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Energies, Volume 6, Issue 10 (October 2013), Pages 4956-5596

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Open AccessArticle Intelligent Control of Battery Energy Storage for Multi-Agent Based Microgrid Energy Management
Energies 2013, 6(10), 4956-4979; doi:10.3390/en6104956
Received: 12 August 2013 / Revised: 16 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microgrids can be considered as controllable units from the utility point of view because the entities of microgrids such as distributed energy resources and controllable loads can effectively control the amount of power consumption or generation. Therefore, microgrids can make various contracts with
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Microgrids can be considered as controllable units from the utility point of view because the entities of microgrids such as distributed energy resources and controllable loads can effectively control the amount of power consumption or generation. Therefore, microgrids can make various contracts with utility companies such as demand response program or ancillary services. Another advantage of microgrids is to integrate renewable energy resources to low-voltage distribution networks. Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) can effectively compensate the intermittent output of renewable energy resources. This paper presents intelligent control schemes for BESSs and autonomous energy management schemes of microgrids based on the concept of multi-agent systems. The proposed control scheme consists of two layers of decision-making procedures. In the bottom layer, intelligent agents decide the optimal operation strategies of individual microgrid entities such as BESSs, backup generators and loads. In the upper layer, the central microgrid coordinator (MGCC) coordinates multiple agents so that the overall microgrid can match the load reduction requested by the grid operator. The proposed control scheme is applied to Korea Power Exchange’s Intelligent Demand Response Program. Full article
Open AccessArticle Investigation of a Novel 24-Slot/14-Pole Six-Phase Fault-Tolerant Modular Permanent-Magnet In-Wheel Motor for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2013, 6(10), 4980-5002; doi:10.3390/en6104980
Received: 17 July 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a six-phase fault-tolerant modular permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with a novel 24-slot/14-pole combination is proposed as a high-performance actuator for wheel-driving electric vehicle (EV) applications. Feasible slot/pole combinations of the fractional-slot concentrated winding six-phase PMSM are elicited and analyzed
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In this paper, a six-phase fault-tolerant modular permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with a novel 24-slot/14-pole combination is proposed as a high-performance actuator for wheel-driving electric vehicle (EV) applications. Feasible slot/pole combinations of the fractional-slot concentrated winding six-phase PMSM are elicited and analyzed for scheme selection. The novel 24-slot/14-pole combination is derived from the analysis and suppression of the magnetomotive force (MMF) harmonics. By making use of alternate-teeth-wound concentrated winding configuration, two adjacent coils per phase and unequal teeth widths, the phase windings of the proposed machine is magnetically, thermally isolated, which offers potentials of modular design and fault tolerant capability. Taking advantage of the leakage component of winding inductance, 1.0 per unit short-circuit current is achieved endowing the machine with short-circuit proof capability. Optimal design of essential parameters aiming at low eddy current losses, high winding factor and short-circuit-proof ability are presented to pave the way for a high-quality system implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Accidental Continuous Releases from Coal Processing in Semi-Confined Environment
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5003-5022; doi:10.3390/en6105003
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 19 September 2013 / Accepted: 24 September 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Notwithstanding the enforcement of ATEX EU Directives (94/9/EC of 23 March 1994) and safety management system application, explosions in the coal sector still claim lives and cause huge economic losses. Even a consolidated activity like coke dry distillation allows the opportunity of preventing
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Notwithstanding the enforcement of ATEX EU Directives (94/9/EC of 23 March 1994) and safety management system application, explosions in the coal sector still claim lives and cause huge economic losses. Even a consolidated activity like coke dry distillation allows the opportunity of preventing explosion risk connected to fugitive emissions of coke oven gas. Considering accidental releases under semi-confined conditions, a simplified mathematical approach to the maximum allowed gaseous build-up is developed on the basis of the intrinsic hazards of the released compound. The results will help identifying and assessing low rate release consequences therefore to set-up appropriate prevention and control measures. The developed methodology was tested at the real-scale and validated by numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations showing the effectiveness of the methodology to evaluate and mitigate the risk connected to confined hazardous releases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coal Combustion and Gasification)
Open AccessArticle Operating Point Optimization of a Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Steam Turbine (SOFC-ST) Plant
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5046-5068; doi:10.3390/en6105046
Received: 24 June 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 23 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a hydrogen powered hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-steam turbine (SOFC-ST) system and studies its optimal operating conditions. This type of installation can be very appropriate to complement the intermittent generation of renewable energies, such as wind generation. A dynamic model
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This paper presents a hydrogen powered hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-steam turbine (SOFC-ST) system and studies its optimal operating conditions. This type of installation can be very appropriate to complement the intermittent generation of renewable energies, such as wind generation. A dynamic model of an alternative hybrid SOFC-ST configuration that is especially suited to work with hydrogen is developed. The proposed system recuperates the waste heat of the high temperature fuel cell, to feed a bottoming cycle (BC) based on a steam turbine (ST). In order to optimize the behavior and performance of the system, a two-level control structure is proposed. Two controllers have been implemented for the stack temperature and fuel utilization factor. An upper supervisor generates optimal set-points in order to reach a maximal hydrogen efficiency. The simulation results obtained show that the proposed system allows one to reach high efficiencies at rated power levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Economic and Environmental Impact of Double Glazed Façade Ventilation Systems in Mediterranean Climates
