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Special Issue "Carbon Fibers"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jonathan Phillips (Website)

Department of Physics, Spanagel Hall, Room 203, 833 Dyer Road, Monterey, CA 93943-5216, USA
Interests: heterogeneous catalysts; carbon materials; plasma generated materials; dielectrics metal particle synthesis; material-radical interactions; energy storage; microcalorimetry; mossbauer spectroscopy; quantum mechanics; plasma physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Remarkably, truly novel structures are still being found for materials made of a single element: carbon. Perhaps there is a ‘revolution’ in carbon-only materials. Indeed, recently, two Nobel prizes were awarded for new forms of carbon: for fullerenes in 1996, and for graphene in 2010. Yet, there is still more to discover and to explain. In this Special Issue, we invite original papers relating to just one area of carbon research: fibers. Papers on carbon fibers classified as phenomenological, application-focused, fundamental, or some combination of the aforementioned are all invited. Phenomenological topics of interest include the impact of operating parameters (e.g., gas phase, catalyst, temperature, etc.) on growth rate, fiber size, strength, conductivity, thermal properties, and corrosion resistance. Papers that include information regarding any application of carbon are welcome (e.g., applications in next-generation integrated circuits, capacitors, high strength materials, composite materials, sensors, etc.). Fundamental issues of interest to the editor and others include the mechanism of growth, the role of catalysts, surface chemistry and the means to modify it, and ad/bsorption processes. I look forward to submissions from many old friends and to making new friends.

Prof. Dr. Jonathan Phillips
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

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Keywords

  • carbon fiber
    • properties
    • applications
    • growth mechanism
    • catalysis
    • surface chemistry

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Mechanical and Electrical Characterization of Entangled Networks of Carbon Nanofibers
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4845-4853; doi:10.3390/ma7064845
Received: 1 March 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Entangled networks of carbon nanofibers are characterized both mechanically and electrically. Results for both tensile and compressive loadings of the entangled networks are presented for various densities. Mechanically, the nanofiber ensembles follow the micromechanical model originally proposed by van Wyk nearly 70 [...] Read more.
Entangled networks of carbon nanofibers are characterized both mechanically and electrically. Results for both tensile and compressive loadings of the entangled networks are presented for various densities. Mechanically, the nanofiber ensembles follow the micromechanical model originally proposed by van Wyk nearly 70 years ago. Interpretations are given on the mechanisms occurring during loading and unloading of the carbon nanofiber components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4854-4877; doi:10.3390/ma7064854
Received: 21 March 2014 / Revised: 25 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables [...] Read more.
In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Improved Strength and Toughness of Carbon Woven Fabric Composites with Functionalized MWCNTs
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4640-4657; doi:10.3390/ma7064640
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon [...] Read more.
This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon woven fabric plates to be tested on flexure and shear. In addition to the neat epoxy, three loadings of COOH-MWCNTs were examined: 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt% of epoxy. While no significant statistical difference in the flexure response of the on-axis specimens was observed, significant increases in the flexure strength, modulus and toughness of the off-axis specimens were observed. The average increase in flexure strength and flexure modulus with the addition of 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs improved by 28% and 19%, respectively. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate fiber domination in on-axis flexure behavior and matrix domination in off-axis flexure behavior. Furthermore, the 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs increased the toughness of carbon woven composites tested on shear by 33%. Microstructural investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) proves the existence of chemical bonds between the COOH-MWCNTs and the epoxy matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Theoretical Estimation of Thermal Effects in Drilling of Woven Carbon Fiber Composite
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4442-4454; doi:10.3390/ma7064442
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 24 May 2014 / Accepted: 29 May 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRPs) composites are extensively used in structural applications due to their attractive properties. Although the components are usually made near net shape, machining processes are needed to achieve dimensional tolerance and assembly requirements. Drilling is a common operation [...] Read more.
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRPs) composites are extensively used in structural applications due to their attractive properties. Although the components are usually made near net shape, machining processes are needed to achieve dimensional tolerance and assembly requirements. Drilling is a common operation required for further mechanical joining of the components. CFRPs are vulnerable to processing induced damage; mainly delamination, fiber pull-out, and thermal degradation, drilling induced defects being one of the main causes of component rejection during manufacturing processes. Despite the importance of analyzing thermal phenomena involved in the machining of composites, only few authors have focused their attention on this problem, most of them using an experimental approach. The temperature at the workpiece could affect surface quality of the component and its measurement during processing is difficult. The estimation of the amount of heat generated during drilling is important; however, numerical modeling of drilling processes involves a high computational cost. This paper presents a combined approach to thermal analysis of composite drilling, using both an analytical estimation of heat generated during drilling and numerical modeling for heat propagation. Promising results for indirect detection of risk of thermal damage, through the measurement of thrust force and cutting torque, are obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Drill Point Angle and Wear on the Drilling of Woven CFRPs
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4258-4271; doi:10.3390/ma7064258
Received: 8 March 2014 / Revised: 1 April 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on the effect of the drill geometry on the drilling of woven Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer composite (CFRPs). Although different geometrical effects can be considered in drilling CFRPs, the present work focuses on the influence of point angle and [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the effect of the drill geometry on the drilling of woven Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer composite (CFRPs). Although different geometrical effects can be considered in drilling CFRPs, the present work focuses on the influence of point angle and wear because they are the important factors influencing hole quality and machining forces. Surface quality was evaluated in terms of delamination and superficial defects. Three different point angles were tested representative of the geometries commonly used in the industry. Two wear modes were considered, being representative of the wear patterns commonly observed when drilling CFRPs: flank wear and honed cutting edge. It was found that the crossed influence of the point angle and wear were significant to the thrust force. Delamination at the hole entry and exit showed opposite trends with the change of geometry. Also, cutting parameters were checked showing the feed’s dominant influence on surface damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Hybrid Composites Based on Carbon Fiber/Carbon Nanofilament Reinforcement
Materials 2014, 7(6), 4182-4195; doi:10.3390/ma7064182
Received: 7 March 2014 / Revised: 2 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 May 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanofilament and nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promise for enhancing the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites (FRPs) and imparting multi-functionalities to them. While direct mixing of carbon nanofilaments with the polymer matrix in FRPs has several drawbacks, a high volume of uniform [...] Read more.
Carbon nanofilament and nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promise for enhancing the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites (FRPs) and imparting multi-functionalities to them. While direct mixing of carbon nanofilaments with the polymer matrix in FRPs has several drawbacks, a high volume of uniform nanofilaments can be directly grown on fiber surfaces prior to composite fabrication. This study demonstrates the ability to create carbon nanofilaments on the surface of carbon fibers employing a synthesis method, graphitic structures by design (GSD), in which carbon structures are grown from fuel mixtures using nickel particles as the catalyst. The synthesis technique is proven feasible to grow nanofilament structures—from ethylene mixtures at 550 °C—on commercial polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy were employed to characterize the surface-grown carbon species. For comparison purposes, a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique was also utilized to grow multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs) on carbon fiber yarns. The mechanical characterization showed that composites using the GSD-grown carbon nanofilaments outperform those using the CCVD-grown CNTs in terms of stiffness and tensile strength. The results suggest that further optimization of the GSD growth time, patterning and thermal shield coating of the carbon fibers is required to fully materialize the potential benefits of the GSD technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Print Edition available
Figures

