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Materials 2017, 10(6), 677; doi:10.3390/ma10060677

Temperature and Copper Concentration Effects on the Formation of Graphene-Encapsulated Copper Nanoparticles from Kraft Lignin

1
Department of Sustainable Bioproducts, Mississippi State University, Mississippi, MS 39762, USA
2
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Abstract

The effects of temperature and copper catalyst concentration on the formation of graphene-encapsulated copper nanoparticles (GECNs) were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that higher amounts of copper atoms facilitated the growth of more graphene islands and formed smaller size GECNs. A copper catalyst facilitated the decomposition of lignin at the lowest temperature studied (600 °C). Increasing the temperature up to 1000 °C retarded the degradation process, while assisting the reconfiguration of the defective sites of the graphene layers, thus producing higher-quality GECNs. View Full-Text
Keywords: temperature; copper concentration; graphene-encapsulated copper nanoparticles temperature; copper concentration; graphene-encapsulated copper nanoparticles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Leng, W.; Barnes, H.M.; Cai, Z.; Zhang, J. Temperature and Copper Concentration Effects on the Formation of Graphene-Encapsulated Copper Nanoparticles from Kraft Lignin. Materials 2017, 10, 677.

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