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5069-5087; doi:10.3390/en6105069
Received: 5 June 2013 / Revised: 18 September 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Free convection is the most often used method in order to reduce solar load gains on a building with double glazed façades (DGFs). However, depending on the climate factors, the thermal performance of a DGF may not be satisfactory and extra energy costs
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Free convection is the most often used method in order to reduce solar load gains on a building with double glazed façades (DGFs). However, depending on the climate factors, the thermal performance of a DGF may not be satisfactory and extra energy costs are required to obtain suitable comfort conditions inside the building. Forced ventilation systems are a feasible alternative to improve the thermal performance of a DGF in Mediterranean climates where large solar gains are a permanent condition throughout the year. In this paper the feasibility of using diverse forced ventilation methods in DGF is evaluated. In addition, an economical comparison between different mechanical ventilation systems was performed in order to demonstrate the viability of DGF forced ventilation. Moreover, an environmental study was carried out to prove the positive energetic balance on cooling loads between free and forced convection in DGF for Mediterranean climates. For this investigation, a CFD model was used to simulate the thermal conditions in a DGF for the different ventilation systems. Results obtained for heat flux, temperature and reductions in solar load gains were analyzed and applied for the economic and environmental research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2013)
Open AccessArticle Comparison Study on the Battery SoC Estimation with EKF and UKF Algorithms
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5088-5100; doi:10.3390/en6105088
Received: 22 June 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 24 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The battery state of charge (SoC), whose estimation is one of the basic functions of battery management system (BMS), is a vital input parameter in the energy management and power distribution control of electric vehicles (EVs). In this paper, two methods based on
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The battery state of charge (SoC), whose estimation is one of the basic functions of battery management system (BMS), is a vital input parameter in the energy management and power distribution control of electric vehicles (EVs). In this paper, two methods based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF), respectively, are proposed to estimate the SoC of a lithium-ion battery used in EVs. The lithium-ion battery is modeled with the Thevenin model and the model parameters are identified based on experimental data and validated with the Beijing Driving Cycle. Then space equations used for SoC estimation are established. The SoC estimation results with EKF and UKF are compared in aspects of accuracy and convergence. It is concluded that the two algorithms both perform well, while the UKF algorithm is much better with a faster convergence ability and a higher accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Dissemination of Solar Water Heaters in Taiwan: The Case of Remote Islands
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5101-5113; doi:10.3390/en6105101
Received: 13 September 2013 / Revised: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 25 September 2013 / Published: 9 October 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solar water heaters represent the success story in the development of renewable energy in Taiwan. With increasing public awareness, there are over 0.3 million residential systems in operation. To disseminate solar water heaters in remote islands, economic feasibility and water quality are taken
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Solar water heaters represent the success story in the development of renewable energy in Taiwan. With increasing public awareness, there are over 0.3 million residential systems in operation. To disseminate solar water heaters in remote islands, economic feasibility and water quality are taken into account in this study. The payback period in Kinmen and Penghu Counties are evaluated, according to effective annual solar energy gain, hot water consumption pattern and cost. Assessment of the scaling and corrosion tendencies for solar water heaters using tap and underground water are also presented. For flat-plate solar collectors with metal components, favorable corrosion resistance and protective anti-corrosion coatings are required. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of Innovative Heating and Cooling Systems Using Renewable Energy Sources for Non-Residential Buildings
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5114-5129; doi:10.3390/en6105114
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 9 October 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (4647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Industrial and commercial areas are synonymous with high energy consumption, both for heating/cooling and electric power requirements, which are in general associated to a massive use of fossil fuels producing consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Two pilot systems, co-funded by the Italian Ministry for
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Industrial and commercial areas are synonymous with high energy consumption, both for heating/cooling and electric power requirements, which are in general associated to a massive use of fossil fuels producing consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Two pilot systems, co-funded by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, have been created to upgrade the heating/cooling systems of two existing buildings on the largest industrial estate in Umbria, Italy. The upgrade was specifically designed to improve the system efficiency and to cover the overall energy which needs with renewable energy resources. In both cases a solar photovoltaic plant provides the required electric power. The first system features a geothermal heat pump with an innovative layout: a heat-storage water tank, buried just below ground level, allows a significant reduction of the geothermal unit size, hence requiring fewer and/or shorter boreholes (up to 60%–70%). In the other system a biomass boiler is coupled with an absorption chiller machine, controlling the indoor air temperature in both summer and winter. In this case, lower electricity consumption, if compared to an electric compression chiller, is obtained. The first results of the monitoring of summer cooling are presented and an evaluation of the performance of the two pilot systems is given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2013)
Open AccessArticle Collector Efficiency in Downward-Type Internal-Recycle Solar Air Heaters with Attached Fins
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5130-5144; doi:10.3390/en6105130
Received: 13 August 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 10 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The internal-recycle operation effect on collector efficiency in downward-type rectangular solar air heaters with attached fins is theoretically investigated. It is found that considerable collector efficiency is obtainable if the collector has attached fins and the operation is carried out with internal recycling.
