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Special Issue "Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Sheng S. Zhang (Website)

Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, RDRL-SED-C, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783, USA
Interests: lithium-ion batteries; beyond lithium-ion batteries; metal-air batteries; electrochemical capacitors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Li-ion battery as an electrochemical power source has entered our daily life everywhere from portable cellular phones to automobiles since its appearance in 1991. With increasing demand for energy and power densities, intensive research has been devoted to the development of new battery chemistries and novel electrode and electrolyte materials. Recent research interests have not only covered Li-ion batteries but also extended to the systems beyond Li-ion, such as lithium-air and lithium-sulfur batteries. To address the most recent advances in the research and development of electrochemical power sources, in this special issue we will invite research and review articles on, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • cathode materials
  • anode materials
  • non-aqueous electrolytes (salt, solvent, and additive)
  • polymer electrolytes (solid and gel)
  • ionic liquids
  • solid state electrolytes
  • separators
  • battery performance and safety
  • methods for performance analysis and material characterization
  • new chemistries beyond Li-ion

Dr. Sheng S. Zhang
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Peukert Revisited—Critical Appraisal and Need for Modification for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Energies 2013, 6(11), 5625-5641; doi:10.3390/en6115625
Received: 15 August 2013 / Revised: 3 October 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Peukert relationship was originally introduced in 1897 for lead-acid batteries and defines one of the most common parameters for battery performance evaluation. This article assesses its application for lithium-ion batteries. From the performed analysis, we can conclude that the Peukert relationship [...] Read more.
The Peukert relationship was originally introduced in 1897 for lead-acid batteries and defines one of the most common parameters for battery performance evaluation. This article assesses its application for lithium-ion batteries. From the performed analysis, we can conclude that the Peukert relationship is suitable in a narrow working range such as limited current range and almost constant working temperature. Taking into account however that lithium-ion traction batteries in battery electric vehicle applications operate under strongly variable conditions, a novel relationship has been developed, allowing a more accurate description of the discharge capacity of lithium-ion batteries than the Peukert relationship does. The proposed new relationship has been derived based on comprehensive experimental analysis of the parameters that affect the battery discharge capacity and can be implemented in battery mathematical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Modeling the Effects of the Cathode Composition of a Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery on the Discharge Behavior
Energies 2013, 6(11), 5597-5608; doi:10.3390/en6115597
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (982 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the effects on the discharge behavior of the cathode composition of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery cell comprising a LFP cathode, a lithium metal anode, and an organic electrolyte. A one-dimensional model based [...] Read more.
This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the effects on the discharge behavior of the cathode composition of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery cell comprising a LFP cathode, a lithium metal anode, and an organic electrolyte. A one-dimensional model based on a finite element method is presented to calculate the cell voltage change of a LFP battery cell during galvanostatic discharge. To test the validity of the modeling approach, the modeling results for the variations of the cell voltage of the LFP battery as a function of time are compared with the experimental measurements during galvanostatic discharge at various discharge rates of 0.1C, 0.5C, 1.0C, and 2.0C for three different compositions of the LFP cathode. The discharge curves obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. On the basis of the validated modeling approach, the effects of the cathode composition on the discharge behavior of a LFP battery cell are estimated. The modeling results exhibit highly nonlinear dependencies of the discharge behavior of a LFP battery cell on the discharge C-rate and cathode composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Second-Order Discrete-Time Sliding Mode Observer for State of Charge Determination Based on a Dynamic Resistance Li-Ion Battery Model
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5538-5551; doi:10.3390/en6105538
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 4 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A second-order discrete-time sliding mode observer (DSMO)-based method is proposed to estimate the state of charge (SOC) of a Li-ion battery. Unlike the first-order sliding mode approach, the proposed method eliminates the chattering phenomenon in SOC estimation. Further, a battery model with [...] Read more.
