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Special Issue "Corrosion of Materials"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Raman Singh

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: role of Nano-/Microstructure in corrosion/oxidation; stress corrosion cracking; graphene and other advanced coatings for corrosion mitigation; corrosion of magnesium alloys
Guest Editor
Dr. Fuhui Wang

Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning, China
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Parama Chakraborty Banerjee

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Australia
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Corrosion of engineering alloys and its mitigation measures continue to cost dearly (~4% of GDP of any developed economy which translates to an annual loss of ~$250b to USA). Traditional approaches, such as the use of corrosion resistance alloys and coatings have brought about significant mitigation of the age-old problem of corrosion.  Alloys with the highest corrosion resistance perform on the principle of their inherent ability to develop a corrosion resistant surface film of oxide of chromium.  However, chloride ions (i.e., abundantly present in sea-water) can disrupt this protective oxide film not only in lesser alloys, but even in the case of the alloys with the highest resistance when the corrosive environment is very aggressive.  Hence, the traditional mitigation strategies, such as the one based just on increasing chromium content of alloys, have not always succeeded in providing durable mitigations. However, a durable corrosion resistance is still a non-trivial challenge in some critical applications, such as where highly corrosive solutions are handled (e.g., concentrated chloride solutions in desalination plants), or where corrosion resistance is required for very long durations (e.g., nuclear waste containers) or where corrosion can cause serious health problems (such as by degradation of human implants).

It is true that circumventing corrosion in such critical applications is technologically challenging, socially fulfilling as well as commercially attractive, but it is equally true that a durable solution calls for a disruptive approach, which in itself is a non-trivial challenge (given the age-old nature of the discipline).

With the above background, this Special Issue invites manuscripts in the following disciplines of corrosion. This list is not meant to be restrictive, and manuscripts on the other topics of corrosion are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Raman Singh
Dr. Fuhui Wang
Dr. Parama Chakraborty Banerjee
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • critical corrosion issues in modern and traditional energy systems
  • critical corrosion issues in application of metals and alloys as bioimplants
  • corrosion of light metals and alloys
  • corrosion resistant coatings
  • corrosion of biodegradable metals and alloys
  • microbiologically influenced corrosion
  • stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue
  • high temperature corrosion
  • corrosion of composites
  • electrochemistry of corroding interfaces

