular structure formed a stable anchor at contact points. Consequently, the extension direction of nanotubular structure was affected by the micropillar topography. This result suggests that the hovering tunneling nanotubes in the culture medium will come into contact with the raised roadblock on the substrates during long-distance extension. These findings imply that the surface microtopography of biomaterials have an important influence on cell communication mediated by tunneling nanotubes. Full article
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Open AccessReview From Cellulosic Based Liquid Crystalline Sheared Solutions to 1D and 2D Soft Materials
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4601-4627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064601
Received: 30 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liquid crystalline cellulosic-based solutions described by distinctive properties are at the origin of different kinds of multifunctional materials with unique characteristics. These solutions can form chiral nematic phases at rest, with tuneable photonic behavior, and exhibit a complex behavior associated with the onset
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Liquid crystalline cellulosic-based solutions described by distinctive properties are at the origin of different kinds of multifunctional materials with unique characteristics. These solutions can form chiral nematic phases at rest, with tuneable photonic behavior, and exhibit a complex behavior associated with the onset of a network of director field defects under shear. Techniques, such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Rheology coupled with NMR (Rheo-NMR), rheology, optical methods, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Wide Angle X-rays Scattering (WAXS), were extensively used to enlighten the liquid crystalline characteristics of these cellulosic solutions. Cellulosic films produced by shear casting and fibers by electrospinning, from these liquid crystalline solutions, have regained wider attention due to recognition of their innovative properties associated to their biocompatibility. Electrospun membranes composed by helical and spiral shape fibers allow the achievement of large surface areas, leading to the improvement of the performance of this kind of systems. The moisture response, light modulated, wettability and the capability of orienting protein and cellulose crystals, opened a wide range of new applications to the shear casted films. Characterization by NMR, X-rays, tensile tests, AFM, and optical methods allowed detailed characterization of those soft cellulosic materials. In this work, special attention will be given to recent developments, including, among others, a moisture driven cellulosic motor and electro-optical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystals) Printed Edition available
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