A second-order discrete-time sliding mode observer (DSMO)-based method is proposed to estimate the state of charge (SOC) of a Li-ion battery. Unlike the first-order sliding mode approach, the proposed method eliminates the chattering phenomenon in SOC estimation. Further, a battery model with a dynamic resistance is also proposed to improve the accuracy of the battery model. Similar to actual battery behavior, the resistance parameters in this model are changed by both the magnitude of the discharge current and the SOC level. Validation of the dynamic resistance model is performed through pulse current discharge tests at two different SOC levels. Our experimental results show that the proposed estimation method not only enhances the estimation accuracy but also eliminates the chattering phenomenon. The SOC estimation performance of the second-order DSMO is compared with that of the first-order DSMO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Development of an Experimental Testbed for Research in Lithium-Ion Battery Management Systems
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5231-5258; doi:10.3390/en6105231
Received: 19 August 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 25 September 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advanced electrochemical batteries are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications from household and commercial to smart grid, transportation, and aerospace applications. Among different battery technologies, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are growing more and more popular due to their high [...] Read more.
Advanced electrochemical batteries are becoming an integral part of a wide range of applications from household and commercial to smart grid, transportation, and aerospace applications. Among different battery technologies, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are growing more and more popular due to their high energy density, high galvanic potential, low self-discharge, low weight, and the fact that they have almost no memory effect. However, one of the main obstacles facing the widespread commercialization of Li-ion batteries is the design of reliable battery management systems (BMSs). An efficient BMS ensures electrical safety during operation, while increasing battery lifetime, capacity and thermal stability. Despite the need for extensive research in this field, the majority of research conducted on Li-ion battery packs and BMS are proprietary works conducted by manufacturers. The available literature, however, provides either general descriptions or detailed analysis of individual components of the battery system, and ignores addressing details of the overall system development. This paper addresses the development of an experimental research testbed for studying Li-ion batteries and their BMS design. The testbed can be configured in a variety of cell and pack architectures, allowing for a wide range of BMS monitoring, diagnostics, and control technologies to be tested and analyzed. General considerations that should be taken into account while designing Li-ion battery systems are reviewed and different technologies and challenges commonly encountered in Li-ion battery systems are investigated. This testbed facilitates future development of more practical and improved BMS technologies with the aim of increasing the safety, reliability, and efficiency of existing Li-ion battery systems. Experimental results of initial tests performed on the system are used to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the developed research testbed. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that addresses, at the same time, the practical battery system development issues along with the theoretical and technological challenges from cell to pack level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Battery System Modeling for a Military Electric Propulsion Vehicle with a Fault Simulation
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5168-5181; doi:10.3390/en6105168
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
PDF Full-text (547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the development process and results of a battery system model with a fault simulation for electric propulsion vehicles. The developed battery system model can be used to verify control and fault diagnosis strategies of the supervisory controller in an [...] Read more.
This paper describes the development process and results of a battery system model with a fault simulation for electric propulsion vehicles. The developed battery system model can be used to verify control and fault diagnosis strategies of the supervisory controller in an electric propulsion vehicle. To develop this battery system model, three sub-models, including a battery model, a relay assembly model, and a battery management system (BMS) model, are connected together like in the target real battery system. Comparison results between the real battery system hardware and the battery system model show a similar tendency and values. Furthermore, the fault injection test of the model shows that the proposed battery system model can simulate a failure situation consistent with a real system. It is possible for the model to emulate the battery characteristics and fault situation if it is used in the development process of a BMS or for supervisory control strategies for electric propulsion systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Switching Table-Based Sliding Mode Control of an Energy Recovery Li-Ion Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5200-5218; doi:10.3390/en6105200
Received: 14 August 2013 / Revised: 29 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1002 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of the present work is to apply a sliding mode controller (SMC) to medium voltage and high power output energy recovery Li-ion power accumulator battery pack testing systems (ERLPABTSs), which are composed of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) three-phase voltage [...] Read more.
The main objective of the present work is to apply a sliding mode controller (SMC) to medium voltage and high power output energy recovery Li-ion power accumulator battery pack testing systems (ERLPABTSs), which are composed of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) and a two-level buck-boost converter without an isolating transformer. An inner current decoupled control scheme for the aforementioned system is proposed and two sliding mode planes for active and reactive current control are designed based on the control scheme. An optimized switching table for current convergence is used according to the error sign of the equivalent input voltage and feedback voltage. The proposed ERLPABTS could be used to integrate discharging energy into the power grid when performing high accuracy current testing. The active and reactive power references for the grid-connected inverter are determined based on the discharging energy from the DC-DC converter. Simulations and experiments on a laboratory hardware platform using a 175 kW insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)-based ERLPABTS have been implemented and verified, and the performance is found satisfactory and superior to conventional ERLPABPTS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5145-5156; doi:10.3390/en6105145
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 3 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 10 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001%) [...] Read more.
Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001%) over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity as well as the rates of charge flow per nominal area of anode are the highest for the present anode. With regard to applications, the specific parameters per area are more important than the specific gravimetric parameters like the gravimetric capacity, which is good for comparing the capacity between materials but not enough for comparing between anodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Comparison Study on the Battery SoC Estimation with EKF and UKF Algorithms
Energies 2013, 6(10), 5088-5100; doi:10.3390/en6105088
Received: 22 June 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 24 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The battery state of charge (SoC), whose estimation is one of the basic functions of battery management system (BMS), is a vital input parameter in the energy management and power distribution control of electric vehicles (EVs). In this paper, two methods based [...] Read more.
The battery state of charge (SoC), whose estimation is one of the basic functions of battery management system (BMS), is a vital input parameter in the energy management and power distribution control of electric vehicles (EVs). In this paper, two methods based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF), respectively, are proposed to estimate the SoC of a lithium-ion battery used in EVs. The lithium-ion battery is modeled with the Thevenin model and the model parameters are identified based on experimental data and validated with the Beijing Driving Cycle. Then space equations used for SoC estimation are established. The SoC estimation results with EKF and UKF are compared in aspects of accuracy and convergence. It is concluded that the two algorithms both perform well, while the UKF algorithm is much better with a faster convergence ability and a higher accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxides for High Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes
Energies 2013, 6(9), 4830-4840; doi:10.3390/en6094830
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 22 August 2013 / Accepted: 29 August 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (3811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetite, Fe3O4, is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (924 mA h g−1), high density, low cost and low toxicity. However, its application as high capacity anodes is [...] Read more.
Magnetite, Fe3O4, is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (924 mA h g−1), high density, low cost and low toxicity. However, its application as high capacity anodes is still hampered by poor cycling performance. To stabilize the cycling performance of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, composites comprising Fe3O4 nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS) were fabricated. The Fe3O4/GS composite disks of mm dimensions were prepared by electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets and positively charged Fe3O4-APTMS [Fe3O4 grafted with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS)] in an acidic solution (pH = 2) followed by in situ chemical reduction. Thus prepared Fe3O4/GS composite showed an excellent rate capability as well as much enhanced cycling stability compared with Fe3O4 electrode. The superior electrochemical responses of Fe3O4/GS composite disks assure the advantages of: (1) electrostatic self-assembly between high storage-capacity materials with GO; and (2) incorporation of GS in the Fe3O4/GS composite for high capacity lithium-ion battery application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle A Liquid Inorganic Electrolyte Showing an Unusually High Lithium Ion Transference Number: A Concentrated Solution of LiAlCl4 in Sulfur Dioxide
Energies 2013, 6(9), 4448-4464; doi:10.3390/en6094448
Received: 25 June 2013 / Revised: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 29 August 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on studies of an inorganic electrolyte: LiAlCl4 in liquid sulfur dioxide. Concentrated solutions show a very high conductivity when compared with typical electrolytes for lithium ion batteries that are based on organic solvents. Our investigations include conductivity measurements and [...] Read more.
