Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(3), 870-926; doi:10.3390/ijerph7030870
Review

What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

Department of Economics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Received: 29 December 2009; in revised form: 20 February 2010 / Accepted: 28 February 2010 / Published: 8 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics)
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Abstract: This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.
Keywords: youth; measurement of health; alcohol; tobacco; advertising; longitudinal models; econometrics

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nelson, J.P. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 870-926.

AMA Style

Nelson JP. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(3):870-926.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nelson, Jon P. 2010. "What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 3: 870-926.

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