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The internal-recycle operation effect on collector efficiency in downward-type rectangular solar air heaters with attached fins is theoretically investigated. It is found that considerable collector efficiency is obtainable if the collector has attached fins and the operation is carried out with internal recycling. The recycling operation increases the fluid velocity to decrease the heat transfer resistance, compensating for the undesirable effect of decreasing the heat transfer driving force (temperature difference) due to remixing. The attached fins provide an enlarged heat transfer area. The order of performance in a device of same size is: double pass with recycle and fins > double pass with recycle but without fins > single pass without recycle and fins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5145-5156; doi:10.3390/en6105145
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 3 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 10 October 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001%) over
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Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001%) over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity as well as the rates of charge flow per nominal area of anode are the highest for the present anode. With regard to applications, the specific parameters per area are more important than the specific gravimetric parameters like the gravimetric capacity, which is good for comparing the capacity between materials but not enough for comparing between anodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of High EGR Rate on Dimethyl Ether (DME) Combustion and Pollutant Emission Characteristics in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5157-5167; doi:10.3390/en6105157
Received: 13 August 2013 / Revised: 14 September 2013 / Accepted: 30 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates on dimethyl ether (DME) fuel combustion performance, exhaust emissions and particle emission characteristics in a small direct injection diesel engine under various injection timings. To examine the effect of EGR and
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This study investigated the effects of high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates on dimethyl ether (DME) fuel combustion performance, exhaust emissions and particle emission characteristics in a small direct injection diesel engine under various injection timings. To examine the effect of EGR and injection timings, the experiment was performed under high EGR rates (0%, 30%, 50%) and injection timings were varied from 40° before top dead center (BTDC) to top dead center (TDC) of the crank angle to examine the effects of early injection of DME fuel. The combustion pressures and heat release rates for different EGR rates followed similar trends. As the injection timing was advanced, the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) differed little in response to EGR rate in the range from TDC to 25° BTDC, and more for crank angles beyond 25° BTDC. DME combustion exhibited very little soot emission, but soot emission increased slightly with EGR rate. The use of high EGR during combustion produced very low NOx concentrations but increased HC and CO emissions for advanced injection timings from 25° BTDC to 40° BTDC. The use of EGR increased both the emissions of total particle number and particle volume over the whole range of the injection timings; for all cases, total particle volume decreased as injection timing was advanced. Full article
Open AccessArticle Battery System Modeling for a Military Electric Propulsion Vehicle with a Fault Simulation
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5168-5181; doi:10.3390/en6105168
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
PDF Full-text (547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the development process and results of a battery system model with a fault simulation for electric propulsion vehicles. The developed battery system model can be used to verify control and fault diagnosis strategies of the supervisory controller in an electric
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This paper describes the development process and results of a battery system model with a fault simulation for electric propulsion vehicles. The developed battery system model can be used to verify control and fault diagnosis strategies of the supervisory controller in an electric propulsion vehicle. To develop this battery system model, three sub-models, including a battery model, a relay assembly model, and a battery management system (BMS) model, are connected together like in the target real battery system. Comparison results between the real battery system hardware and the battery system model show a similar tendency and values. Furthermore, the fault injection test of the model shows that the proposed battery system model can simulate a failure situation consistent with a real system. It is possible for the model to emulate the battery characteristics and fault situation if it is used in the development process of a BMS or for supervisory control strategies for electric propulsion systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Microbial Community Response to Seasonal Temperature Variation in a Small-Scale Anaerobic Digester
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5182-5199; doi:10.3390/en6105182
Received: 18 September 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Bacterial and Archaeal communities in a 1.14 m3 ambient temperature anaerobic digester treating dairy cow manure were investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) and direct sequencing of the cloned polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. Results indicate shifts in the
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The Bacterial and Archaeal communities in a 1.14 m3 ambient temperature anaerobic digester treating dairy cow manure were investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) and direct sequencing of the cloned polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. Results indicate shifts in the structure of the both the Archaeal and Bacterial communities coincided with digester re-inoculation as well as temperature and loading rate changes. Following re-inoculation of the sour digester, the predominant Archaea shifted from Methanobrevibacter to Methanosarcina, which was the most abundant Archaea in the inoculum. Methonosarcina was replaced by Methanosaeta after the resumption of digester loading in the summer of 2010. Methanosaeta began to decline in abundance as the digester temperature cooled in the fall of 2010 while Methanobrevibacter increased in abundance. The microbial community rate of change was variable during the study period, with the most rapid changes occurring after re-inoculation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Biofuels 2013)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Switching Table-Based Sliding Mode Control of an Energy Recovery Li-Ion Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5200-5218; doi:10.3390/en6105200
