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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 7, Issue 3 (March 2010), Pages 698-1247

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Open AccessArticle Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1226-1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031226
Received: 29 December 2009 / Revised: 5 March 2010 / Accepted: 12 March 2010 / Published: 22 March 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a
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The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Research on Alcohol: Public Health Perspectives)
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Archibong, A.E., et al. Effects of Benzo(a)pyrene on Intra-testicular Function in F-344 Rats
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1224-1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031224
Received: 19 March 2010 / Published: 22 March 2010
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Abstract
We found some errors in Figure 4 in our paper published in the International journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [1].[...] Full article
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Open AccessReview Impact of Direct Soil Exposures from Airborne Dust and Geophagy on Human Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1205-1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031205
Received: 10 February 2010 / Revised: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 16 March 2010 / Published: 19 March 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over evolutionary time humans have developed a complex biological relationship with soils. Here we describe modes of soil exposure and their biological implications. We consider two types of soil exposure, the first being the continuous exposure to airborne soil, and the second being
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Over evolutionary time humans have developed a complex biological relationship with soils. Here we describe modes of soil exposure and their biological implications. We consider two types of soil exposure, the first being the continuous exposure to airborne soil, and the second being dietary ingestion of soils, or geophagy. It may be assumed that airborne dust and ingestion of soil have influenced the evolution of particular DNA sequences which control biological systems that enable individual organisms to take advantage of, adapt to and/or protect against exposures to soil materials. We review the potential for soil exposure as an environmental source of epigenetic signals which may influence the function of our genome in determining health and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle Branching Processes: Their Role in Epidemiology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1186-1204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031204
Received: 11 January 2010 / Revised: 1 March 2010 / Accepted: 16 March 2010 / Published: 19 March 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Branching processes are stochastic individual-based processes leading consequently to a bottom-up approach. In addition, since the state variables are random integer variables (representing population sizes), the extinction occurs at random finite time on the extinction set, thus leading to fine and realistic predictions.
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Branching processes are stochastic individual-based processes leading consequently to a bottom-up approach. In addition, since the state variables are random integer variables (representing population sizes), the extinction occurs at random finite time on the extinction set, thus leading to fine and realistic predictions. Starting from the simplest and well-known single-type Bienaymé-Galton-Watson branching process that was used by several authors for approximating the beginning of an epidemic, we then present a general branching model with age and population dependent individual transitions. However contrary to the classical Bienaymé-Galton-Watson or asymptotically Bienaymé-Galton-Watson setting, where the asymptotic behavior of the process, as time tends to infinity, is well understood, the asymptotic behavior of this general process is a new question. Here we give some solutions for dealing with this problem depending on whether the initial population size is large or small, and whether the disease is rare or non-rare when the initial population size is large. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle Can the Blood Alcohol Concentration Be a Predictor for Increased Hospital Complications in Trauma Patients Involved in Motor Vehicle Crashes?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1174-1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031174
Received: 8 February 2010 / Revised: 15 March 2010 / Accepted: 15 March 2010 / Published: 18 March 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of this report is to assess the relationship of varying levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hospital complications in patients admitted after motor vehicle crashes. Data for the study was collected by a retrospective review of the University of Wisconsin
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The goal of this report is to assess the relationship of varying levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hospital complications in patients admitted after motor vehicle crashes. Data for the study was collected by a retrospective review of the University of Wisconsin Hospital trauma registry between 1999 and 2007 using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS). Of 3729 patients, 2210 (59%) had a negative BAC, 338 (9%) <100 mg/dL, 538 (14%) 100–199 mg/dL, and 643 (17%) >200 mg/dL. Forty-six percent of patients had one or more hospital related complications. The odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of alcohol withdrawal in the three alcohol groups compared to the no alcohol group was 12.02 (CI 7.0–20.7), 16.81 (CI 10.4–27.2), and 30.96 (CI 19.5–49.2) as BAC increased with a clear dose response effect. While there were no significant differences in the frequency of the total hospital events following trauma across the four groups, rates of infections, coagulopathies, central nervous system events and renal complications were lower in the high BAC group. Prospective studies are needed to more precisely estimate the frequency of hospital complications in patients with alcohol use disorders and in persons intoxicated at the time of the motor vehicle accident. The study supports the use of routine BAC to predict patients at high risk for alcohol withdrawal and the early initiation of alcohol detoxification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Real or Illusory? Case Studies on the Public Perception of Environmental Health Risks in the North West of England
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1153-1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031153
Received: 31 December 2009 / Accepted: 16 March 2010 / Published: 18 March 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Applied research in a public health setting seeks to provide professionals with insights and knowledge into complex environmental issues to guide actions that reduce inequalities and improve health. We describe ten environmental case studies that explore the public perception of health risk. We