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Comparative Study on Corrosion Protection of Reinforcing Steel by Using Amino Alcohol and Lithium Nitrite Inhibitors
Materials 2015, 8(1), 251-269; doi:10.3390/ma8010251
Received: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the ability of lithium nitrite and amino alcohol inhibitors to provide corrosion protection to reinforcing steel was investigated. Two types of specimens—reinforcing steel and a reinforced concrete prism that were exposed to chloride ion levels resembling the chloride attack environment—were
[...] Read more.
In this study, the ability of lithium nitrite and amino alcohol inhibitors to provide corrosion protection to reinforcing steel was investigated. Two types of specimens—reinforcing steel and a reinforced concrete prism that were exposed to chloride ion levels resembling the chloride attack environment—were prepared. An autoclave accelerated corrosion test was then conducted. The variables tested included the chloride-ion concentration and molar ratios of anti-corrosion ingredients in a CaOH2-saturated aqueous solution that simulated a cement-pore solution. A concentration of 25% was used for the lithium nitrite inhibitor LiNO2, and an 80% solution of dimethyl ethanolamine ((CH3)2NCH2CH2OH, hereinafter DMEA) was used for the amino alcohol inhibitor. The test results indicated that the lithium nitrite inhibitor displayed anti-corrosion properties at a molar ratio of inhibitor of ≥0.6; the amino alcohol inhibitor also displayed anti-corrosion properties at molar ratios of inhibitor greater than approximately 0.3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Poly(2,5-bis(N-Methyl-N-Hexylamino)Phenylene Vinylene) (BAM-PPV) as Pretreatment Coating for Aerospace Applications: Laboratory and Field Studies
Materials 2014, 7(12), 8088-8104; doi:10.3390/ma7128088
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 18 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, an electroactive polymer (EAP), poly(2,5-bis(N-methyl-N-hexylamino)phenylene vinylene) (BAM-PPV) was investigated as a potential alternative surface pretreatment for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-based aerospace coatings. BAM-PPV was tested as a pretreatment coating on an aerospace aluminum alloy (AA2024-T3) substrate in
[...] Read more.
In this study, an electroactive polymer (EAP), poly(2,5-bis(N-methyl-N-hexylamino)phenylene vinylene) (BAM-PPV) was investigated as a potential alternative surface pretreatment for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-based aerospace coatings. BAM-PPV was tested as a pretreatment coating on an aerospace aluminum alloy (AA2024-T3) substrate in combination with a non-Cr(VI) epoxy primer and a polyurethane Advanced Performance Coating (APC) topcoat. This testing was undertaken to determine BAM-PPV’s adhesion, corrosion-inhibition, compatibility and survivability in laboratory testing and during outdoor field-testing. BAM-PPV showed excellent adhesion and acceptable corrosion performance in laboratory testing. The BAM-PPV aerospace coating system (BAM-PPV, non-Cr(VI) epoxy primer and polyurethane APC topcoat) was field tested for one year on the rear hatch door of the United States Air Force C-5 cargo plane. After one year of field testing there was no evidence of delamination or corrosion of the BAM-PPV aerospace coating system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Stress Corrosion Cracking of an Austenitic Stainless Steel in Nitrite-Containing Chloride Solutions
Materials 2014, 7(12), 7799-7808; doi:10.3390/ma7127799
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article describes the susceptibility of 316L stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in a nitrite-containing chloride solution. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) in 30 wt. % MgCl2 solution established SCC susceptibility, as evidenced by post-SSRT fractography. Addition of nitrite to
[...] Read more.
This article describes the susceptibility of 316L stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in a nitrite-containing chloride solution. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) in 30 wt. % MgCl2 solution established SCC susceptibility, as evidenced by post-SSRT fractography. Addition of nitrite to the chloride solution, which is reported to have inhibitive influence on corrosion of stainless steels, was found to increase SCC susceptibility. The susceptibility was also found to increase with nitrite concentration. This behaviour is explained on the basis of the passivation and pitting characteristics of 316L steel in chloride solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Development of Self-Healing Coatings Based on Linseed Oil as Autonomous Repairing Agent for Corrosion Resistance
Materials 2014, 7(11), 7324-7338; doi:10.3390/ma7117324
Received: 22 June 2014 / Revised: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 11 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years corrosion-resistant self-healing coatings have witnessed strong growth and their successful laboratory design and synthesis categorises them in the family of smart/multi-functional materials. Among various approaches for achieving self-healing, microcapsule embedment through the material matrix is the main one for self-healing
[...] Read more.
In recent years corrosion-resistant self-healing coatings have witnessed strong growth and their successful laboratory design and synthesis categorises them in the family of smart/multi-functional materials. Among various approaches for achieving self-healing, microcapsule embedment through the material matrix is the main one for self-healing ability in coatings. The present work focuses on optimizing the process parameters for developing microcapsules by in-situ polymerization of linseed oil as core and urea-formaldehyde as shell material. Characteristics of these microcapsules with respect to change in processing parameters such as stirring rate and reaction time were studied by using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The effectiveness of these microcapsules in coatings was characterized by studying their adhesion, performance, and mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria on the Corrosion Residual Strength of an AZ91D Magnesium Alloy
Materials 2014, 7(10), 7118-7129; doi:10.3390/ma7107118
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the corrosion residual strength of the AZ91D magnesium alloy in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria is studied. In the experiments, the chemical composition of corrosion film was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In addition,