Received: 14 August 2013 / Revised: 29 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1002 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of the present work is to apply a sliding mode controller (SMC) to medium voltage and high power output energy recovery Li-ion power accumulator battery pack testing systems (ERLPABTSs), which are composed of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) three-phase voltage source
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The main objective of the present work is to apply a sliding mode controller (SMC) to medium voltage and high power output energy recovery Li-ion power accumulator battery pack testing systems (ERLPABTSs), which are composed of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) and a two-level buck-boost converter without an isolating transformer. An inner current decoupled control scheme for the aforementioned system is proposed and two sliding mode planes for active and reactive current control are designed based on the control scheme. An optimized switching table for current convergence is used according to the error sign of the equivalent input voltage and feedback voltage. The proposed ERLPABTS could be used to integrate discharging energy into the power grid when performing high accuracy current testing. The active and reactive power references for the grid-connected inverter are determined based on the discharging energy from the DC-DC converter. Simulations and experiments on a laboratory hardware platform using a 175 kW insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)-based ERLPABTS have been implemented and verified, and the performance is found satisfactory and superior to conventional ERLPABPTS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5219-5230; doi:10.3390/en6105219
Received: 21 August 2013 / Revised: 20 September 2013 / Accepted: 23 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phase change materials (PCMs) have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because
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Phase change materials (PCMs) have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each PCM has its own phase change temperature, which is the temperature at which latent heat is absorbed or released, it is important to use an appropriate PCM for the purpose of building envelope design. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope by analyzing the thermal load characteristics. As results, the annual heating load increased at every phase change temperature, but the peak heating load decreased by 3.19% with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C), and the lowest indoor temperature increased by 0.86 °C with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C). The annual cooling load decreased by 1.05% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C), the peak cooling load decreased by 1.30% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C), and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.50 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C). When the night ventilation was applied to the building HVAC system for better passive cooling performance, the annual cooling load decreased by 9.28% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C), the peak load decreased by 11.33% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C), and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.85 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design 2013)
Open AccessArticle Development of an Experimental Testbed for Research in Lithium-Ion Battery Management Systems
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5231-5258; doi:10.3390/en6105231
Received: 19 August 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 25 September 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advanced electrochemical batteries are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications from household and commercial to smart grid, transportation, and aerospace applications. Among different battery technologies, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are growing more and more popular due to their high energy
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Advanced electrochemical batteries are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications from household and commercial to smart grid, transportation, and aerospace applications. Among different battery technologies, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are growing more and more popular due to their high energy density, high galvanic potential, low self-discharge, low weight, and the fact that they have almost no memory effect. However, one of the main obstacles facing the widespread commercialization of Li-ion batteries is the design of reliable battery management systems (BMSs). An efficient BMS ensures electrical safety during operation, while increasing battery lifetime, capacity and thermal stability. Despite the need for extensive research in this field, the majority of research conducted on Li-ion battery packs and BMS are proprietary works conducted by manufacturers. The available literature, however, provides either general descriptions or detailed analysis of individual components of the battery system, and ignores addressing details of the overall system development. This paper addresses the development of an experimental research testbed for studying Li-ion batteries and their BMS design. The testbed can be configured in a variety of cell and pack architectures, allowing for a wide range of BMS monitoring, diagnostics, and control technologies to be tested and analyzed. General considerations that should be taken into account while designing Li-ion battery systems are reviewed and different technologies and challenges commonly encountered in Li-ion battery systems are investigated. This testbed facilitates future development of more practical and improved BMS technologies with the aim of increasing the safety, reliability, and efficiency of existing Li-ion battery systems. Experimental results of initial tests performed on the system are used to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the developed research testbed. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that addresses, at the same time, the practical battery system development issues along with the theoretical and technological challenges from cell to pack level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Building Agro-Energy Supply Chains in the Basilicata Region: Technical and Economic Evaluation of Interchangeability between Fossil and Renewable Energy Sources
