Materials 2014, 7(6), 4669-4709; doi:10.3390/ma7064669

Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Immunosensors for Clinically Significant Biomarkers

1,* email and 2,3email
Received: 31 March 2014; in revised form: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Biosensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Nanotechnology has played a crucial role in the development of biosensors over the past decade. The development, testing, optimization, and validation of new biosensors has become a highly interdisciplinary effort involving experts in chemistry, biology, physics, engineering, and medicine. The sensitivity, the specificity and the reproducibility of biosensors have improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their design. In general, nanomaterials-based electrochemical immunosensors amplify the sensitivity by facilitating greater loading of the larger sensing surface with biorecognition molecules as well as improving the electrochemical properties of the transducer. The most common types of nanomaterials and their properties will be described. In addition, the utilization of nanomaterials in immunosensors for biomarker detection will be discussed since these biosensors have enormous potential for a myriad of clinical uses. Electrochemical immunosensors provide a specific and simple analytical alternative as evidenced by their brief analysis times, inexpensive instrumentation, lower assay cost as well as good portability and amenability to miniaturization. The role nanomaterials play in biosensors, their ability to improve detection capabilities in low concentration analytes yielding clinically useful data and their impact on other biosensor performance properties will be discussed. Finally, the most common types of electroanalytical detection methods will be briefly touched upon.
Keywords: biomarkers; biosensors; cancer diagnostic tools; carbon nanotubes; conducting polymers; electrochemical detection; metal nanoparticles; graphene; immunosensors; nanowires; psychiatry; quantum dots
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ronkainen, N.J.; Okon, S.L. Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Immunosensors for Clinically Significant Biomarkers. Materials 2014, 7, 4669-4709.

AMA Style

Ronkainen NJ, Okon SL. Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Immunosensors for Clinically Significant Biomarkers. Materials. 2014; 7(6):4669-4709.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ronkainen, Niina J.; Okon, Stanley L. 2014. "Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Immunosensors for Clinically Significant Biomarkers." Materials 7, no. 6: 4669-4709.

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