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Sensors, Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2008), Pages 3586-4032

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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Actual Evapotranspiration by Remote Sensing: Application in Thessaly Plain, Greece
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3586-3600; doi:10.3390/s8063586
Received: 3 December 2007 / Revised: 9 May 2008 / Accepted: 9 May 2008 / Published: 1 June 2008
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remote sensing can assist in improving the estimation of the geographical distribution of evapotranspiration, and consequently water demand in large cultivated areas for irrigation purposes and sustainable water resources management. In the direction of these objectives, the daily actual evapotranspiration was calculated [...] Read more.
Remote sensing can assist in improving the estimation of the geographical distribution of evapotranspiration, and consequently water demand in large cultivated areas for irrigation purposes and sustainable water resources management. In the direction of these objectives, the daily actual evapotranspiration was calculated in this study during the summer season of 2001 over the Thessaly plain in Greece, a wide irrigated area of great agricultural importance. Three different methods were adapted and applied: the remotesensing methods by Granger (2000) and Carlson and Buffum (1989) that use satellite data in conjunction with ground meteorological measurements and an adapted FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation) Penman-Monteith method (Allen at al. 1998), which was selected to be the reference method. The satellite data were used in conjunction with ground data collected on the three closest meteorological stations. All three methods, exploit visible channels 1 and 2 and infrared channels 4 and 5 of NOAA-AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) sensor images to calculate albedo and NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index), as well as surface temperatures. The FAO Penman-Monteith and the Granger method have used exclusively NOAA-15 satellite images to obtain mean surface temperatures. For the Carlson-Buffum method a combination of NOAA-14 and ΝΟΑΑ-15 satellite images was used, since the average rate of surface temperature rise during the morning was required. The resulting estimations show that both the Carlson-Buffum and Granger methods follow in general the variations of the reference FAO Penman-Monteith method. Both methods have potential for estimating the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration, whereby the degree of the relative agreement with the reference FAO Penman-Monteith method depends on the crop growth stage. In particular, the Carlson- Buffum method performed better during the first half of the crop development stage, while the Granger method performed better during the remaining of the development stage and the entire maturing stage. The parameter that influences the estimations significantly is the wind speed whose high values result in high underestimates of evapotranspiration. Thus, it should be studied further in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Natural Resources and the Environment)
Open AccessArticle Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3601-3623; doi:10.3390/s80603601
Received: 1 April 2008 / Revised: 22 May 2008 / Accepted: 23 May 2008 / Published: 1 June 2008
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We present a twolayer network framework, a P2P e-Science Grid architecture, and the distributed data mining algorithm as the solutions to address the challenges. We simulated the system in TinyOS to examine the operation of each sensor as well as the networking performance. We also present the distributed data mining result to examine the effectiveness of the algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Urban Environmental Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle DNA Extraction Systematics for Spectroscopic Studies
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3624-3632; doi:10.3390/s8063624
Received: 29 April 2008 / Revised: 19 May 2008 / Accepted: 20 May 2008 / Published: 1 June 2008
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Study of genetic material allows the comprehension the origin of the many biochemical changes that follow diseases, like cancer, promoting the development of early preventive inquiry and more efficient individual treatments. Raman spectroscopy can be an important tool in DNA study, since [...] Read more.
Study of genetic material allows the comprehension the origin of the many biochemical changes that follow diseases, like cancer, promoting the development of early preventive inquiry and more efficient individual treatments. Raman spectroscopy can be an important tool in DNA study, since it allows probe molecular vibrations of genetic material in a fast way. The present work established a systematic way for extract DNA in suitable concentrations and structural integrity allowing studies by Raman spectroscopy or other spectroscopic technique, including bio-analytical sensors for probing genetic alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioanalysis in Vivo/in Vitro)
Open AccessArticle Free and Forced Rossby Waves in the Western South China Sea Inferred from Jason-1 Satellite Altimetry Data
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3633-3642; doi:10.3390/s8063633
Received: 24 January 2008 / Revised: 23 May 2008 / Accepted: 23 May 2008 / Published: 1 June 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data from a subsurface mooring deployed in the western South China Sea shows clear intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) at the period of 40~70 days. Analysis of remotelysensed sea surface height (SSH) anomalies in the same area indicates that these ISO signals propagate both [...] Read more.
Data from a subsurface mooring deployed in the western South China Sea shows clear intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) at the period of 40~70 days. Analysis of remotelysensed sea surface height (SSH) anomalies in the same area indicates that these ISO signals propagate both eastward and westward. Time-longitude diagrams of ISO signals in SSH anomalies and wind-stress curl indicate that the eastward propagating SSH anomalies is forced by wind-stress curl. This is also confirmed by lag correlation between SSH anomalies and the wind-stress-curl index (wind stress curl averaged over 109.5ºE -115ºE and 12ºN -13.5ºN). Lag correlation of SSH anomaly suggests that the westward propagating signals are free Rossby waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Using Electromyography to Detect the Weightings of the Local Muscle Factors to the Increase of Perceived Exertion During Stepping Exercise
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3643-3655; doi:10.3390/s8063643
Received: 7 April 2008 / Revised: 22 May 2008 / Accepted: 27 May 2008 / Published: 1 June 2008
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (102 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) is a clinically convenient indicator for monitoring exercise intensity in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. It might not be sensitive enough for clinicians to determine the patients’ physiological status because its association with the cardiovascular system and local muscle factors [...] Read more.
Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) is a clinically convenient indicator for monitoring exercise intensity in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. It might not be sensitive enough for clinicians to determine the patients’ physiological status because its association with the cardiovascular system and local muscle factors is unknown. This study used the electromyographic sensor to detect the local muscle fatigue and stabilization of patella, and analyzed the relationship between various local muscle and cardiovascular factors and the increase of RPE during stepping exercise, a common exercise program provided in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. Ten healthy adults (4 males and 6 females) participated in this study. Each subject used their right bare foot to step up onto a 23-cm-high step at a constant speed until the RPE score reached 20. The RPE, heart rate (HR), and surface EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis were recorded at 1-minute intervals during the stepping exercise. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis indicated that the increase in RPE significantly correlated with the increase in HR, and decrease in median frequency (MF) of the EMG power spectrum of the RF. Experimental results suggest that the increase in RPE during stepping exercise was influenced by the cardiovascular status, localized muscle fatigue in the lower extremities. The weighting of the local muscle factors was more than half of the weighting of the cardiovascular factor. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Investigation on Micro-Raman Spectra and Wavelet Data Analysis for Pemphigus Vulgaris Follow-up Monitoring.
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3656-3664; doi:10.3390/s8063656
Received: 24 January 2008 / Revised: 30 April 2008 / Accepted: 28 May 2008 / Published: 1 June 2008
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wavelet multi-component decomposition algorithm has been used for data analysis of micro-Raman spectra of blood serum samples from patients affected by pemphigus vulgaris at different stages. Pemphigus is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes with a [...] Read more.
A wavelet multi-component decomposition algorithm has been used for data analysis of micro-Raman spectra of blood serum samples from patients affected by pemphigus vulgaris at different stages. Pemphigus is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes with a potentially fatal outcome. Spectra were measured by means of a Raman confocal microspectrometer apparatus using the 632.8 nm line of a He-Ne laser source. A discrete wavelet transform decomposition method has been applied to the recorded Raman spectra in order to overcome problems related to low-level signals and the presence of noise and background components due to light scattering and fluorescence. This numerical data treatment can automatically extract quantitative information from the Raman spectra and makes more reliable the data comparison. Even if an exhaustive investigation has not been done in this work, the feasibility of the follow-up monitoring of pemphigus vulgaris pathology has been clearly proved with useful implications for the clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioanalysis in Vivo/in Vitro)
Open AccessArticle Disposable E-Tongue for the Assessment of Water Quality in Fish Tanks
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3665-3677; doi:10.3390/s8063665
Received: 22 February 2008 / Revised: 25 March 2008 / Accepted: 25 March 2008 / Published: 1 June 2008
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A disposable screen-printed e-tongue based on sensor array and pattern recognition that is suitable for the assessment of water quality in fish tanks is described. The characteristics of sensors fabricated using two kinds of sensing materials, namely (i) lipids (referred to as [...] Read more.
A disposable screen-printed e-tongue based on sensor array and pattern recognition that is suitable for the assessment of water quality in fish tanks is described. The characteristics of sensors fabricated using two kinds of sensing materials, namely (i) lipids (referred to as Type 1), and (ii) alternative electroactive materials comprising liquid ion-exchangers and macrocyclic compounds (Type 2) were evaluated for their performance stability, sensitivity and reproducibility. The Type 2 e-tongue was found to have better sensing performance in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility and was thus used for application studies. By using a pattern recognition tool i.e. principal component analysis (PCA), the e-tongue was able to discriminate the changes in the water quality in tilapia and catfish tanks monitored over eight days. E-tongues coupled with partial least squares (PLS) was used for the quantitative analysis of nitrate and ammonium ions in catfish tank water and good agreement were found with the ion-chromatography method (relative error, ±1.04- 4.10 %). Full article
Open AccessArticle Flow-Injection Coulometric Detection Based on Ion Transfer and Its Application to the Determination of Chlorpromazine
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3678-3688; doi:10.3390/s8063678
Received: 2 April 2008 / Revised: 29 May 2008 / Accepted: 29 May 2008 / Published: 1 June 2008
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A flow-injection coulometric method for the determination of chlorpromazine based on ion transfer into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane, was developed. The detector used consists of a flow-through cell that incorporates a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane which contains tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate [...] Read more.