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5259-5282; doi:10.3390/en6105259
Received: 5 August 2013 / Revised: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we present a model for the implementation of agro-energy chains based on the actual availability of forest biomass and the real demand for energy (heat) in the area of the Basilicata region, Italy. The demand for energy has been estimated
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In this study, we present a model for the implementation of agro-energy chains based on the actual availability of forest biomass and the real demand for energy (heat) in the area of the Basilicata region, Italy. The demand for energy has been estimated by drawing on the database of the Ministry of Economic Development or by calculating the Annual Energy Requirement (AER) index, while for the estimate of the available forest biomass, reference was made to the public forest lands managed according to forestry management plans. The collected data were cross-checked with a view to detecting the technical and economic feasibility of district heating systems. The technical evaluation has mainly focused on the energetic and plant aspects, while the economic assessment was directed to defining the cost effectiveness criteria [Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Payback Period] that can measure the profitability of the investment. In the economic evaluation we also included the national public incentives, designed to encourage the production of energy from renewable sources in compliance with the international agreements signed by Italy for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Biofuels 2013)
Open AccessArticle Improving the Transient Performance of the Gas Turbine by Steam Injection during Frequency Dips
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5283-5296; doi:10.3390/en6105283
Received: 5 September 2013 / Revised: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 6 October 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Single-shaft gas turbines are sensitive to frequency changes which might affect the grid stability during large frequency drops. This paper presents a new control system that uses steam injection as an auxiliary input to improve the transient performance of the gas turbine during
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Single-shaft gas turbines are sensitive to frequency changes which might affect the grid stability during large frequency drops. This paper presents a new control system that uses steam injection as an auxiliary input to improve the transient performance of the gas turbine during frequency drops. Steam injection is beneficial because it reduces the peak temperature in the combustion chamber and augments the output power by increasing the mass flow through the turbine. The use of this auxiliary input is based on the event-based control approach. It means that during the frequency drop, the controller exploits the steam injection to help the main control loop recover the frequency and when the frequency reaches its predefined value, the system will return to its normal operation. The performance of the proposed control algorithm is investigated under different scenarios and the results show that the application of steam injection improves the performance of the regular control algorithm significantly, especially near full load condition. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Numerical Study of the Effects of Wind Direction on Turbine Wakes and Power Losses in a Large Wind Farm
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5297-5313; doi:10.3390/en6105297
Received: 14 August 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
Cited by 59 | PDF Full-text (2357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, large-eddy simulations (LESs) were performed to investigate the effects of changing wind direction on the turbine wakes and associated power losses in the Horns Rev offshore wind farm. In the LES framework, the turbulent subgrid-scale stresses are parameterized using a
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In this study, large-eddy simulations (LESs) were performed to investigate the effects of changing wind direction on the turbine wakes and associated power losses in the Horns Rev offshore wind farm. In the LES framework, the turbulent subgrid-scale stresses are parameterized using a tuning-free Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic model, and the turbine-induced forces are computed using a dynamic actuator-disk model with rotation (ADM-R). This dynamic ADM-R couples blade-element theory with a turbine-specific relation between the blade angular velocity and the shaft torque to compute simultaneously turbine angular velocity and power output. A total of 67 simulations were performed for a wide range of wind direction angles. Results from the simulations show a strong impact of wind direction on the spatial distribution of turbine-wake characteristics, such as velocity deficit and turbulence intensity. This can be explained by the fact that changing the wind angle can be viewed as changing the wind farm layout relative to the incoming wind, while keeping the same wind turbine density. Of particular importance is the effect of wind direction on the distance available for the wakes to recover and expand before encountering other downwind turbines (in full-wake or partial-wake interactions), which affects the power losses from those turbines. As a result, even small changes in wind direction angle can have strong impacts on the total wind farm power output. For example, a change in wind direction of just 10° from the worst-case full-wake condition is found to increase the total power output by as much as 43%. This has important implications for the design of wind farms and the management of the temporal variability of their power output. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Decision Support for the Construction of Farm-Scale Biogas Digesters in Developing Countries with Cold Seasons
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5314-5332; doi:10.3390/en6105314
Received: 12 July 2013 / Revised: 4 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biogas production is a clean renewable energy source that can improve lives in developing countries. However, winter temperatures in some areas are too low to enable enough biogas production in small unheated digesters to meet the energy requirements of households. Low-cost, high yield
