E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Algae Fuel 2013"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Paul L. Chen (Website)

Center for Biorefining, Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
Phone: 612-625-7721
Interests: pyrolysis; hydrothermal liquefaction; microalgae; food processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue came as the natural consequence of the great success of the previous one Algae Fuel.

Fast growing, oil producing algae are recognized as one of the most promising biomass feedstock for production of biofuels and bioproducts. Despite the many advances made over several decades, commercialization of algal fuels remains challenging chiefly because of the techno-economic constrains and lack of understanding of life cycle impacts. This special issue is to solicit high quality, original research contributions on all aspects of algae to fuels technologies, including but not limited to strain selection and development, cultivation techniques and facilities, harvest, downstream processing, product development, techno-economic analysis, and life cycle analysis.

Dr. Paul L. Chen
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • algae
  • microalgae
  • biofuels
  • biodiesel
  • photobioreactor
  • harvest
  • conversion

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (13 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-13
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Analysis of Solid and Aqueous Phase Products from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Whole and Lipid-Extracted Algae
Energies 2014, 7(1), 62-79; doi:10.3390/en7010062
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 11 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 30 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microalgae have tremendous potential as a feedstock for production of liquid biofuels, particularly biodiesel fuel via transesterification of algal lipids. However, biodiesel production results in significant amounts of algal residues, or “lipid extracted algae” (LEA). Suitable utilization of the LEA residue will [...] Read more.
Microalgae have tremendous potential as a feedstock for production of liquid biofuels, particularly biodiesel fuel via transesterification of algal lipids. However, biodiesel production results in significant amounts of algal residues, or “lipid extracted algae” (LEA). Suitable utilization of the LEA residue will improve the economics of algal biodiesel. In the present study, we evaluate the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of whole and lipid extracted algal (Spirulina maxima) feedstocks in order to produce a solid biofuel (hydrochar) and value-added co-products in the aqueous phase. HTC experiments were performed using a 2-L Parr reactor (batch type) at 175–215 °C with a 30-min holding time. Solid, aqueous and gaseous products were analyzed using various laboratory methods to evaluate the mass and carbon balances, and investigate the existence of high value chemicals in the aqueous phase. The HTC method is effective in creating an energy dense, solid hydrochar from both whole algae and LEA at lower temperatures as compared to lignocellulosic feedstocks, and is effective at reducing the ash content in the resulting hydrochar. However, under the treatment temperatures investigated, less than 1% of the starting dry algae mass was recovered as an identified high-value chemical in the aqueous phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Open AccessArticle Cellular Cycling, Carbon Utilization, and Photosynthetic Oxygen Production during Bicarbonate-Induced Triacylglycerol Accumulation in a Scenedesmus sp.
Energies 2013, 6(11), 6060-6076; doi:10.3390/en6116060
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microalgae are capable of synthesizing high levels of triacylglycerol (TAG) which can be used as precursor compounds for fuels and specialty chemicals. Algal TAG accumulation typically occurs when cellular cycling is delayed or arrested due to nutrient limitation, an environmental challenge (e.g., [...] Read more.
Microalgae are capable of synthesizing high levels of triacylglycerol (TAG) which can be used as precursor compounds for fuels and specialty chemicals. Algal TAG accumulation typically occurs when cellular cycling is delayed or arrested due to nutrient limitation, an environmental challenge (e.g., pH, light, temperature stress), or by chemical addition. This work is a continuation of previous studies detailing sodium bicarbonate-induced TAG accumulation in the alkaline chlorophyte Scenedesmus sp. WC-1. It was found that upon sodium bicarbonate amendment, bicarbonate is the ion responsible for TAG accumulation; a culture amendment of approximately 15 mM bicarbonate was sufficient to arrest the cellular cycle and switch the algal metabolism from high growth to a TAG accumulating state. However, the cultures were limited in dissolved inorganic carbon one day after the amendment, suggesting additional carbon supplementation was necessary. Therefore, additional abiotic and biotic experimentation was performed to evaluate in- and out-gassing of CO2. Cultures to which 40–50 mM of sodium bicarbonate were added consumed DIC faster than CO2 could ingas during the light hours and total photosynthetic oxygen production was elevated as compared to cultures that did not receive supplemental inorganic carbon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Open AccessArticle Measurement of Lipid Droplet Accumulation Kinetics in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Using Seoul-Fluor
Energies 2013, 6(11), 5703-5716; doi:10.3390/en6115703
Received: 31 August 2013 / Revised: 17 October 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alternative energy resources have become an important issue due to the limited stocks of petroleum-based fuel. Microalgae, a source of renewable biodiesel, use solar light to convert CO2 into lipid droplets (LDs). Quantification of LDs in microalgae is required for developing [...] Read more.