A flow-injection coulometric method for the determination of chlorpromazine based on ion transfer into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane, was developed. The detector used consists of a flow-through cell that incorporates a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane which contains tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate as electrolyte. The membrane is located between the flowing solution and an inner aqueous electrolyte solution. Two pairs of electrodes, each pair formed by a reference electrode and a working electrode, are used, one pair in each solution. The potential between the reference electrodes was controlled by a four-electrode potentiostat with ohmic drop compensation. A potential step capable of producing the transfer of the chlorpromazine ion into the membrane was applied during the passage of a wide portion of sample plug through the cell and the corresponding quantity of the electricity was measured. In the selected conditions, a linear relationship was observed between the quantity of electricity and chlorpromazine concentrations over a range of 1x10-6 -1x10-4 M. The detection limit was 2 x 10-7 M. Good repeatability and between-day reproducibility was obtained. No interference was observed on the part of some common ions and pharmaceutical excipients. The method proposed was applied satisfactorily to the determination of chlorpromazine in pharmaceuticals and human urine. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fluorescent Indolizine-b-Cyclodextrin Derivatives for the Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3689-3705; doi:10.3390/s8063689
Received: 23 April 2008 / Revised: 25 May 2008 / Accepted: 29 May 2008 / Published: 2 June 2008
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the synthesis, the structural determination and the sensing capabilities toward Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of a new class of fluorescent indolizine-cyclodextrin sensors. Two different pathways, both involving bipyridinium ylides and 6-amino-b-cyclodextrin, have been used to carry out the synthesis [...] Read more.
This paper presents the synthesis, the structural determination and the sensing capabilities toward Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of a new class of fluorescent indolizine-cyclodextrin sensors. Two different pathways, both involving bipyridinium ylides and 6-amino-b-cyclodextrin, have been used to carry out the synthesis of these sensors. The macrocycle structures were dominantly established by 1H-NMR spectra and systematically studied by molecular modelling (MM3, AM1, AM1-COSMO methods). The sensing capabilities of the sensors were evaluated by emission of fluorescence, during the inclusion of the guest (adamantanol or aromatic derivatives) into the cyclodextrin (CD) host cavity. The host/guest complex formation was investigated by formation constant determinations, using experimental methods, coupled with theoretical calculations of formation energies using a specific docking procedure. Both experimental and theoretical results suggest that some compounds would make very attractive sensors for VOC detection. Some compounds could also be taken into consideration as biological markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Dynamic Characteristics of Vertically Coupled Structures and the Design of a Decoupled Micro Gyroscope
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3706-3718; doi:10.3390/s8063706
Received: 21 March 2008 / Revised: 24 May 2008 / Accepted: 2 June 2008 / Published: 3 June 2008
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a vertical type, vibratory gyroscope, the coupled motion between reference (driving) and sensing vibrations causes the zero-point output, which is the unwanted sensing vibration without angular velocity. This structural coupling leads to an inherent discrepancy between the natural frequencies of the [...] Read more.
In a vertical type, vibratory gyroscope, the coupled motion between reference (driving) and sensing vibrations causes the zero-point output, which is the unwanted sensing vibration without angular velocity. This structural coupling leads to an inherent discrepancy between the natural frequencies of the reference and the sensing oscillations, causing curve veering in frequency loci. The coupled motion deteriorates sensing performance and dynamic stability. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics associated with the coupling phenomenon are theoretically analyzed. The effects of reference frequency and coupling factor on the rotational direction and amplitude of elliptic oscillation are determined. Based on the analytical studies on the coupling effects, we propose and fabricate a vertically decoupled vibratory gyroscope with the frequency matching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Sensor for Measuring Strain in Textile
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3719-3732; doi:10.3390/s8063719
Received: 6 May 2008 / Revised: 20 May 2008 / Accepted: 21 May 2008 / Published: 3 June 2008
Cited by 109 | PDF Full-text (1921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper a stain sensor to measure large strain (80%) in textiles is presented. It consists of a mixture of 50wt-% thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and 50wt-% carbon black particles and is fiber-shaped with a diameter of 0.315mm. The attachment of the [...] Read more.
In this paper a stain sensor to measure large strain (80%) in textiles is presented. It consists of a mixture of 50wt-% thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and 50wt-% carbon black particles and is fiber-shaped with a diameter of 0.315mm. The attachment of the sensor to the textile is realized using a silicone film. This sensor configuration was characterized using a strain tester and measuring the resistance (extension-retraction cycles): It showed a linear resistance response to strain, a small hysteresis, no ageing effects and a small dependance on the strain velocity. The total mean error caused by all these effects was +/-5.5% in strain. Washing several times in a conventional washing machine did not influence the sensor properties. The paper finishes by showing an example application where 21 strain sensors were integrated into a catsuit. With this garment, 27 upper body postures could be recognized with an accuracy of 97%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Switzerland)
Open AccessArticle A Spatial-Spectral Approach for Visualization of Vegetation Stress Resulting from Pipeline Leakage
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3733-3743; doi:10.3390/s8063733
Received: 20 January 2008 / Revised: 25 May 2008 / Accepted: 26 May 2008 / Published: 4 June 2008
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (938 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrocarbon leakage into the environment has large economic and environmental impact. Traditional methods for investigating seepages and their resulting pollution, such as drilling, are destructive, time consuming and expensive. Remote sensing is an efficient tool that offers a non-destructive investigation method. Optical [...] Read more.