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Biogas production is a clean renewable energy source that can improve lives in developing countries. However, winter temperatures in some areas are too low to enable enough biogas production in small unheated digesters to meet the energy requirements of households. Low-cost, high yield reactors adapted to the local climate are needed in those situations. A decision-support model was developed to assist in the design of biogas reactors capable of meeting households’ year-round energy needs. Monthly biogas production relative to household energy needs was calculated for the scenario of suburban Hanoi, Vietnam. Calculations included pig number, slurry (manure water mixture) dilution, retention time and biogas/solar heating. Although using biogas to heat the digester increased biogas production, it did not lead to an energy surplus, particularly with the 1:9 slurry dilution rate commonly used on pig farms. However, at a 1:3 slurry dilution, the use of solar heating to provide 90% and biogas 10% of the heat required to heat the digester to 35 °C improved the biogas production by 50% compared to psychrophilic production. The energy needs of an average five-person family throughout the year required 17 fattening pigs. This model can establish the best solution for producing sufficient energy throughout the year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Biofuels 2013)
Open AccessArticle A Linear Programming Approach for Modeling and Simulation of Growth and Lipid Accumulation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5333-5356; doi:10.3390/en6105333
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 2 October 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The unicellular microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum exhibits the ability to accumulate triacylglycerols to a high specific content when nutrients are limited in the culture medium. Therefore, the organism is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. Mathematical modeling can substantially contribute to process development and
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The unicellular microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum exhibits the ability to accumulate triacylglycerols to a high specific content when nutrients are limited in the culture medium. Therefore, the organism is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. Mathematical modeling can substantially contribute to process development and optimization of algae cultivation on different levels. In our work we describe a linear programming approach to model and simulate the growth and storage molecule accumulation of P. tricornutum. The model is based on mass and energy balances and shows that the organism realizes the inherent drive for maximization of energy to biomass conversion and growth. The model predicts that under nutrient limiting conditions both storage carbohydrates and lipids are synthesized simultaneously but at different rates. The model was validated with data gained from batch growth experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Open AccessArticle A Spinning Reserve Allocation Method for Power Generation Dispatch Accommodating Large-Scale Wind Power Integration
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5357-5381; doi:10.3390/en6105357
Received: 28 August 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spinning reserve allocation is a critical problem for active power dispatch with large-scale wind power penetration. A risk-based reserve allocation method that accounts multiple control sub-area coordination is given in this paper. And a multi-objective optimization model is constructed to schedule the spinning
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Spinning reserve allocation is a critical problem for active power dispatch with large-scale wind power penetration. A risk-based reserve allocation method that accounts multiple control sub-area coordination is given in this paper. And a multi-objective optimization model is constructed to schedule the spinning generation reserve for online active power dispatch. A fuzzy optimization method is used to transform the multi-objective optimization problem into a single-objective optimization one. The relationship between loss of load expectation and spinning reserve is also derived. And a particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is employed to provide a numerical solution to the problem. Numerical tests on IEEE RTS system are also given to validate the proposed method. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Neural-Network-Based Nonlinear Adaptive State-Observer for Pressurized Water Reactors
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5382-5401; doi:10.3390/en6105382
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (845 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although there have been some severe nuclear accidents such as Three Mile Island (USA), Chernobyl (Ukraine) and Fukushima (Japan), nuclear fission energy is still a source of clean energy that can substitute for fossil fuels in a centralized way and in a great
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Although there have been some severe nuclear accidents such as Three Mile Island (USA), Chernobyl (Ukraine) and Fukushima (Japan), nuclear fission energy is still a source of clean energy that can substitute for fossil fuels in a centralized way and in a great amount with commercial availability and economic competitiveness. Since the pressurized water reactor (PWR) is the most widely used nuclear fission reactor, its safe, stable and efficient operation is meaningful to the current rebirth of the nuclear fission energy industry. Power-level regulation is an important technique which can deeply affect the operation stability and efficiency of PWRs. Compared with the classical power-level controllers, the advanced power-level regulators could strengthen both the closed-loop stability and control performance by feeding back the internal state-variables. However, not all of the internal state variables of a PWR can be obtained directly by measurements. To implement advanced PWR power-level control law, it is necessary to develop a state-observer to reconstruct the unmeasurable state-variables. Since a PWR is naturally a complex nonlinear system with parameters varying with power-level, fuel burnup, xenon isotope production, control rod worth and etc., it is meaningful to design a nonlinear observer for the PWR with adaptability to system uncertainties. Due to this and the strong learning capability of the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network, an MLP-based nonlinear adaptive observer is given for PWRs. Based upon Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved theoretically that this newly-built observer can provide bounded and convergent state-observation. This observer is then applied to the state-observation of a special PWR, i.e., the nuclear heating reactor (NHR), and numerical simulation results not only verify its feasibility but also give the relationship between the observation performance and observer parameters. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evolution of Hydrate Dissociation by Warm Brine Stimulation Combined Depressurization in the South China Sea