Alternative energy resources have become an important issue due to the limited stocks of petroleum-based fuel. Microalgae, a source of renewable biodiesel, use solar light to convert CO2 into lipid droplets (LDs). Quantification of LDs in microalgae is required for developing and optimizing algal bioprocess engineering. However, conventional quantification methods are both time and labor-intensive and difficult to apply in high-throughput screening systems. LDs in plant and mammalian cells can be visualized by staining with various fluorescence probes such as the Nile Red, BODIPY, and Seoul-Fluor (SF) series. This report describes the optimization of LD staining in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with SF probes via systematic variations of dye concentration, staining time, temperature, and pH. A protocol for quantitative measurement of accumulation kinetics of LDs in C. reinhardtii was developed using a spectrofluorimeter and the accuracy of LD size measurement was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results indicate that our spectrofluorimeter-based measurement approach can monitor kinetics of intracellular LDs (in control and nitrogen-source-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) accumulation that has not been possible in the case of conventional imaging-based methods. Our results presented here confirmed that an SF44 can be a powerful tool for in situ monitoring and tracking of intracellular LDs formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Open AccessArticle Microalgal Species Selection for Biodiesel Production Based on Fuel Properties Derived from Fatty Acid Profiles
Energies 2013, 6(11), 5676-5702; doi:10.3390/en6115676
Received: 17 August 2013 / Revised: 27 September 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (504 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are influenced by structural features of the fatty acids, such as chain length, degree of unsaturation and branching of the carbon chain. This study investigated if microalgal fatty acid profiles are suitable for biodiesel characterization and [...] Read more.
Physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are influenced by structural features of the fatty acids, such as chain length, degree of unsaturation and branching of the carbon chain. This study investigated if microalgal fatty acid profiles are suitable for biodiesel characterization and species selection through Preference Ranking Organisation Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA) analysis. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles were used to calculate the likely key chemical and physical properties of the biodiesel [cetane number (CN), iodine value (IV), cold filter plugging point, density, kinematic viscosity, higher heating value] of nine microalgal species (this study) and twelve species from the literature, selected for their suitability for cultivation in subtropical climates. An equal-parameter weighted (PROMETHEE-GAIA) ranked Nannochloropsis oculata, Extubocellulus sp. and Biddulphia sp. highest; the only species meeting the EN14214 and ASTM D6751-02 biodiesel standards, except for the double bond limit in the EN14214. Chlorella vulgaris outranked N. oculata when the twelve microalgae were included. Culture growth phase (stationary) and, to a lesser extent, nutrient provision affected CN and IV values of N. oculata due to lower eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) contents. Application of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) weighting to saturation led to a lower ranking of species exceeding the double bond EN14214 thresholds. In summary, CN, IV, C18:3 and double bond limits were the strongest drivers in equal biodiesel parameter-weighted PROMETHEE analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Open AccessArticle A Linear Programming Approach for Modeling and Simulation of Growth and Lipid Accumulation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5333-5356; doi:10.3390/en6105333
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 2 October 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The unicellular microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum exhibits the ability to accumulate triacylglycerols to a high specific content when nutrients are limited in the culture medium. Therefore, the organism is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. Mathematical modeling can substantially contribute to process development [...] Read more.