Hydrocarbon leakage into the environment has large economic and environmental impact. Traditional methods for investigating seepages and their resulting pollution, such as drilling, are destructive, time consuming and expensive. Remote sensing is an efficient tool that offers a non-destructive investigation method. Optical remote sensing has been extensively tested for exploration of onshore hydrocarbon reservoirs and detection of hydrocarbons at the Earth’s surface. In this research, we investigate indirect manifestations of pipeline leakage by way of visualizing vegetation anomalies in airborne hyperspectral imagery. Agricultural land-use causes a heterogeneous landcover; variation in red edge position between fields was much larger than infield red edge position variation that could be related to hydrocarbon pollution. A moving and growing kernel procedure was developed to normalzie red edge values relative to values of neighbouring pixels to enhance pollution related anomalies in the image. Comparison of the spatial distribution of anomalies with geochemical data obtained by drilling showed that 8 out of 10 polluted sites were predicted correctly while 2 out of 30 sites that were predicted clean were actually polluted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Natural Resources and the Environment)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of EO-1 ALI and Hyperion, and Landsat ETM+ Data for Mapping Forest Crown Closure and Leaf Area Index
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3744-3766; doi:10.3390/s8063744
Received: 21 April 2008 / Revised: 14 May 2008 / Accepted: 15 May 2008 / Published: 6 June 2008
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a comparative analysis of capabilities of three sensors for mapping forest crown closure (CC) and leaf area index (LAI) was conducted. The three sensors are Hyperspectral Imager (Hyperion) and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) onboard EO-1 satellite and Landsat-7 Enhanced [...] Read more.
In this study, a comparative analysis of capabilities of three sensors for mapping forest crown closure (CC) and leaf area index (LAI) was conducted. The three sensors are Hyperspectral Imager (Hyperion) and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) onboard EO-1 satellite and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). A total of 38 mixed coniferous forest CC and 38 LAI measurements were collected at Blodgett Forest Research Station, University of California at Berkeley, USA. The analysis method consists of (1) extracting spectral vegetation indices (VIs), spectral texture information and maximum noise fractions (MNFs), (2) establishing multivariate prediction models, (3) predicting and mapping pixel-based CC and LAI values, and (4) validating the mapped CC and LAI results with field validated photo-interpreted CC and LAI values. The experimental results indicate that the Hyperion data are the most effective for mapping forest CC and LAI (CC mapped accuracy (MA) = 76.0%, LAI MA = 74.7%), followed by ALI data (CC MA = 74.5%, LAI MA = 70.7%), with ETM+ data results being least effective (CC MA = 71.1%, LAI MA = 63.4%). This analysis demonstrates that the Hyperion sensor outperforms the other two sensors: ALI and ETM+. This is because of its high spectral resolution with rich subtle spectral information, of its short-wave infrared data for constructing optimal VIs that are slightly affected by the atmosphere, and of its more available MNFs than the other two sensors to be selected for establishing prediction models. Compared to ETM+ data, ALI data are better for mapping forest CC and LAI due to ALI data with more bands and higher signal-to-noise ratios than those of ETM+ data. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impact of Spatial LAI Heterogeneity on Estimate of Directional Gap Fraction from SPOT-Satellite Data
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3767-3779; doi:10.3390/s8063767
Received: 31 January 2008 / Revised: 29 May 2008 / Accepted: 30 May 2008 / Published: 6 June 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Directional gap probability or gap fraction is a basic parameter in the optical remote sensing modeling. Although some approaches have been proposed to estimate this gap probability from remotely sensed measurements, few efforts have been made to investigate the scaling effects of [...] Read more.
Directional gap probability or gap fraction is a basic parameter in the optical remote sensing modeling. Although some approaches have been proposed to estimate this gap probability from remotely sensed measurements, few efforts have been made to investigate the scaling effects of this parameter. This paper analyzes the scaling effect through aggregating the high-resolution directional gap probability (pixel size of 20 meters) estimated from leaf area index (LAI) images of VALERI database by means of Beer's law and introduces an extension of clumping index, Ĉ, to compensate the scaling bias. The results show that the scaling effect depends on both the surface heterogeneity and the nonlinearity degree of the retrieved function. Analytical expressions for the scaling bias of gap probability and Ĉ are established in function of the variance of LAI and the mean value of LAI in a coarse pixel. With the VALERI dataset, the study in this paper shows that relative scaling bias of gap probability increases with decreasing spatial resolution for most of land cover types. Large relative biases are found for most of crops sites and a mixed forest site due to their relative large variance of LAI, while very small biases occur over grassland and shrubs sites. As for Ĉ, it varies slowly in the pure forest, grassland and shrubs sites, while more significantly in crops and mixed forest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Natural Resources and the Environment)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Sea Surface Slicks on the Doppler Spectrum Width of a Backscattered Microwave Signal
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3780-3801; doi:10.3390/s8063780
Received: 12 March 2008 / Revised: 31 May 2008 / Accepted: 2 June 2008 / Published: 6 June 2008
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (780 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of a surface-active substance (SAS) film on the Doppler spectrum width at small incidence angles is theoretically investigated for the first time for microwave radars with narrow-beam and knife-beam antenna patterns. It is shown that the requirements specified for the [...] Read more.