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Applied research in a public health setting seeks to provide professionals with insights and knowledge into complex environmental issues to guide actions that reduce inequalities and improve health. We describe ten environmental case studies that explore the public perception of health risk. We employed logical analysis of components of each case study and comparative information to generate new evidence. The findings highlight how concerns about environmental issues measurably affect people’s wellbeing and led to the development of new understanding about the benefits of taking an earlier and more inclusive approach to risk communication that can now be tested further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
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Open AccessCommunication A Multidisciplinary Investigation of a Polycythemia Vera Cancer Cluster of Unknown Origin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1139-1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031139
Received: 29 January 2010 / Revised: 13 March 2010 / Accepted: 16 March 2010 / Published: 17 March 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (67 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer cluster investigations rarely receive significant public health resource allocations due to numerous inherent challenges and the limited success of past efforts. In 2008, a cluster of polycythemia vera, a rare blood cancer with unknown etiology, was identified in northeast Pennsylvania. A multidisciplinary
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Cancer cluster investigations rarely receive significant public health resource allocations due to numerous inherent challenges and the limited success of past efforts. In 2008, a cluster of polycythemia vera, a rare blood cancer with unknown etiology, was identified in northeast Pennsylvania. A multidisciplinary group of federal and state agencies, academic institutions, and local healthcare providers subsequently developed a multifaceted research portfolio designed to better understand the cause of the cluster. This research agenda represents a unique and important opportunity to demonstrate that cancer cluster investigations can produce desirable public health and scientific outcomes when necessary resources are available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1121-1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031121
Received: 5 February 2010 / Revised: 23 February 2010 / Accepted: 4 March 2010 / Published: 17 March 2010
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and
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Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables. Full article
Open AccessArticle Human Amebiasis: Breaking the Paradigm?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1105-1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031105
Received: 19 December 2009 / Revised: 2 February 2010 / Accepted: 8 March 2010 / Published: 16 March 2010
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
For over 30 years it has been established that the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan included two biologically and genetically different species, one with a pathogenic phenotype called E. histolytica and the other with a non-pathogenic phenotype called Entamoeba dispar. Both of these amoebae
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For over 30 years it has been established that the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan included two biologically and genetically different species, one with a pathogenic phenotype called E. histolytica and the other with a non-pathogenic phenotype called Entamoeba dispar. Both of these amoebae species can infect humans. E. histolytica has been considered as a potential pathogen that can cause serious damage to the large intestine (colitis, dysentery) and other extraintestinal organs, mainly the liver (amebic liver abscess), whereas E. dispar is a species that interacts with humans in a commensal relationship, causing no symptoms or any tissue damage. This paradigm, however, should be reconsidered or re-evaluated. In the present work, we report the detection and genotyping of E. dispar sequences of DNA obtained from patients with amebic liver abscesses, including the genotyping of an isolate obtained from a Brazilian patient with a clinical diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis that was previously characterized as an E. dispar species. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis performed by our group has shown the existence of several different genotypes of E. dispar that can be associated to, or be potentiality responsible for intestinal or liver tissue damage, similar to that observed with E. histolytica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
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Open AccessReview Beer and its Non-Alcoholic Compounds: Role in Pancreatic Exocrine Secretion, Alcoholic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Carcinoma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1093-1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031093
Received: 8 February 2010 / Revised: 2 March 2010 / Accepted: 9 March 2010 / Published: 15 March 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
: In this article we provide an overview of the newest data concerning the effect of non-alcoholic constituents of alcoholic beverages, especially of beer, on pancreatic secretion, and their possible role in alcoholic pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma. The data indicate that non-alcoholic constituents
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: In this article we provide an overview of the newest data concerning the effect of non-alcoholic constituents of alcoholic beverages, especially of beer, on pancreatic secretion, and their possible role in alcoholic pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma. The data indicate that non-alcoholic constituents of beer stimulate pancreatic enzyme secretion in humans and rats, at least in part, by direct action on pancreatic acinar cells. Some non-alcoholic compounds of beer, such as quercetin, resveratrol, ellagic acid or catechins, have been shown to be protective against experimentally induced pancreatitis by inhibiting pancreatic secretion, stellate cell activation or by reducing oxidative stress. Quercetin, ellagic acid and resveratrol also show anti-carcinogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. However, beer contains many more non-alcoholic ingredients. Their relevance in beer-induced functional alterations of pancreatic cells leading to pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in humans needs to be further evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Research on Alcohol: Public Health Perspectives)
Open AccessReview A New View of Alcohol Metabolism and Alcoholism—Role of the High-Km Class Ⅲ Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH3)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1076-1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031076
Received: 4 January 2010 / Revised: 12 February 2010 / Accepted: 22 February 2010 / Published: 15 March 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conventional view is that alcohol metabolism is carried out by ADH1 (Class I) in the liver. However, it has been suggested that another pathway plays an important role in alcohol metabolism, especially when the level of blood ethanol is high or when