[...] Read more.
In this paper, the corrosion residual strength of the AZ91D magnesium alloy in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria is studied. In the experiments, the chemical composition of corrosion film was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, a series of instruments, such as scanning electronic microscope, pH-meter and an AG-10TA materials test machine, were applied to test and record the morphology of the corrosion product, fracture texture and mechanical properties of the AZ91D magnesium alloy. The experiments show that the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) play an important role in the corrosion process of the AZ91D magnesium alloy. Pitting corrosion was enhanced by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Corrosion pits are important defects that could lead to a significant stress concentration in the tensile process. As a result, sulfate-reducing bacteria influence the corrosion residual strength of the AZ91D magnesium alloy by accelerating pitting corrosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Mechanical and Corrosion Behavior of a Newly Developed Novel Lean Duplex Stainless Steel
Materials 2014, 7(9), 6604-6619; doi:10.3390/ma7096604
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 August 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of annealing temperature (1000–1150 °C) on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and pitting corrosion behavior of a newly developed novel lean duplex stainless steel with 20.53Cr-3.45Mn-2.08Ni-0.17N-0.31Mo was studied by means of optical metallographic microscopy (OMM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic force
[...] Read more.
The effect of annealing temperature (1000–1150 °C) on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and pitting corrosion behavior of a newly developed novel lean duplex stainless steel with 20.53Cr-3.45Mn-2.08Ni-0.17N-0.31Mo was studied by means of optical metallographic microscopy (OMM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), uniaxial tensile tests (UTT), and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature (CPT). The results showed that tensile and yield strength, as well as the pitting corrosion resistance, could be degraded with annealing temperature increasing from 1000 up to 1150 °C. Meanwhile, the elongation at break reached the maximum of 52.7% after annealing at 1050 °C due to the effect of martensite transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). The localized pitting attack preferentially occurred at ferrite phase, indicating that the ferrite phase had inferior pitting corrosion resistance as compared to the austenite phase. With increasing annealing temperature, the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of ferrite phase dropped, while that of the austenite phase rose. Additionally, it was found that ferrite possessed a lower Volta potential than austenite phase. Moreover, the Volta potential difference between ferrite and austenite increased with the annealing temperature, which was well consistent with the difference of PREN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Corrosion Behavior of Pure Iron under Solid Na2SO4 Deposit in Wet Oxygen Flow at 500 °C
Materials 2014, 7(9), 6144-6157; doi:10.3390/ma7096144
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1049 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The corrosion behavior of pure Fe under a Na2SO4 deposit in an atmosphere of O2 + H2O was investigated at 500 °C by thermo gravimetric, and electrochemical measurements, viz. potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and
[...] Read more.
The corrosion behavior of pure Fe under a Na2SO4 deposit in an atmosphere of O2 + H2O was investigated at 500 °C by thermo gravimetric, and electrochemical measurements, viz. potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and surface characterization methods viz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS). The results showed that a synergistic effect occurred between Na2SO4 and O2 + H2O, which significantly accelerated the corrosion rate of the pure Fe. Briefly, NaFeO2 was formed in addition to the customary Fe oxides; at the same time, H2SO4 gas was produced by introduction of water vapor. Subsequently, an electrochemical corrosion reaction occurred due to the existence of Na2SO4, NaFeO2, and H2O. When this coupled to the chemical corrosion reaction, the progress of the chemical corrosion reaction was promoted and eventually resulted in the acceleration of the corrosion of the pure Fe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Zeolite Coating on the Corrosion Resistance of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy
Materials 2014, 7(8), 6092-6104; doi:10.3390/ma7086092
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 13 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The protective performance of zeolite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution (NaCl). Electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) was developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to
[...] Read more.
The protective performance of zeolite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution (NaCl). Electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) was developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and the chemical nature of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Post corrosion morphologies of the zeolite coated and the uncoated AZ91D alloy were investigated using SEM. The corrosion resistance of the zeolite coated specimen was at least one order of magnitude higher than the uncoated specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
Open AccessArticle A Corrosion Sensor for Monitoring the Early-Stage Environmental Corrosion of A36 Carbon Steel
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5746-5760; doi:10.3390/ma7085746
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 1 August 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 8 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (904 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An innovative prototype sensor containing A36 carbon steel as a capacitor was explored to monitor early-stage corrosion. The sensor detected the changes of the surface- rather than the bulk- property and morphology of A36 during corrosion. Thus it was more sensitive than the
[...] Read more.