The influence of a surface-active substance (SAS) film on the Doppler spectrum width at small incidence angles is theoretically investigated for the first time for microwave radars with narrow-beam and knife-beam antenna patterns. It is shown that the requirements specified for the antenna system depend on the radar motion velocity. A narrow-beam antenna pattern should be used to detect slicks by an immobile radar, whereas radar with a knife-beam antenna pattern is needed for diagnostics from a moving platform. The study has revealed that the slick contrast in the Doppler spectrum width increases as the radar wavelength diminishes, thus it is preferable to utilize wavelengths not larger than 2 cm for solving diagnostic problems. The contrast in the Doppler spectrum width is generally weaker than that in the radar backscattering cross section; however, spatial and temporal fluctuations of the Doppler spectrum width are much weaker than those of the reflected signal power. This enables one to consider the Doppler spectrum as a promising indicator of slicks on water surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Validation and Variation of Upper Layer Thickness in South China Sea from Satellite Altimeter Data
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3802-3818; doi:10.3390/s8063802
Received: 20 May 2008 / Revised: 3 June 2008 / Accepted: 3 June 2008 / Published: 6 June 2008
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Satellite altimeter data from 1993 to 2005 has been used to analyze the seasonal variation and the interannual variability of upper layer thickness (ULT) in the South China Sea (SCS). Base on in-situ measurements, the ULT is defined as the thickness from [...] Read more.
Satellite altimeter data from 1993 to 2005 has been used to analyze the seasonal variation and the interannual variability of upper layer thickness (ULT) in the South China Sea (SCS). Base on in-situ measurements, the ULT is defined as the thickness from the sea surface to the depth of 16°C isotherm which is used to validate the result derived from satellite altimeter data. In comparison with altimeter and in-situ derived ULTs yields a correlation coefficient of 0.92 with a slope of 0.95 and an intercept of 6 m. The basin averaged ULT derived from altimeter is 160 m in winter and 171 m in summer which is similar to the in-situ measurements of 159 m in winter and 175 m in summer. Both results also show similar spatial patterns. It suggests that the sea surface height data derived from satellite sensors are usable for study the variation of ULT in the semi-closed SCS. Furthermore, we also use satellite derived ULT to detect the development of eddy. Interannual variability of two meso-scale cyclonic eddies and one anticyclonic eddy are strongly influenced by El Niño events. In most cases, there are highly positive correlations between ULT and sea surface temperature except the periods of El Niño. During the onset of El Niño event, ULT is deeper when sea surface temperature is lower. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle An Assessment of the Altimetric Information Derived from Spaceborne SAR (RADARSAT-1, SRTM3) and Optical (ASTER) Data for Cartographic Application in the Amazon Region
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3819-3829; doi:10.3390/s8063819
Received: 15 April 2008 / Revised: 27 May 2008 / Accepted: 28 May 2008 / Published: 6 June 2008
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (3081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Difficulties in acquiring a complete aerial photography coverage on a regular basis in the Brazilian Amazon due to adverse environmental conditions affect the quality of the national topographic database. As a consequence, topographic information is still poor, and when available needs to [...] Read more.
Difficulties in acquiring a complete aerial photography coverage on a regular basis in the Brazilian Amazon due to adverse environmental conditions affect the quality of the national topographic database. As a consequence, topographic information is still poor, and when available needs to be up-dated or re-mapped. In this research, altimetric information derived from RADARSAT-1 (Fine and Standard modes), SRTM3 (3 arcseconds) and ASTER (band 3N-3B) was evaluated for topographic mapping in two sites located in the region: Serra dos Carajás (mountainous relief) and Tapajós National Forest (flat terrain). The quality of the information produced from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) was evaluated regarding field altimetric measurements. Precise topographic field information acquired from Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used as Ground Control Points (GCPs) for the modeling of the stereoscopic DEMs (RADARSAT- 1, ASTER) and as Independent Check Points (ICPs) for the calculation of accuracies of the products. The accuracies were estimated by comparison of the DEMs values and real elevation values given by ICPs. The analysis was performed following two approaches: (1) the use of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the overall classification of the DEMs considering the Brazilian Map Accuracy Standards (PEC) limits and, (2) calculations of trend analysis and accuracy based on a methodology that takes into account computed discrepancies and standard deviations. The investigation has shown that for flat relief, the altimetric accuracy of SRTM3 and Fine RADARSAT-1 DEMs fulfilled the PEC requirements for 1:100,000 A Class Map. However, for mountainous terrain, only the altimetry of SRTM3 and ASTER fulfilled these requirements. In addition, the performance of ASTER was slightly superior to SRTM3. However it is important to consider the difficulties in the acquisition of good stereo-pairs with optical data in the Amazon and the additional cost (GCPs) to produce ASTER DEMs. Despite showing systematic errors, the findings justify the usage of SRTM3 as a primary elevation source for semi-detailed topographic mapping in the region. It is suggested a combination of altimetry derived for SRTM3 and planimetry extracted from high-resolution SAR (ALOS/PALSAR, TerraSARX, RADARSAT-2) or if available optical data for semi-detailed topographic mapping programs in the Brazilian Amazon, where terrain information is seldom available or presents low quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR))
Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3830-3847; doi:10.3390/s8063830
Received: 25 January 2008 / Revised: 26 May 2008 / Accepted: 27 May 2008 / Published: 6 June 2008
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote [...] Read more.
Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust deposition at a local scale. In general, this project could be used as a template for dust-transport modelling which couples spatial data focused on the construction of digital terrain models and thematic mapping with data generated by numerical simulations based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Urban Environmental Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of Silicon Micro-Funnels and Tapered Micro-Channels for Stochastic Sensing Applications
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3848-3872; doi:10.3390/s8063848
Received: 14 May 2008 / Revised: 5 June 2008 / Accepted: 6 June 2008 / Published: 9 June 2008
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a simplified, highly reproducible process to fabricate arrays of tapered silicon micro-funnels and micro-channels using a single lithographic step with a silicon oxide (SiO2) hard mask on at a wafer scale. Two approaches were used for the fabrication. The first [...] Read more.
We present a simplified, highly reproducible process to fabricate arrays of tapered silicon micro-funnels and micro-channels using a single lithographic step with a silicon oxide (SiO2) hard mask on at a wafer scale. Two approaches were used for the fabrication. The first one involves a single wet anisotropic etch step in concentrated potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the second one is a combined approach comprising Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE) followed by wet anisotropic etching. The etching is performed through a 500 mm thick silicon wafer, and the resulting structures are characterized by sharp tapered ends with a sub-micron cross-sectional area at the tip. We discuss the influence of various parameters involved in the fabrication such as the size and thickness variability of the substrate, dry and wet anisotropic etching conditions, the etchant composition, temperature, diffusion and micro-masking effects, the quality of the hard mask in the uniformity and reproducibility of the structures, and the importance of a complete removal of debris and precipitates. The presence of apertures at the tip of the structures is corroborated through current voltage measurements and by the translocation of DNA through the apertures. The relevance of the results obtained in this report is discussed in terms of the potential use of these structures for stochastic sensing. Full article
Open AccessArticle Computational Modeling of the Electrochemical System of Lipase Activity Detection
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3873-3879; doi:10.3390/s8063873
Received: 15 May 2008 / Revised: 31 May 2008 / Accepted: 1 June 2008 / Published: 9 June 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents computational modeling of response kinetics of bioelectroanalytical system based on solid supported lipase substrate and lipase interaction. The model assumes that lipase substrate is formed by dripping and drying a small amount of the ethanol solution of 9-(5’-ferrocenylpentanoyloxy)nonyl disulfide [...] Read more.
This paper presents computational modeling of response kinetics of bioelectroanalytical system based on solid supported lipase substrate and lipase interaction. The model assumes that lipase substrate is formed by dripping and drying a small amount of the ethanol solution of 9-(5’-ferrocenylpentanoyloxy)nonyl disulfide (FPONDS) and that lipase is capable of cleaving FPONDS ester bonds via hydrolysis mechanism. Two mathematical models have been developed and evaluated trough computational simulation series by comparing them to experimental data. The results of simulation demonstrate that a good fitting might be obtained only taking into account non-linear substrate wash off process. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparing Different Approaches for Mapping Urban Vegetation Cover from Landsat ETM+ Data: A Case Study on Brussels
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3880-3902; doi:10.3390/s8063880
Received: 2 April 2008 / Revised: 28 May 2008 / Accepted: 30 May 2008 / Published: 10 June 2008
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban growth and its related environmental problems call for sustainable urban management policies to safeguard the quality of urban environments. Vegetation plays an important part in this as it provides ecological, social, health and economic benefits to a city’s inhabitants. Remotely sensed [...] Read more.