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5402-5425; doi:10.3390/en6105402
Received: 25 August 2013 / Revised: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To evaluate the gas production performance of the hydrate accumulations in the South China Sea, a numerical simulation with warm brine stimulation combined depressurization has been conducted. A dual horizontal well system is considered as the well configuration in this work. In order
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To evaluate the gas production performance of the hydrate accumulations in the South China Sea, a numerical simulation with warm brine stimulation combined depressurization has been conducted. A dual horizontal well system is considered as the well configuration in this work. In order to reduce energy input and improve energy utilization, warm brine (<30 °C) instead of hot brine (>50 °C) is injected into the reservoir for hydrate dissociation. The effect of the intrinsic permeability of the hydrate reservoir, the salinity and the temperature of the injected brine to gas hydrate exploitation have been investigated. The numerical simulation results indicate that the average gas production rate Qavg is about 1.23 ´ 105 ST m3/day for the entire hydrate deposit, which has the same order of magnitude compared with the commercially viable production rate. The injected brine can be pumped out from the upper production well directly after the hydrate between the two wells is dissociated completely. Thus, the effective region of heat and inhibitor stimulation is limited. The sensitivity analyses indicate that the dissociation rate of hydrate can be enhanced by increasing the temperature of the injected brine and raising the salinity of the injected brine. The parametric study of permeability shows that the hydrate of the reservoir with the larger permeability has a higher dissociation rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Gas Hydrate 2013)
Open AccessArticle An Innovative Hybrid 3D Analytic-Numerical Approach for System Level Modelling of PEM Fuel Cells
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5426-5485; doi:10.3390/en6105426
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 27 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
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Abstract
The PEM fuel cell model presented in this paper is based on modelling species transport and coupling electrochemical reactions to species transport in an innovative way. Species transport is modelled by obtaining a 2D analytic solution for species concentration distribution in the plane
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The PEM fuel cell model presented in this paper is based on modelling species transport and coupling electrochemical reactions to species transport in an innovative way. Species transport is modelled by obtaining a 2D analytic solution for species concentration distribution in the plane perpendicular to the gas-flow and coupling consecutive 2D solutions by means of a 1D numerical gas-flow model. The 2D solution is devised on a jigsaw puzzle of multiple coupled domains which enables the modelling of parallel straight channel fuel cells with realistic geometries. Electrochemical and other nonlinear phenomena are coupled to the species transport by a routine that uses derivative approximation with prediction-iteration. A hybrid 3D analytic-numerical fuel cell model of a laboratory test fuel cell is presented and evaluated against a professional 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation tool. This comparative evaluation shows very good agreement between results of the presented model and those of the CFD simulation. Furthermore, high accuracy results are achieved at computational times short enough to be suitable for system level simulations. This computational efficiency is owed to the semi-analytic nature of its species transport modelling and to the efficient computational coupling of electrochemical kinetics and species transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells)
Open AccessArticle Emergy Evaluation of the Urban Solid Waste Handling in Liaoning Province, China
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5486-5506; doi:10.3390/en6105486
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Waste management is a distinct practice aimed at reducing its effects on health and the environment and increasing energy and material recovery. The urban waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies, such as sanitary landfills and incineration, which enable better
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Waste management is a distinct practice aimed at reducing its effects on health and the environment and increasing energy and material recovery. The urban waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies, such as sanitary landfills and incineration, which enable better treatment results. The aim of a thorough ecological-economic evaluation of different treatment technologies is to extract the maximum practical benefits from investments and to ensure the minimum environmental impacts of wastes. This paper compares four garbage treatment systems, including sanitary landfills systems, fluidized bed incineration system, grate type incineration system and the current landfills system in Liaoning Province, China. By considering the economic and environmental impacts of waste treatment and disposal, impact of emissions, and contribution of wastes input, this paper constructed an emergy-based urban solid waste model for evaluating the sustainability of the holistic systems. The results in Liaoning indicate that the human health losses caused by the harmful air emissions are ranked in this order: fluidized bed incineration > grate type incineration > current landfills > sanitary landfills, while the ecosystem losses are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. The electricity yield ratios are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. Taken together this suggests that in considering the incineration option, decision makers must weigh the benefits of incineration against the significant operating costs, potential environmental impacts, and technical difficulties of operating. Emergy analysis of the urban solid treatment systems can provide a set of useful tools which can be used to compare the comprehensive performances of different waste treatment processes for decision-making and optimizing the whole process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Surface Energy Fluxes and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle An Optimization Framework for Comparative Analysis of Multiple Vehicle Powertrains
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5507-5537; doi:10.3390/en6105507