We report on studies of an inorganic electrolyte: LiAlCl4 in liquid sulfur dioxide. Concentrated solutions show a very high conductivity when compared with typical electrolytes for lithium ion batteries that are based on organic solvents. Our investigations include conductivity measurements and measurements of transference numbers via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and by a classical direct method, Hittorf’s method. For the use of Hittorf’s method, it is necessary to measure the concentration of the electrolyte in a selected cell compartment before and after electrochemical polarization very precisely. This task was finally performed by potentiometric titration after hydrolysis of the salt. The Haven ratio was determined to estimate the association behavior of this very concentrated electrolyte solution. The measured unusually high transference number of the lithium cation of the studied most concentrated solution, a molten solvate LiAlCl4 × 1.6SO2, makes this electrolyte a promising alternative for lithium ion cells with high power ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Adaptive State of Charge Estimation for Li-Ion Batteries Based on an Unscented Kalman Filter with an Enhanced Battery Model
Energies 2013, 6(8), 4134-4151; doi:10.3390/en6084134
Received: 28 May 2013 / Revised: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) of batteries is one of the key problems in a battery management system. This paper proposes an adaptive SOC estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter algorithms for lithium (Li)-ion batteries. First, an enhanced [...] Read more.
Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) of batteries is one of the key problems in a battery management system. This paper proposes an adaptive SOC estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter algorithms for lithium (Li)-ion batteries. First, an enhanced battery model is proposed to include the impacts due to different discharge rates and temperatures. An adaptive joint estimation of the battery SOC and battery internal resistance is then presented to enhance system robustness with battery aging. The SOC estimation algorithm has been developed and verified through experiments on different types of Li-ion batteries. The results indicate that the proposed method provides an accurate SOC estimation and is computationally efficient, making it suitable for embedded system implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction
Energies 2013, 6(8), 3654-3668; doi:10.3390/en6083654
Received: 21 June 2013 / Revised: 11 July 2013 / Accepted: 12 July 2013 / Published: 25 July 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS). The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring [...] Read more.
Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS). The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a lithium-ion battery on-line in satellite applications. In this work, a novel health indicator (HI) is extracted from the operating parameters of a lithium-ion battery to quantify battery degradation. Moreover, the Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA) is utilized to evaluate the similarities between the extracted HI and the battery’s capacity. The result illustrates the effectiveness of using this new HI for fading indication. Furthermore, we propose an optimized ensemble monotonic echo state networks (En_MONESN) algorithm, in which the monotonic constraint is introduced to improve the adaptivity of degradation trend estimation, and ensemble learning is integrated to achieve high stability and precision of RUL prediction. Experiments with actual testing data show the efficiency of our proposed method in RUL estimation and degradation modeling for the satellite lithium-ion battery application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Acetylene Black/Sulfur Composites Synthesized by a Solution Evaporation Concentration Crystallization Method and Their Electrochemical Properties for Li/S Batteries
Energies 2013, 6(7), 3466-3480; doi:10.3390/en6073466
Received: 8 May 2013 / Revised: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 9 July 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (44841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel technique to prepare carbon/sulfur composites as cathode materials for Li/S batteries is proposed, which we call the ‘solution evaporation concentration crystallization’ method. Three composites with different S loadings were prepared, subject to two different solvent evaporation rates from acetylene black [...] Read more.
A novel technique to prepare carbon/sulfur composites as cathode materials for Li/S batteries is proposed, which we call the ‘solution evaporation concentration crystallization’ method. Three composites with different S loadings were prepared, subject to two different solvent evaporation rates from acetylene black (AB)/sulfur in carbon disulfide solutions. X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements all show that the porous AB structure is well-filled with S. Composites prepared at a lower solvent evaporation rate with 50 wt % S content, had good electrochemical properties, with 1609.67 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles. Composites with better dispersibility at a low solvent evaporation rate can effectively prevent polysulfide from dissolving in the electrolyte, and serve to stabilize the structure of the S cathode during the charge-discharge process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Results from a Novel Method for Corrosion Studies of Electroplated Lithium Metal Based on Measurements with an Impedance Scanning Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Energies 2013, 6(7), 3481-3505; doi:10.3390/en6073481
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 14 June 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new approach to study the chemical stability of electrodeposited lithium on a copper metal substrate via measurements with a fast impedance scanning electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is presented. The corrosion of electrochemically deposited lithium was compared in two different electrolytes, based [...] Read more.