An innovative prototype sensor containing A36 carbon steel as a capacitor was explored to monitor early-stage corrosion. The sensor detected the changes of the surface- rather than the bulk- property and morphology of A36 during corrosion. Thus it was more sensitive than the conventional electrical resistance corrosion sensors. After being soaked in an aerated 0.2 M NaCl solution, the sensor’s normalized electrical resistance (R/R0) decreased continuously from 1.0 to 0.74 with the extent of corrosion. Meanwhile, the sensor’s normalized capacitance (C/C0) increased continuously from 1.0 to 1.46. X-ray diffraction result indicates that the iron rust on A36 had crystals of lepidocrocite and magnetite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Inhibition of Aluminum Corrosion in Sulfuric Acid by Poly(1-vinyl-3-alkyl-imidazolium Hexafluorophosphate)
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5711-5734; doi:10.3390/ma7085711
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 23 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 7 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compounds of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs), derived from imidazole with different alkylic chain lengths located in the third position of the imidazolium ring (poly(1-vinyl-3-dodecyl-imidazolium) (PImC12), poly(1-vinyl-3-octylimidazolium) (PImC8) and poly(1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium) (PImC4) hexafluorophosphate) were synthesized. These compounds were tested as
[...] Read more.
Compounds of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs), derived from imidazole with different alkylic chain lengths located in the third position of the imidazolium ring (poly(1-vinyl-3-dodecyl-imidazolium) (PImC12), poly(1-vinyl-3-octylimidazolium) (PImC8) and poly(1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium) (PImC4) hexafluorophosphate) were synthesized. These compounds were tested as corrosion inhibitors on aluminum alloy AA6061 in diluted sulfuric acid (0.1–1 M H2SO4) by weight loss tests, polarization resistance measurements and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Langmuir’s isotherms suggested film formation on bare alloy while standard free energy indicated inhibition by a physisorption process. However, compound efficiencies as inhibitors ranked low (PImC12 > PImC8 > PImC4) to reach 61% for PImC12 in highly diluted acidic solution. Apparently, the high mobility of sulfates favored their adsorption in comparison to PILs. The surface film displayed general corrosion, and pitting occurred as a consequence of PILs’ partial inhibition along with a continuous dissolution of defective patchy film on formation. A slight improvement in efficiency was displayed by compounds having high molecular weight and a long alkyl chain, as a consequence of steric hindrance and PIL interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Corrosion Prevention of Aluminum Nanoparticles by a Polyurethane Coating
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4710-4722; doi:10.3390/ma7064710
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to prevent corrosion, aluminum nanoparticles were coated with a polyurethane polymer. The coverage of the polyurethane polymer was controlled from 0 to 100%, which changed the corrosion rate of the nanoparticles quantitatively. The surface of the polymer coating was investigated by
[...] Read more.
In order to prevent corrosion, aluminum nanoparticles were coated with a polyurethane polymer. The coverage of the polyurethane polymer was controlled from 0 to 100%, which changed the corrosion rate of the nanoparticles quantitatively. The surface of the polymer coating was investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and the corrosion resistance of the nanoparticles was estimated by a wet/dry corrosion test on a Pt plate with a NaCl solution. From a TEM with EDAX analysis, the 10 mass% polymer coated Al particles in the synthesis were almost 100% covered on the surface by a polymer film of 10 nm thick. On the other hand, the 3 mass% polymer coated Al was almost 40% covered by a film. In the AFM, the potential around the Al particles had a relatively low value with the polymer coating, which indicated that the conductivity of the Al was isolated from the Pt plate by the polymer. Both the corrosion and H2 evolution reaction rates were quantitatively reduced by the mass% of polymer coating. In the case of the 10 mass% coated sample, there was no corrosion of Al nanoparticles. This fact suggested that the electrochemical reaction was suppressed by the polymer coating. Moreover, the reaction rate of Al nanoparticles was suppressed in proportion to the coverage percentage of the coating. Thus, to conclude, it was found that the corrosion rate of Al nanoparticles could be quantitatively suppressed by the coverage percentage of the polymer coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Notch Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4349-4366; doi:10.3390/ma7064349
Received: 8 February 2014 / Revised: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to map the corrosion fatigue characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy through the evaluation of the corrosion fatigue initiation and failure mechanisms. The study included the effect of the stress concentration factor at very high Kt values and
[...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to map the corrosion fatigue characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy through the evaluation of the corrosion fatigue initiation and failure mechanisms. The study included the effect of the stress concentration factor at very high Kt values and the role of different inert or corrosive environments. This alloy is widely used in naval-structures and aero-engine communities and the outcomes of the work will have direct relevance to industrial service operations. Axial fatigue tests (R = 0.1; 2 × 105 cycles; f = 10 Hz) were carried out on smooth and high notched (Ktmax = 18.65) flat specimens in laboratory air, paraffin oil, laboratory air + beeswax coating, recirculated 3.5% NaCl solution. The step loading procedure was used to perform the fatigue tests and the surface replica method and crack propagation gages were used to check crack nucleation and propagation until failure. Log-Log plots of σmax vs. Kt showed a bilinear behavior and enabled the demonstration of the presence of a threshold stress intensity factor (Kt = 8–9), after which the environment has no effect on the fatigue damage for all the tested environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Corrosion of Bronzes by Extended Wetting with Single versus Mixed Acidic Pollutants