Received: 30 July 2013 / Revised: 3 October 2013 / Accepted: 7 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With a myriad of alternative vehicle powertrain architectures emerging in the industry, such as electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, it is beneficial that the most appropriate system is chosen for the desired vehicle class and duty cycle, and to minimize a given
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With a myriad of alternative vehicle powertrain architectures emerging in the industry, such as electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, it is beneficial that the most appropriate system is chosen for the desired vehicle class and duty cycle, and to minimize a given cost function. This paper investigates this issue, by proposing a novel framework that evaluates different types of powertrain architectures under a unified modular powertrain structure. This framework provides a systematic and objective approach to comparing different types of powertrain architectures simultaneously, and will highlight the benefits that can be achieved from each architecture, thus making it possible to develop the reasoning for manufacturers to implement such systems, and potentially accelerate customer take-up of alternative powertrain technology. The results from this investigation have indicated that such analysis is indeed possible, by way of identifying the “cross-over point” between powertrain architectures, where one powertrain architecture transitions into a different architecture with increments in the required travel range. Full article
Open AccessArticle Second-Order Discrete-Time Sliding Mode Observer for State of Charge Determination Based on a Dynamic Resistance Li-Ion Battery Model
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5538-5551; doi:10.3390/en6105538
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 4 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A second-order discrete-time sliding mode observer (DSMO)-based method is proposed to estimate the state of charge (SOC) of a Li-ion battery. Unlike the first-order sliding mode approach, the proposed method eliminates the chattering phenomenon in SOC estimation. Further, a battery model with a
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A second-order discrete-time sliding mode observer (DSMO)-based method is proposed to estimate the state of charge (SOC) of a Li-ion battery. Unlike the first-order sliding mode approach, the proposed method eliminates the chattering phenomenon in SOC estimation. Further, a battery model with a dynamic resistance is also proposed to improve the accuracy of the battery model. Similar to actual battery behavior, the resistance parameters in this model are changed by both the magnitude of the discharge current and the SOC level. Validation of the dynamic resistance model is performed through pulse current discharge tests at two different SOC levels. Our experimental results show that the proposed estimation method not only enhances the estimation accuracy but also eliminates the chattering phenomenon. The SOC estimation performance of the second-order DSMO is compared with that of the first-order DSMO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5552-5569; doi:10.3390/en6105552
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 14 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI) controller for an energy storage system (ESS). In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of
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This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI) controller for an energy storage system (ESS). In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grids: The Electrical Power Network and Communication System)
Open AccessArticle Asymmetrical Interleaved DC/DC Switching Converters for Photovoltaic and Fuel Cell Applications—Part 2: Control-Oriented Models
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5570-5596; doi:10.3390/en6105570
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A previous article has presented the members of the asymmetrical interleaved dc/dc switching converters family as very appropriate candidates to interface between photovoltaic or fuel cell generators and their loads because of their reduced ripple and increased current processing capabilities. After a review
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A previous article has presented the members of the asymmetrical interleaved dc/dc switching converters family as very appropriate candidates to interface between photovoltaic or fuel cell generators and their loads because of their reduced ripple and increased current processing capabilities. After a review of the main modeling methods suitable for high-order converters operating, as the asymmetrical interleaved converters (AIC) ones, in discontinuous current conduction mode a full-order averaged model has been adapted and improved to describe the dynamic behavior of AIC. The excellent agreement between the mathematical model predictions, the switched simulations and the experimental results has allowed for satisfactory design of a linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) in a fuel-cell application example, which demonstrates the usefulness of the improved control-oriented modeling approach when the switching converters operate in discontinuous conduction mode. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5023-5045; doi:10.3390/en6105023
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE) analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the
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This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE) analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the favourable environmental resources for such technologies; the number of different design concepts that are currently under development as well as the research funding that has been invested over the last few years. Findings of the analysis identify the risks and multiple stakeholders involved at all stages of the tidal energy projects development from the conceptualization of the design, right through to decommissioning. Many of the stakeholders present benefits to the tidal developers through funding, incentives and knowledge sharing, but at the same time they also present potential risks to the future of projects. This is mostly down to different approaches of the most important aspect of tidal energy that needs to be considered, making it hard for technologists and developers to equally address all requirements. From this research it can be concluded that several of these risks can be mitigated early on providing that particular stakeholders are involved at the correct stage of a project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy from the Ocean - Wave and Tidal Energy)

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