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Materials 2017, 10(6), 676; doi:10.3390/ma10060676

Binary Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Properties of Silicon and Essential Doping Elements (Al, As, B, Bi, Ga, In, N, P, Sb and Tl)

1
Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Masdar Institute, Masdar City 54224, UAE
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, Concordia University, 1515 Rue Sainte Catherine west, Montreal, QC H3G 2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017

Abstract

Fabrication of solar and electronic silicon wafers involves direct contact between solid, liquid and gas phases at near equilibrium conditions. Understanding of the phase diagrams and thermochemical properties of the Si-dopant binary systems is essential for providing processing conditions and for understanding the phase formation and transformation. In this work, ten Si-based binary phase diagrams, including Si with group IIIA elements (Al, B, Ga, In and Tl) and with group VA elements (As, Bi, N, P and Sb), have been reviewed. Each of these systems has been critically discussed on both aspects of phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. The available experimental data and thermodynamic parameters in the literature have been summarized and assessed thoroughly to provide consistent understanding of each system. Some systems were re-calculated to obtain a combination of the best evaluated phase diagram and a set of optimized thermodynamic parameters. As doping levels of solar and electronic silicon are of high technological importance, diffusion data has been presented to serve as a useful reference on the properties, behavior and quantities of metal impurities in silicon. This paper is meant to bridge the theoretical understanding of phase diagrams with the research and development of solar-grade silicon production, relying on the available information in the literature and our own analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: binary phase diagrams; doping diffusion; solar-grade silicon; thermochemical data binary phase diagrams; doping diffusion; solar-grade silicon; thermochemical data
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Mostafa, A.; Medraj, M. Binary Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Properties of Silicon and Essential Doping Elements (Al, As, B, Bi, Ga, In, N, P, Sb and Tl). Materials 2017, 10, 676.

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