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The conventional view is that alcohol metabolism is carried out by ADH1 (Class I) in the liver. However, it has been suggested that another pathway plays an important role in alcohol metabolism, especially when the level of blood ethanol is high or when drinking is chronic. Over the past three decades, vigorous attempts to identify the enzyme responsible for the non-ADH1 pathway have focused on the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) and catalase, but have failed to clarify their roles in systemic alcohol metabolism. Recently, using ADH3-null mutant mice, we demonstrated that ADH3 (Class III), which has a high Km and is a ubiquitous enzyme of ancient origin, contributes to systemic alcohol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner, thereby diminishing acute alcohol intoxication. Although the activity of ADH3 toward ethanol is usually low in vitro due to its very high Km, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) is markedly enhanced when the solution hydrophobicity of the reaction medium increases. Activation of ADH3 by increasing hydrophobicity should also occur in liver cells; a cytoplasmic solution of mouse liver cells was shown to be much more hydrophobic than a buffer solution when using Nile red as a hydrophobicity probe. When various doses of ethanol are administered to mice, liver ADH3 activity is dynamically regulated through induction or kinetic activation, while ADH1 activity is markedly lower at high doses (3–5 g/kg). These data suggest that ADH3 plays a dynamic role in alcohol metabolism, either collaborating with ADH1 or compensating for the reduced role of ADH1. A complex two-ADH model that ascribes total liver ADH activity to both ADH1 and ADH3 explains the dose-dependent changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters (b, CLT, AUC) of blood ethanol very well, suggesting that alcohol metabolism in mice is primarily governed by these two ADHs. In patients with alcoholic liver disease, liver ADH3 activity increases, while ADH1 activity decreases, as alcohol intake increases. Furthermore, ADH3 is induced in damaged cells that have greater hydrophobicity, whereas ADH1 activity is lower when there is severe liver disease. These data suggest that chronic binge drinking and the resulting liver disease shifts the key enzyme in alcohol metabolism from low-Km ADH1 to high-Km ADH3, thereby reducing the rate of alcohol metabolism. The interdependent increase in the ADH3/ADH1 activity ratio and AUC may be a factor in the development of alcoholic liver disease. However, the adaptive increase in ADH3 sustains alcohol metabolism, even in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, which makes it possible for them to drink themselves to death. Thus, the regulation of ADH3 activity may be important in preventing alcoholism development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessReview Leg Length, Body Proportion, and Health: A Review with a Note on Beauty
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1047-1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031047
Received: 16 December 2009 / Revised: 28 January 2010 / Accepted: 8 March 2010 / Published: 11 March 2010
Cited by 122 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions, for example, (leg
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Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature), or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature × 100), among others) are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle Stress Recovery during Exposure to Nature Sound and Environmental Noise
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1036-1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031036
Received: 26 January 2010 / Revised: 20 February 2010 / Accepted: 5 March 2010 / Published: 11 March 2010
Cited by 136 | PDF Full-text (165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research suggests that visual impressions of natural compared with urban environments facilitate recovery after psychological stress. To test whether auditory stimulation has similar effects, 40 subjects were exposed to sounds from nature or noisy environments after a stressful mental arithmetic task. Skin conductance
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Research suggests that visual impressions of natural compared with urban environments facilitate recovery after psychological stress. To test whether auditory stimulation has similar effects, 40 subjects were exposed to sounds from nature or noisy environments after a stressful mental arithmetic task. Skin conductance level (SCL) was used to index sympathetic activation, and high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV) was used to index parasympathetic activation. Although HF HRV showed no effects, SCL recovery tended to be faster during natural sound than noisy environments. These results suggest that nature sounds facilitate recovery from sympathetic activation after a psychological stressor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise and Quality of Life)
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Open AccessArticle Climate Change and Health in British Columbia: Projected Impacts and a Proposed Agenda for Adaptation Research and Policy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1018-1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031018
Received: 19 January 2010 / Revised: 23 February 2010 / Accepted: 2 March 2010 / Published: 11 March 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This is a case study describing how climate change may affect the health of British Columbians and to suggest a way forward to promote health and policy research, and adaptation to these changes. After reviewing the limited evidence of the impacts of climate
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This is a case study describing how climate change may affect the health of British Columbians and to suggest a way forward to promote health and policy research, and adaptation to these changes. After reviewing the limited evidence of the impacts of climate change on human health we have developed five principles to guide the development of research and policy to better predict future impacts of climate change on health and to enhance adaptation to these change in BC. We suggest that, with some modification, these principles will be useful to policy makers in other jurisdictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health Impacts and Adaptation)
Open AccessReview GIS and Injury Prevention and Control: History, Challenges, and Opportunities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 1002-1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7031002
Received: 5 January 2009 / Revised: 20 February 2010 / Accepted: 8 March 2010 / Published: 11 March 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intentional and unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and potential years of life lost in the first four decades of life in industrialized countries around the world. Despite surgical innovations and improved access to emergency care, research has shown that certain
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Intentional and unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and potential years of life lost in the first four decades of life in industrialized countries around the world. Despite surgical innovations and improved access to emergency care, research has shown that certain populations remain particularly vulnerable to the risks and consequences of injury. Recent evidence has shown that the analytical, data linkage, and mapping tools of geographic information systems (GIS) technology provide can further address these determinants and identify populations in need. This paper traces the history of injury prevention and discusses current and future challenges in furthering our understanding of the determinants of injury through the use of GIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)
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