The unicellular microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum exhibits the ability to accumulate triacylglycerols to a high specific content when nutrients are limited in the culture medium. Therefore, the organism is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. Mathematical modeling can substantially contribute to process development and optimization of algae cultivation on different levels. In our work we describe a linear programming approach to model and simulate the growth and storage molecule accumulation of P. tricornutum. The model is based on mass and energy balances and shows that the organism realizes the inherent drive for maximization of energy to biomass conversion and growth. The model predicts that under nutrient limiting conditions both storage carbohydrates and lipids are synthesized simultaneously but at different rates. The model was validated with data gained from batch growth experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Open AccessArticle Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis for Bio-Liquid Jet Fuel from Open Pond-Based Micro-Algae under China Conditions
Energies 2013, 6(9), 4897-4923; doi:10.3390/en6094897
Received: 29 July 2013 / Revised: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A life-cycle analysis (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use was performed to study bio-jet fuel (BJF) production from micro-algae grown in open ponds under Chinese conditions using the Tsinghua University LCA Model (TLCAM). Attention was paid to energy recovery [...] Read more.
A life-cycle analysis (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use was performed to study bio-jet fuel (BJF) production from micro-algae grown in open ponds under Chinese conditions using the Tsinghua University LCA Model (TLCAM). Attention was paid to energy recovery through biogas production and cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) from the residual biomass after oil extraction, including fugitive methane (CH4) emissions during the production of biogas and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during the use of digestate (solid residue from anaerobic digestion) as agricultural fertilizer. Analyses were performed based on examination of process parameters, mass balance conditions, material requirement, energy consumptions and the realities of energy supply and transport in China (i.e., electricity generation and heat supply primarily based on coal, multiple transport modes). Our LCA result of the BJF pathway showed that, compared with the traditional petrochemical pathway, this new pathway will increase the overall fossil energy use and carbon emission by 39% and 70%, respectively, while decrease petroleum consumption by about 84%, based on the same units of energy service. Moreover, the energy conservation and emission reduction benefit of this new pathway may be accomplished by two sets of approaches: wider adoption of low-carbon process fuels and optimization of algae cultivation and harvest, and oil extraction processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Open AccessArticle Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis
Energies 2013, 6(8), 3937-3950; doi:10.3390/en6083937
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 7 July 2013 / Accepted: 23 July 2013 / Published: 6 August 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study the potential of bioethanol production using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis was studied. For the saccharification of the carbohydrate-enriched biomass, four acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl and H3PO4 [...] Read more.
In the present study the potential of bioethanol production using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis was studied. For the saccharification of the carbohydrate-enriched biomass, four acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl and H3PO4) were investigated. Each acid were used at four concentrations, 2.5 N, 1 N, 0.5 N and 0.25 N, and for each acid concentration the saccharification was conducted under four temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C). Higher acid concentrations gave in general higher reducing sugars (RS) yields (%, gRS/gTotal sugars) with higher rates, while the increase in temperature lead to higher rates at lower acid concentration. The hydrolysates then were used as substrate for ethanolic fermentation by a salt stress-adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The bioethanol yield (%, gEtOH/gBiomass) was significantly affected by the acid concentration used for the saccharification of the carbohydrates. The highest bioethanol yields of 16.32% ± 0.90% (gEtOH/gBiomass) and 16.27% ± 0.97% (gEtOH/gBiomass) were obtained in hydrolysates produced with HNO3 0.5 N and H2SO4 0.5 N, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Figures

Open AccessCommunication Isolation and Fatty Acid Profile of Selected Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea for Biofuel Production
Energies 2013, 6(6), 2773-2783; doi:10.3390/en6062773
Received: 2 April 2013 / Revised: 18 May 2013 / Accepted: 20 May 2013 / Published: 30 May 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The isolation of lipid-rich autochthonous strains of microalgae is a crucial stage for the development of a microalgae-based biofuel production plant, as these microalgae already have the necessary adaptations to withstand competition, predation and the temperatures observed at each production site. This [...] Read more.