Open AccessArticle Drilling Damage in Composite Material
Materials 2014, 7(5), 3802-3819; doi:10.3390/ma7053802
Received: 27 February 2014 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 8 May 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced laminates have widened their use from aerospace to domestic appliances, and new possibilities for their usage emerge almost daily. In many of the possible applications, the laminates need to be drilled for assembly purposes. It is [...] Read more.
The characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced laminates have widened their use from aerospace to domestic appliances, and new possibilities for their usage emerge almost daily. In many of the possible applications, the laminates need to be drilled for assembly purposes. It is known that a drilling process that reduces the drill thrust force can decrease the risk of delamination. In this work, damage assessment methods based on data extracted from radiographic images are compared and correlated with mechanical test results—bearing test and delamination onset test—and analytical models. The results demonstrate the importance of an adequate selection of drilling tools and machining parameters to extend the life cycle of these laminates as a consequence of enhanced reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Print Edition available
Figures

Open AccessArticle Fabrication of a Low Density Carbon Fiber Foam and Its Characterization as a Strain Gauge
Materials 2014, 7(5), 3699-3714; doi:10.3390/ma7053699
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 29 April 2014 / Published: 8 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Samples of carbon nano-fiber foam (CFF), essentially a 3D solid mat of intertwined nanofibers of pure carbon, were grown using the Constrained Formation of Fibrous Nanostructures (CoFFiN) process in a steel mold at 550 °C from a palladium particle catalysts exposed to [...] Read more.
Samples of carbon nano-fiber foam (CFF), essentially a 3D solid mat of intertwined nanofibers of pure carbon, were grown using the Constrained Formation of Fibrous Nanostructures (CoFFiN) process in a steel mold at 550 °C from a palladium particle catalysts exposed to fuel rich mixtures of ethylene and oxygen. The resulting material was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Surface area analysis (BET), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Transient and dynamic mechanical tests clearly demonstrated that the material is viscoelastic. Concomitant mechanical and electrical testing of samples revealed the material to have electrical properties appropriate for application as the sensing element of a strain gauge. The sample resistance versus strain values stabilize after a few compression cycles to show a perfectly linear relationship. Study of microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties of the low density samples confirm the uniqueness of the material: It is formed entirely of independent fibers of diverse diameters that interlock forming a tridimensional body that can be grown into different shapes and sizes at moderate temperatures. It regains its shape after loads are removed, is light weight, presents viscoelastic behavior, thermal stability up to 550 °C, hydrophobicity, and is electrically conductive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Print Edition available
Figures