Urban growth and its related environmental problems call for sustainable urban management policies to safeguard the quality of urban environments. Vegetation plays an important part in this as it provides ecological, social, health and economic benefits to a city’s inhabitants. Remotely sensed data are of great value to monitor urban green and despite the clear advantages of contemporary high resolution images, the benefits of medium resolution data should not be discarded. The objective of this research was to estimate fractional vegetation cover from a Landsat ETM+ image with sub-pixel classification, and to compare accuracies obtained with multiple stepwise regression analysis, linear spectral unmixing and multi-layer perceptrons (MLP) at the level of meaningful urban spatial entities. Despite the small, but nevertheless statistically significant differences at pixel level between the alternative approaches, the spatial pattern of vegetation cover and estimation errors is clearly distinctive at neighbourhood level. At this spatially aggregated level, a simple regression model appears to attain sufficient accuracy. For mapping at a spatially more detailed level, the MLP seems to be the most appropriate choice. Brightness normalisation only appeared to affect the linear models, especially the linear spectral unmixing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Urban Environmental Monitoring)
Open AccessCommunication Connecting Hazard Analysts and Risk Managers to Sensor Information
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3932-3937; doi:10.3390/s8063932
Received: 23 April 2008 / Revised: 6 June 2008 / Accepted: 9 June 2008 / Published: 11 June 2008
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hazard analysts and risk managers of natural perils, such as earthquakes, landslides and floods, need to access information from sensor networks surveying their regions of interest. However, currently information about these networks is difficult to obtain and is available in varying formats, [...] Read more.
Hazard analysts and risk managers of natural perils, such as earthquakes, landslides and floods, need to access information from sensor networks surveying their regions of interest. However, currently information about these networks is difficult to obtain and is available in varying formats, thereby restricting accesses and consequently possibly leading to decision-making based on limited information. As a response to this issue, state-of-the-art interoperable catalogues are being currently developed within the framework of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) workplan. This article provides an overview of the prototype catalogue that was developed to improve access to information about the sensor networks surveying geological hazards (geohazards), such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Disaster and Emergency Management Decision Making)
Open AccessArticle A Lidar Point Cloud Based Procedure for Vertical Canopy Structure Analysis And 3D Single Tree Modelling in Forest
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3938-3951; doi:10.3390/s8063938
Received: 29 January 2008 / Revised: 5 June 2008 / Accepted: 6 June 2008 / Published: 12 June 2008
Cited by 52 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A procedure for both vertical canopy structure analysis and 3D single tree modelling based on Lidar point cloud is presented in this paper. The whole area of research is segmented into small study cells by a raster net. For each cell, a [...] Read more.
A procedure for both vertical canopy structure analysis and 3D single tree modelling based on Lidar point cloud is presented in this paper. The whole area of research is segmented into small study cells by a raster net. For each cell, a normalized point cloud whose point heights represent the absolute heights of the ground objects is generated from the original Lidar raw point cloud. The main tree canopy layers and the height ranges of the layers are detected according to a statistical analysis of the height distribution probability of the normalized raw points. For the 3D modelling of individual trees, individual trees are detected and delineated not only from the top canopy layer but also from the sub canopy layer. The normalized points are resampled into a local voxel space. A series of horizontal 2D projection images at the different height levels are then generated respect to the voxel space. Tree crown regions are detected from the projection images. Individual trees are then extracted by means of a pre-order forest traversal process through all the tree crown regions at the different height levels. Finally, 3D tree crown models of the extracted individual trees are reconstructed. With further analyses on the 3D models of individual tree crowns, important parameters such as crown height range, crown volume and crown contours at the different height levels can be derived. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Natural Resources and the Environment)
Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Chronoamperometric Sensing of Ascorbic Acid and Acetaminophen at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3952-3969; doi:10.3390/s8063952
Received: 21 May 2008 / Revised: 9 June 2008 / Accepted: 9 June 2008 / Published: 12 June 2008
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) have been used to sense and determine simultaneously L-ascorbic acid (AA) and acetaminophen (AC) at a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution. The calibration plots of anodic current peak versus concentration obtained from [...] Read more.
Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) have been used to sense and determine simultaneously L-ascorbic acid (AA) and acetaminophen (AC) at a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution. The calibration plots of anodic current peak versus concentration obtained from CV and CA data for both investigated compounds in single and di-component solutions over the concentration range 0.01 mM – 0.1 mM proved to be linear, with very good correlation parameters. Sensitivity values and RSD of 2-3% were obtained for various situations, involving both individual and simultaneous presence of AA and AC. The chronoamperometric technique associated with standard addition in sequential one step and/or two successive and continuous chronoamperograms at two characteristic potential levels represented a feasible option for the simultaneous determination of AA and AC in real sample systems such as pharmaceutical formulations. The average values indicated by the supplier were confirmed to a very close approximation from chronoamperomgrams by using several additions with the application of suitable current correction factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3970-3987; doi:10.3390/s8063970
Received: 2 April 2008 / Accepted: 11 June 2008 / Published: 20 June 2008
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger [...] Read more.
Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1) creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2) evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%. Full article
Open AccessArticle Detecting Aquatic Vegetation Changes in Taihu Lake, China Using Multi-temporal Satellite Imagery
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3988-4005; doi:10.3390/s8063988
Received: 6 May 2008 / Accepted: 19 June 2008 / Published: 25 June 2008
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (715 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have measured the water quality and bio-optical parameters of 94 samples from Taihu Lake in situ and/or in the lab between June 10-18, 2007. A transparencyassisted decision tree was developed to more accurately divide the aquatic vegetation zone into a floating [...] Read more.