The isolation of lipid-rich autochthonous strains of microalgae is a crucial stage for the development of a microalgae-based biofuel production plant, as these microalgae already have the necessary adaptations to withstand competition, predation and the temperatures observed at each production site. This is particularly important in extreme climates such as in Saudi Arabia. Resorting to fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) we screened for and isolated several microalgal strains from samples collected from the Red Sea. Relying on the fluorescence of BODIPY 505/515 (4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diazasindacene) and growth performance, four promising candidates were identified and the total lipid content and fatty acid profile was assessed for biofuels production. Selected isolates were classified as chlorophytes, belonging to three different genera: Picochlorum, Nannochloris and Desmochloris. The lipid contents were assessed microscopically by means of BODIPY 505/515-associated fluorescence to detect intracellular lipid bodies, which revealed several lipid drops in all selected strains. This result was confirmed by lipid gravimetric determination, which demonstrated that all strains under study presented inner cell lipid contents ranging from 20% to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl esters profile of all strains seems ideal for biodiesel production due to a low degree of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters and high amount of palmitic and oleic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of a Marine Microalga for Biofuel Production with Astaxanthin as a Co-Product
Energies 2013, 6(6), 2759-2772; doi:10.3390/en6062759
Received: 6 February 2013 / Revised: 17 May 2013 / Accepted: 18 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microalgae have been considered as a promising biomass for biofuel production, but freshwater resource consumption during the scaled-up cultivation are still a challenge. Obtaining robust marine strains capable of producing triacylglycerols and high value-added metabolites are critical for overcoming the limitations of [...] Read more.
Microalgae have been considered as a promising biomass for biofuel production, but freshwater resource consumption during the scaled-up cultivation are still a challenge. Obtaining robust marine strains capable of producing triacylglycerols and high value-added metabolites are critical for overcoming the limitations of water resources and economical feasibility. In this study, a marine microalga with lipid and astaxanthin accumulation capability was isolated from Bohai Bay, China. The alga was named as Coelastrum sp. HA-1 based on its morphological and molecular identification. The major characteristics of HA-1 and the effects of nitrogen on its lipid and astaxanthin accumulations were investigated. Results indicated that the highest biomass, lipid and astaxanthin yields achieved were 50.9 g m−2 day−1, 18.0 g m−2 day−1 and 168.9 mg m−2 day−1, respectively, after cultivation for 24 days. The fatty acids of HA-1, identified in their majority as oleic acid (56.6%) and palmitic acid (25.9%), are desirable biofuel feedstocks. In addition, this alga can be harvested with simple sedimentation, achieving 98.2% removal efficiency after settling for 24 h. These results suggest that Coelastrum sp. HA-1 has several desirable key features that make it a potential candidate for biofuel production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Biofuel Production in Ireland—An Approach to 2020 Targets with a Focus on Algal Biomass
Energies 2013, 6(12), 6391-6412; doi:10.3390/en6126391
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Under the Biofuels Obligation Scheme in Ireland, the biofuels penetration rate target for 2013 was set at 6% by volume from a previous 4% from 2010. In 2012 the fuel blend reached 3%, with approximately 70 million L of biodiesel and 56 [...] Read more.
Under the Biofuels Obligation Scheme in Ireland, the biofuels penetration rate target for 2013 was set at 6% by volume from a previous 4% from 2010. In 2012 the fuel blend reached 3%, with approximately 70 million L of biodiesel and 56 million L of ethanol blended with diesel and gasoline, respectively. Up to and including April 2013, the current blend rate in Ireland for biodiesel was 2.3% and for bioethanol was 3.7% which equates to approximately 37.5 million L of biofuel for the first four months of 2013. The target of 10% by 2020 remains, which equates to approximately 420 million L yr−1. Achieving the biofuels target would require 345 ktoe by 2020 (14,400 TJ). Utilizing the indigenous biofuels in Ireland such as tallow, used cooking oil and oil seed rape leaves a shortfall of approximately 12,000 TJ or 350 million L (achieving only 17% of the 10% target) that must be either be imported or met by other renewables. Other solutions seem to suggest that microalgae (for biodiesel) and macroalgae (for bioethanol) could meet this shortfall for indigenous Irish production. This paper aims to review the characteristics of algae for biofuel production based on oil yields, cultivation, harvesting, processing and finally in terms of the European Union (EU) biofuels sustainability criteria, where, up to 2017, a 35% greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction is required compared to fossil fuels. From 2017 onwards, a 50% GHG reduction is required for existing installations and from 2018, a 60% reduction for new installations is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Open AccessReview Review of Microalgae Harvesting via Co-Pelletization with Filamentous Fungus
Energies 2013, 6(11), 5921-5939; doi:10.3390/en6115921
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 12 November 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cultivation of microalgae to utilize CO2 and nutrients in the wastewater to generate biofuel products is a promising research objective. However, the process faces tremendous technical difficulties, especially the harvest of microalgae cells, an economically challenging step. Several researchers recently reported [...] Read more.