Materials 2014, 7(5), 3353-3370; doi:10.3390/ma7053353
Received: 27 January 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The corrosion of bronzes was examined in the context of single-acid versus mixed-acid (as in urban acid rain) solutions. Two bi-component bronzes (copper with either 3% Sn or 7% Sn) that closely represent those of historic artifacts were immersed for five weeks in
[...] Read more.
The corrosion of bronzes was examined in the context of single-acid versus mixed-acid (as in urban acid rain) solutions. Two bi-component bronzes (copper with either 3% Sn or 7% Sn) that closely represent those of historic artifacts were immersed for five weeks in conditions designed to replicate those experienced by statues and ornaments in cities where rainfall and humidity constantly produce an electrolyte layer on the surfaces of bronzes. Ions, acids, and particles of pollutants can dissolve in this layer, resulting in a variety of harsh corrosion processes. The kinetics of corrosion and the properties of the resulting patinas were monitored weekly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit potential measurements. The sizes and appearances of the corrosion products were monitored and used to estimate the progress of the corrosion, whose crystalline structures were visualized using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, identified by X-ray diffraction, and characterized by spectrocolorimetry. The electrochemical measurements demonstrated that greater damage (in terms of color change and corrosion product formation) did not correspond to deficiencies in protection. The mixed-acid solution did not corrode the bronzes, as would be expected from the additive effects of the single acids. The postulated mechanisms of metal dissolution appear to be specific to a particular bronze alloy, with the tin component playing an important role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Hot Corrosion Behavior of Sputtered Nanocrystalline Coating with Yttrium Addition at 900 °C
Materials 2014, 7(4), 2882-2889; doi:10.3390/ma7042882
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 1 April 2014 / Published: 9 April 2014
PDF Full-text (755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The high temperature corrosion behavior of sputtered nanocrystalline K38 coating with and without yttrium addition under mixed molten salt film in air was investigated. Accelerated corrosion occurred on the coating without yttrium (Y) addition locally after 60 h exposure at 900 °C, which
[...] Read more.
The high temperature corrosion behavior of sputtered nanocrystalline K38 coating with and without yttrium addition under mixed molten salt film in air was investigated. Accelerated corrosion occurred on the coating without yttrium (Y) addition locally after 60 h exposure at 900 °C, which resulted in negative weight gain in kinetics. A uniform and protective alumina scale formed on surface of the coating containing yttrium in comparison. Y enriched particle as corrosion product was observed on the top of alumina scale. The results indicated the beneficial influence of Y on the chemical stability of the protective scale in the presence of chloride. The mechanism was discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Investigation on the Enhanced Oxidation of Ferritic/Martensitic Steel P92 in Pure Steam
Materials 2014, 7(4), 2772-2783; doi:10.3390/ma7042772
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 23 January 2014 / Accepted: 25 March 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1028 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidation of ferritic/martensitic steel P92 was investigated in pure oxygen and in pure steam at 600–800 °C by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the oxidation of P92 was significantly enhanced
[...] Read more.
Oxidation of ferritic/martensitic steel P92 was investigated in pure oxygen and in pure steam at 600–800 °C by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the oxidation of P92 was significantly enhanced and multilayer scale with an outer iron oxides layer formed in pure steam. At 700 °C, the gas switch markedly influenced the scaling kinetics and scale microstructure. It was supposed that the higher affinity of iron to steam would be attributed to the enhanced oxidation of P92 in pure steam, and the much easier transport of hydroxyl would account for the significant difference induced by gas switch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)

Review

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Open AccessReview Effect of Secondary Phase Precipitation on the Corrosion Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steels
Materials 2014, 7(7), 5268-5304; doi:10.3390/ma7075268
Received: 17 April 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (10333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) with austenitic and ferritic phases have been increasingly used for many industrial applications due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in acidic, caustic and marine environments. However, DSSs are susceptible to intergranular, pitting and stress corrosion in
[...] Read more.
Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) with austenitic and ferritic phases have been increasingly used for many industrial applications due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in acidic, caustic and marine environments. However, DSSs are susceptible to intergranular, pitting and stress corrosion in corrosive environments due to the formation of secondary phases. Such phases are induced in DSSs during the fabrication, improper heat treatment, welding process and prolonged exposure to high temperatures during their service lives. These include the precipitation of sigma and chi phases at 700–900 °C and spinodal decomposition of ferritic grains into Cr-rich and Cr-poor phases at 350–550 °C, respectively. This article gives the state-of the-art review on the microstructural evolution of secondary phase formation and their effects on the corrosion behavior of DSSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)

Other

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Open AccessCase Report Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4321-4334; doi:10.3390/ma7064321
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper
[...] Read more.
Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC). In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion of Materials)
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