Open AccessArticle Titania Nanotubes Grown on Carbon Fibers for Photocatalytic Decomposition of Gas-Phase Aromatic Pollutants
Materials 2014, 7(3), 1801-1813; doi:10.3390/ma7031801
Received: 27 November 2013 / Revised: 27 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to prepare titania (TiO2) nanotube (TNT) arrays grown on un-activated carbon fibers (UCFs), with the application of different TiO2 loadings based on the coating-hydrothermal process, and to evaluate their photocatalytic activity for the degradation of sub-ppm [...] Read more.
This study aimed to prepare titania (TiO2) nanotube (TNT) arrays grown on un-activated carbon fibers (UCFs), with the application of different TiO2 loadings based on the coating-hydrothermal process, and to evaluate their photocatalytic activity for the degradation of sub-ppm levels of aromatic pollutants (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BTEX)) using a plug-flow photocatalytic reactor. The characteristics of the prepared photocatalysts were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Spectral analysis showed that the prepared photocatalysts were closely associated with the characteristics of one-dimensional nanostructured TiO2 nanotubes for TNTUCFs and spherical shapes for TiO2-coated UCF (TUCF). The photocatalytic activities of BTEX obtained from TNTUCFs were higher than those obtained from a reference photocatalyst, TUCF). Specifically, the average degradation efficiencies of BTEX observed for TNTUCF-10 were 81%, 97%, 99%, and 99%, respectively, while those observed for TUCF were 14%, 42%, 52%, and 79%, respectively. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities obtained for TNTUCFs suggested that the degradation efficiencies of BTEX varied with changes in TiO2 loadings, allowing for the optimization of TiO2 loading. Another important finding was that input concentrations and air flow rates could be important parameters for the treatment of BTEX, which should be considered for the optimization of TNTUCFs application. Taken together, TNTUCFs can be applied to effectively degrade sub-ppm levels of gas-phase aromatic pollutants through the optimization of operational conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Flash Thermography to Evaluate Porosity in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRPs)
Materials 2014, 7(3), 1483-1501; doi:10.3390/ma7031483
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 26 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is a fact that the presence of porosity in composites has detrimental effects on their mechanical properties. Then, due to the high probability of void formation during manufacturing processes, it is necessary to have the availability of non-destructive evaluation techniques, which [...] Read more.
It is a fact that the presence of porosity in composites has detrimental effects on their mechanical properties. Then, due to the high probability of void formation during manufacturing processes, it is necessary to have the availability of non-destructive evaluation techniques, which may be able to discover the presence and the distribution of porosity in the final parts. In recent years, flash thermography has emerged as the most valuable method, but it is still not adequately enclosed in the industrial enterprise. The main reason of this is the lack of sufficient quantitative data for a full validation of such a technique. The intention of the present work is to supply an overview on the current state-of-the-art regarding the use of flash thermography to evaluate the porosity percentage in fiber reinforced composite materials and to present the latest results, which are gathered by the authors, on porous carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates. To this end, several coupons of two different stacking sequences and including a different amount of porosity are fabricated and inspected with both non-destructive and destructive testing techniques. Data coming from non-destructive testing with either flash thermography or ultrasonics are plotted against the porosity percentage, which was previously estimated with the volumetric method. The new obtained results are a witness to the efficacy of flash thermography. Some key points that need further consideration are also highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Print Edition available
Figures

Open AccessArticle Mechanical, Microstructure and Surface Characterizations of Carbon Fibers Prepared from Cellulose after Liquefying and Curing
Materials 2014, 7(1), 75-84; doi:10.3390/ma7010075
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 20 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, Cellulose-based carbon fibers (CBCFs) were prepared from cellulose after phenol liquefaction and curing. The characteristics and properties of CBCFs were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron [...] Read more.
In this study, Cellulose-based carbon fibers (CBCFs) were prepared from cellulose after phenol liquefaction and curing. The characteristics and properties of CBCFs were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that, with increasing carbonization temperature, the La, Lc, and Lc/d(002) of CBCFs increased gradually, whereas the degree of disorder R decreased. The –OH, –CH2–, –O–C– and phenyl group characteristic absorption peaks of CBCFs reduced gradually. The cross-linked structure of CBCFs was converted into a graphite structure with a six-ring carbon network during carbonization. The surface of CBCFs were mainly comprised of C–C, C–O, and C=O. The tensile strength, carbonization yield and carbon content of CBCFs obtained at 1000 °C were 1015 MPa, 52%, and 95.04%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers) Print Edition available

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