We have measured the water quality and bio-optical parameters of 94 samples from Taihu Lake in situ and/or in the lab between June 10-18, 2007. A transparencyassisted decision tree was developed to more accurately divide the aquatic vegetation zone into a floating vegetation-dominated zone and a submerged vegetation-dominated zone, whose respective present biomass retrieval models were easily developed with an empirical approach because of the quasi-concurrence of ground field investigations with the satellite sensor flight over the lake. The significant quantitative relationships between the vegetation index NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) of different images at different times were used to help develop the past biomass retrieval model on the basis of the present developed model. In Taihu Lake, the total covering area of aquatic vegetations decreased from 454.6 km2 in 2001 to 364.1 km2 in 2007. Correspondingly, the total biomass decreased from 489,000 tons in 2001 to 406,000 tons in 2007, suggesting that a great change in the ecological environment has been taking place in Taihu Lake over this period. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chemical Characterization of Dew Water Collected in Different Geographic Regions of Poland
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 4006-4032; doi:10.3390/s8064006
Received: 23 May 2008 / Accepted: 19 June 2008 / Published: 25 June 2008
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (585 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The results of a dew monitoring program performed in Poland with the aim to outline the chemical composition of dew water in meteorological context are presented. Dew samples were collected from eight measurement stations from August 2004 to November 2006. Taking into [...] Read more.
The results of a dew monitoring program performed in Poland with the aim to outline the chemical composition of dew water in meteorological context are presented. Dew samples were collected from eight measurement stations from August 2004 to November 2006. Taking into account the type of land use and characteristics of pollutant emission, sampling sites were divided into the following categories: rural, coastal urban and inland urban stations. Selected anions and cations as well as formaldehyde and sum of phenols were determined. The average TIC (Total Inorganic Ionic Content) values in dew samples ranged from 0.83 to 3.93 between individual stations with 10.9 meq/L as the highest daily value of TIC measured. The average TIC values observed in dew at all stations were at a similar level (2.46 meq/L) when compared with hoarfrost (2.86 meq/L). However, these values were much higher in comparison with other kinds of atmospheric water like precipitation (wet only; 0.37 meq/L) or fog/cloud (1.01 meq/L). The pH values of dew water ranged from 5.22 to 7.35 for urban coastal stations, from 5.67 to 8.02 for urban inland stations and from 4.16 to 8.76 for dew samples collected in the rural area. HCHO was found in 97 % of dew samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.010 to 5.40 meq/L. Excluding stations near the seashore, where the contribution of Na+ and Cl- increased, the most important ions were sulphates. A very low contribution of NO3- and noticeable increase of Ca2+ which were not observed in the case of precipitation and fog water, were typical in all stations. The contribution of ammonium ion was two times higher at rural stations as a result of agricultural ammonia emissions. The strongest correlations were noticed between the sum of acidifying anions SO42- + NO3- and Ca2+ ion for all urban and rural stations. A very strong correlation was also observed for Na+ and Cl- ions in urban coastal stations, as a natural consequence of the location of these stations close to the sea. It was proved that thermal stratification, direction of circulation and local breeze circulation control the atmospheric chemistry at ground level, where dew is formed. The highest TIC values at urban stations were associated with anticyclonic weather, while at rural sites with cyclonic weather situations. The chemistry of dew water in urban coastal stations was closely related to local breeze circulation in the warm season, mainly in the form of diurnal breeze causing a significant increase of the concentration of Na+ and Cl-ions. Thus, dew can be a good indicator of the atmospheric pollution level at a given site. Taking into account both high TIC values and the annual water equivalent estimated at around 50 mm, dew is a considerable factor of wet deposition, responsible for an additional 60 % of pollutant input into the ground when compared with precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Urban Environmental Monitoring)

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Open AccessReview Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy: Computed Imaging for Scanned Coherent Microscopy
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3903-3931; doi:10.3390/s8063903
Received: 5 June 2008 / Revised: 9 June 2008 / Accepted: 9 June 2008 / Published: 11 June 2008
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (7538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-dimensional image formation in microscopy is greatly enhanced by the use of computed imaging techniques. In particular, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM) allows the removal of out-of-focus blur in broadband, coherent microscopy. Earlier methods, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), utilize interferometric [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional image formation in microscopy is greatly enhanced by the use of computed imaging techniques. In particular, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM) allows the removal of out-of-focus blur in broadband, coherent microscopy. Earlier methods, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), utilize interferometric ranging, but do not apply computed imaging methods and therefore must scan the focal depth to acquire extended volumetric images. ISAM removes the need to scan the focus by allowing volumetric image reconstruction from data collected at a single focal depth. ISAM signal processing techniques are similar to the Fourier migration methods of seismology and the Fourier reconstruction methods of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In this article ISAM is described and the close ties between ISAM and SAR are explored. ISAM and a simple strip-map SAR system are placed in a common mathematical framework and compared to OCT and radar respectively. This article is intended to serve as a review of ISAM, and will be especially useful to readers with a background in SAR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR))

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