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Energies 2013, 6(10), 5382-5401; doi:10.3390/en6105382

A Neural-Network-Based Nonlinear Adaptive State-Observer for Pressurized Water Reactors

Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
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Although there have been some severe nuclear accidents such as Three Mile Island (USA), Chernobyl (Ukraine) and Fukushima (Japan), nuclear fission energy is still a source of clean energy that can substitute for fossil fuels in a centralized way and in a great amount with commercial availability and economic competitiveness. Since the pressurized water reactor (PWR) is the most widely used nuclear fission reactor, its safe, stable and efficient operation is meaningful to the current rebirth of the nuclear fission energy industry. Power-level regulation is an important technique which can deeply affect the operation stability and efficiency of PWRs. Compared with the classical power-level controllers, the advanced power-level regulators could strengthen both the closed-loop stability and control performance by feeding back the internal state-variables. However, not all of the internal state variables of a PWR can be obtained directly by measurements. To implement advanced PWR power-level control law, it is necessary to develop a state-observer to reconstruct the unmeasurable state-variables. Since a PWR is naturally a complex nonlinear system with parameters varying with power-level, fuel burnup, xenon isotope production, control rod worth and etc., it is meaningful to design a nonlinear observer for the PWR with adaptability to system uncertainties. Due to this and the strong learning capability of the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network, an MLP-based nonlinear adaptive observer is given for PWRs. Based upon Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved theoretically that this newly-built observer can provide bounded and convergent state-observation. This observer is then applied to the state-observation of a special PWR, i.e., the nuclear heating reactor (NHR), and numerical simulation results not only verify its feasibility but also give the relationship between the observation performance and observer parameters.
Keywords: PWR; state-observation; nonlinear observer; multilayer neural network PWR; state-observation; nonlinear observer; multilayer neural network
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Dong, Z. A Neural-Network-Based Nonlinear Adaptive State-Observer for Pressurized Water Reactors. Energies 2013, 6, 5382-5401.

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