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Materials 2014, 7(6), 4601-4627; doi:10.3390/ma7064601

From Cellulosic Based Liquid Crystalline Sheared Solutions to 1D and 2D Soft Materials

1
CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
2
Área Departamental de Física, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1, 1950-062 Lisboa, Portugal
3
Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
4
Centro de Física da Matéria Condensada da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystals)

Abstract

Liquid crystalline cellulosic-based solutions described by distinctive properties are at the origin of different kinds of multifunctional materials with unique characteristics. These solutions can form chiral nematic phases at rest, with tuneable photonic behavior, and exhibit a complex behavior associated with the onset of a network of director field defects under shear. Techniques, such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Rheology coupled with NMR (Rheo-NMR), rheology, optical methods, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Wide Angle X-rays Scattering (WAXS), were extensively used to enlighten the liquid crystalline characteristics of these cellulosic solutions. Cellulosic films produced by shear casting and fibers by electrospinning, from these liquid crystalline solutions, have regained wider attention due to recognition of their innovative properties associated to their biocompatibility. Electrospun membranes composed by helical and spiral shape fibers allow the achievement of large surface areas, leading to the improvement of the performance of this kind of systems. The moisture response, light modulated, wettability and the capability of orienting protein and cellulose crystals, opened a wide range of new applications to the shear casted films. Characterization by NMR, X-rays, tensile tests, AFM, and optical methods allowed detailed characterization of those soft cellulosic materials. In this work, special attention will be given to recent developments, including, among others, a moisture driven cellulosic motor and electro-optical devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose-based liquid crystals; films; fibers; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); electro-optical characteristics cellulose-based liquid crystals; films; fibers; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); electro-optical characteristics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Godinho, M.H.; Almeida, P.L.; Figueirinhas, J.L. From Cellulosic Based Liquid Crystalline Sheared Solutions to 1D and 2D Soft Materials. Materials 2014, 7, 4601-4627.

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