Cultivation of microalgae to utilize CO2 and nutrients in the wastewater to generate biofuel products is a promising research objective. However, the process faces tremendous technical difficulties, especially the harvest of microalgae cells, an economically challenging step. Several researchers recently reported co-culturing of filamentous fungi with microalgae so that microalgae cells can be co-pelletized in order to facilitate the cell harvest. This algae pelletization via the filamentous fungi represents an innovative approach to address both the cost and sustainability issues in algae biofuel production and also has potential with direct commercial applications. This paper reviews the current research status in this area and some possible drawbacks of this method in order to provide some possible directions for the future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Open AccessReview Microalgae for Biofuels and Animal Feeds
Energies 2013, 6(11), 5869-5886; doi:10.3390/en6115869
Received: 9 September 2013 / Revised: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The potential of microalgae biomass production for low-cost commodities—biofuels and animal feeds—using sunlight and CO2 is reviewed. Microalgae are currently cultivated in relatively small-scale systems, mainly for high value human nutritional products. For commodities, production costs must be decreased by an [...] Read more.
The potential of microalgae biomass production for low-cost commodities—biofuels and animal feeds—using sunlight and CO2 is reviewed. Microalgae are currently cultivated in relatively small-scale systems, mainly for high value human nutritional products. For commodities, production costs must be decreased by an order of magnitude, and high productivity algal strains must be developed that can be stably cultivated in large open ponds and harvested by low-cost processes. For animal feeds, the algal biomass must be high in digestible protein and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that can substitute for fish meal and fish oils. Biofuels will require a high content of vegetable oils (preferably triglycerides), hydrocarbons or fermentable carbohydrates. Many different cultivation systems, algal species, harvesting methods, and biomass processing technologies are being developed worldwide. However, only raceway-type open pond systems are suitable for the production of low-cost commodities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Open AccessReview Effects of Environmental Factors and Nutrient Availability on the Biochemical Composition of Algae for Biofuels Production: A Review
Energies 2013, 6(9), 4607-4638; doi:10.3390/en6094607
Received: 24 June 2013 / Revised: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 16 August 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
Cited by 54 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to significant lipid and carbohydrate production as well as other useful properties such as high production of useful biomolecular substrates (e.g., lipids) and the ability to grow using non-potable water sources, algae are being explored as a potential high-yield feedstock for [...] Read more.
Due to significant lipid and carbohydrate production as well as other useful properties such as high production of useful biomolecular substrates (e.g., lipids) and the ability to grow using non-potable water sources, algae are being explored as a potential high-yield feedstock for biofuels production. In both natural and engineered systems, algae can be exposed to a variety of environmental conditions that affect growth rate and cellular composition. With respect to the latter, the amount of carbon fixed in lipids and carbohydrates (e.g., starch) is highly influenced by environmental factors and nutrient availability. Understanding synergistic interactions between multiple environmental variables and nutritional factors is required to develop sustainable high productivity bioalgae systems, which are essential for commercial biofuel production. This article reviews the effects of environmental factors (i.e., temperature, light and pH) and nutrient availability (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace metals) as well as cross-interactions on the biochemical composition of algae with a special focus on carbon fixation and partitioning of carbon from a biofuels perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Energies Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
energies@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Energies
Back to Top