A new approach to study the chemical stability of electrodeposited lithium on a copper metal substrate via measurements with a fast impedance scanning electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is presented. The corrosion of electrochemically deposited lithium was compared in two different electrolytes, based on lithium difluoro(oxalato) borate (LiDFOB) and lithium hexafluorophosphate, both salts being dissolved in solvent blends of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. For a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms, scanning electron microscopy images of electrodeposited lithium were also consulted. The results of the EQCM experiments were supported by AC impedance measurements and clearly showed two different corrosion mechanisms caused by the different salts and the formed SEIs. The observed mass decrease of the quartz sensor of the LiDFOB-based electrolyte is not smooth, but rather composed of a series of abrupt mass fluctuations in contrast to that of the lithium hexafluorophosphate-based electrolyte. After each slow decrease of mass a rather fast increase of mass is observed several times. The slow mass decrease can be attributed to a consolidation process of the SEI or to the partial dissolution of the SEI leaving finally lithium metal unprotected so that a fast film formation sets in entailing the observed fast mass increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Quantitative Analysis of Lithium-Ion Battery Capacity Prediction via Adaptive Bathtub-Shaped Function
Energies 2013, 6(6), 3082-3096; doi:10.3390/en6063082
Received: 23 April 2013 / Revised: 15 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (38993 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Batteries are one of the most important components in many mechatronics systems, as they supply power to the systems and their failures may lead to reduced performance or even catastrophic results. Therefore, the prediction analysis of remaining useful life (RUL) of batteries [...] Read more.
Batteries are one of the most important components in many mechatronics systems, as they supply power to the systems and their failures may lead to reduced performance or even catastrophic results. Therefore, the prediction analysis of remaining useful life (RUL) of batteries is very important. This paper develops a quantitative approach for battery RUL prediction using an adaptive bathtub-shaped function (ABF). ABF has been utilised to model the normalised battery cycle capacity prognostic curves, which attempt to predict the remaining battery capacity with given historical test data. An artificial fish swarm algorithm method with a variable population size (AFSAVP) is employed as the optimiser for the parameter determination of the ABF curves, in which the fitness function is defined in the form of a coefficient of determination (R2). A 4 x 2 cross-validation (CV) has been devised, and the results show that the method can work valuably for battery health management and battery life prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle A New State of Charge Estimation Method for LiFePO4 Battery Packs Used in Robots
Energies 2013, 6(4), 2007-2030; doi:10.3390/en6042007
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 11 March 2013 / Accepted: 13 March 2013 / Published: 8 April 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation of the LiFePO4 battery packs used in robot applications is required for better battery life cycle, performance, reliability, and economic issues. In this paper, a new SOC estimation method, “Modified ECE + EKF”, is [...] Read more.
The accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation of the LiFePO4 battery packs used in robot applications is required for better battery life cycle, performance, reliability, and economic issues. In this paper, a new SOC estimation method, “Modified ECE + EKF”, is proposed. The method is the combination of the modified Equivalent Coulombic Efficiency (ECE) method and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) method. It is based on the zero-state hysteresis battery model, and adopts the EKF method to correct the initial value used in the Ah counting method. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is superior to the traditional techniques, such as ECE + EKF and ECE + Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF), and the accuracy of estimation is within 1%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessArticle Improved Cyclability of Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Batteries by Optimizing Electrolyte/Sulfur Ratio
Energies 2012, 5(12), 5190-5197; doi:10.3390/en5125190
Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 1 December 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 7 December 2012
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell is a liquid electrochemical system. In discharge, sulfur is first reduced to highly soluble Li2S8, which dissolves into the organic electrolyte and serves as the liquid cathode. In solution, lithium polysulfide (PS) [...] Read more.
A liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell is a liquid electrochemical system. In discharge, sulfur is first reduced to highly soluble Li2S8, which dissolves into the organic electrolyte and serves as the liquid cathode. In solution, lithium polysulfide (PS) undergoes a series of complicated disproportionations, whose chemical equilibriums vary with the PS concentration and affect the cell’s performance. Since the PS concentration relates to a certain electrolyte/sulfur (E/S) ratio, there is an optimized E/S ratio for the cyclability of each Li/S cell system. In this work, we study the optimized E/S ratio by measuring the cycling performance of Li/S cells, and propose an empirical method for determination of the optimized E/S ratio. By employing an electrolyte of 0.25 m LiSO3CF3-0.25 m LiNO3 dissolved in a 1:1 (wt:wt) mixture of dimethyl ether (DME) and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL) in an optimized E/S ratio, we show that the Li/S cell with a cathode containing 72% sulfur and 2 mg cm2 sulfur loading is able to retain a specific capacity of 780 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2 between 1.7 V and 2.8 V. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Recent Research Progress on Non-aqueous Lithium-Air Batteries from Argonne National Laboratory
Energies 2013, 6(11), 6016-6044; doi:10.3390/en6116016
Received: 6 October 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (7569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rechargeable non-aqueous Li-air battery technology offers potential advantages over other existing battery systems in terms of specific energy and energy density, which could enable the driving range of an electric vehicle to be comparable to that of gasoline vehicles. Development of efficient [...] Read more.
Rechargeable non-aqueous Li-air battery technology offers potential advantages over other existing battery systems in terms of specific energy and energy density, which could enable the driving range of an electric vehicle to be comparable to that of gasoline vehicles. Development of efficient cathode catalysts and stable electrolytes for the Li-air battery has been intensively investigated for the past several years, and a number of review articles covering different topics are already available. This review mainly focuses on the research activities on rechargeable non-aqueous Li-air batteries at Argonne National Laboratory, with the emphasis on the gains in understanding of electrolyte decomposition, the structure and magnetic properties of lithium peroxide (Li2O2), development of an air-breathing cathode, and the effect of oxygen crossover on the lithium anode. Insights from this research have led to the improvement of the electrochemical performance of Li-air batteries. Promising paths for future work on rechargeable Li-air batteries are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)
Open AccessReview Preparation and Doping Mode of Doped LiMn2O4 for Li-Ion Batteries
Energies 2013, 6(3), 1718-1730; doi:10.3390/en6031718
Received: 5 January 2013 / Revised: 2 March 2013 / Accepted: 6 March 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spinel LiMn2O4 is an appealing candidate cathode material for Li-ion rechargeable batteries, but it suffers from severe capacity fading, especially at higher temperature (55 °C) during discharging/charging. In recent years, many attempts have been made to synthesize modified LiMn [...] Read more.
Spinel LiMn2O4 is an appealing candidate cathode material for Li-ion rechargeable batteries, but it suffers from severe capacity fading, especially at higher temperature (55 °C) during discharging/charging. In recent years, many attempts have been made to synthesize modified LiMn2O4. This paper reviews the recent research on the preparation and doping modes of doped LiMn2O4 for modifying the LiMn2O4. We firstly compared preparation methods for doped spinel LiMn2O4, such as solid state reactions and solution synthetic methods. Then we mainly discuss doping modes reported in recent years, such as bulk doping, surface doping and combined doping. A comparison of different doping modes is also provided. The research shows that the multiple-ion doping and combined doping modes of LiMn2O4 used in Li-ion battery are excellent for improving different aspects of the electrochemical performance which holds great promise in the future. From this paper, we also can see that spinel LiMnO4 as an attractive candidate cathode material for Li-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)

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Open AccessCommentary Lessons Learned from the 787 Dreamliner Issue on Lithium-Ion Battery Reliability
Energies 2013, 6(9), 4682-4695; doi:10.3390/en6094682
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 2 September 2013 / Published: 9 September 2013
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On 16 January 2013, all Boeing 787 Dreamliners were indefinitely grounded due to lithium-ion battery failures that had occurred in two planes. Subsequent investigations into the battery failures released through the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) factual report, the March 15th Boeing [...] Read more.
On 16 January 2013, all Boeing 787 Dreamliners were indefinitely grounded due to lithium-ion battery failures that had occurred in two planes. Subsequent investigations into the battery failures released through the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) factual report, the March 15th Boeing press conference in Japan, and the NTSB hearings in Washington D.C., never identified the root causes of the failures—a major concern for ensuring safety and meeting reliability expectations. This paper discusses the challenges to lithium-ion battery qualification, reliability assessment, and safety in light of the Boeing 787 battery failures. New assessment methods and control techniques that can improve battery reliability and safety in avionic systems are then presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Li-ion Batteries and Energy Storage Devices)

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