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Special Issue "Ocean Remote Sensing"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2008)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. James H. Churnside

Ocean Remote Sensing Working Group, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, CSD3, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 1-303-497-6744
Interests: oceanography; climate; remote sensing; sonar; radar; lidar; radiometry; ocean color

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ocean covers three quarters of the surface of this planet, and is a major factor affecting conditions here. Life originated in the ocean, and continues because of the ocean’s affects on climate. It is also important for transportation, recreation, and resources that include food and pharmaceuticals. Despite this, no one can argue that the ocean is well understood. Measurements are very difficult, and remote sensing will have to play an increasing role in all aspects of ocean science. Important sensors include optical imagers and acoustics on submsersibles and surface ships; LIDAR, radar, multi- and hyper-spectral imagers, and optical and microwave radiometers on aircraft; and optical and microwave imagers and radiometers on satellites. Inferred quantities include ocean surface winds, sea-surface temperature and salinity, sea surface height, ocean color, bathymetry, and distribution and abundance of biota. This special issue attempts to bring together a wide variety of papers on the sensor technology and applications of ocean remote sensing.

Dr. James H. Churnside
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • oceanography
  • climate
  • remote sensing
  • sonar
  • radar
  • lidar
  • radiometry
  • ocean color

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Observing and Studying Extreme Low Pressure Events with Altimetry
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 1306-1329; doi:10.3390/s90301306
Received: 29 December 2008 / Revised: 1 February 2009 / Accepted: 24 February 2009 / Published: 26 February 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of altimetry to detect extreme low pressure events and the relationship between sea level pressure and sea level anomalies during extra-tropical depressions have been investigated. Specific altimeter treatments have been developed for tropical cyclones and applied to obtain a relevant along-track
[...] Read more.
The ability of altimetry to detect extreme low pressure events and the relationship between sea level pressure and sea level anomalies during extra-tropical depressions have been investigated. Specific altimeter treatments have been developed for tropical cyclones and applied to obtain a relevant along-track sea surface height (SSH) signal: the case of tropical cyclone Isabel is presented here. The S- and C-band measurements are used because they are less impacted by rain than the Ku-band, and new sea state bias (SSB) and wet troposphere corrections are proposed. More accurate strong altimeter wind speeds are computed thanks to the Young algorithm. Ocean signals not related to atmospheric pressure can be removed with accuracy, even within a Near Real Time context, by removing the maps of sea level anomaly (SLA) provided by SSALTO/Duacs. In the case of Extra-Tropical Depressions, the classical altimeter processing can be used. Ocean signal not related to atmospheric pressure is along-track filtered. The sea level pressure (SLP)-SLA relationship is investigated for the North Atlantic, North Pacific and Indian oceans; three regression models are proposed allowing restoring an altimeter SLP with a mean error of 5 hPa if compared to ECMWF or buoys SLP. The analysis of barotropic simulation outputs points out the regional variability of the SLP/Model Sea Level relationship and the wind effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Improving Ship Detection with Polarimetric SAR based on Convolution between Co-polarization Channels
Sensors 2009, 9(2), 1221-1236; doi:10.3390/s90201221
Received: 31 December 2008 / Revised: 20 February 2009 / Accepted: 21 February 2009 / Published: 24 February 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1100 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The convolution between co-polarization amplitude only data is studied to improve ship detection performance. The different statistical behaviors of ships and surrounding ocean are characterized a by two-dimensional convolution function (2D-CF) between different polarization channels. The convolution value of the ocean decreases relative
[...] Read more.
The convolution between co-polarization amplitude only data is studied to improve ship detection performance. The different statistical behaviors of ships and surrounding ocean are characterized a by two-dimensional convolution function (2D-CF) between different polarization channels. The convolution value of the ocean decreases relative to initial data, while that of ships increases. Therefore the contrast of ships to ocean is increased. The opposite variation trend of ocean and ships can distinguish the high intensity ocean clutter from ships’ signatures. The new criterion can generally avoid mistaken detection by a constant false alarm rate detector. Our new ship detector is compared with other polarimetric approaches, and the results confirm the robustness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Measurements of Chlorophyll Concentration by Lidar, Fluorometry, above-Water Radiometry, and Ocean Color MODIS Images in the Southwestern Atlantic
Sensors 2009, 9(1), 528-541; doi:10.3390/s90100528
Received: 27 November 2008 / Revised: 8 January 2009 / Accepted: 15 January 2009 / Published: 16 January 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Comparisons between in situ measurements of surface chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL) and ocean color remote sensing estimates were conducted during an oceanographic cruise on the Brazilian Southeastern continental shelf and slope, Southwestern South Atlantic. In situ values were based on fluorometry, above-water radiometry
[...] Read more.
Comparisons between in situ measurements of surface chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL) and ocean color remote sensing estimates were conducted during an oceanographic cruise on the Brazilian Southeastern continental shelf and slope, Southwestern South Atlantic. In situ values were based on fluorometry, above-water radiometry and lidar fluorosensor. Three empirical algorithms were used to estimate CHL from radiometric measurements: Ocean Chlorophyll 3 bands (OC3MRAD), Ocean Chlorophyll 4 bands (OC4v4RAD), and Ocean Chlorophyll 2 bands (OC2v4RAD). The satellite estimates of CHL were derived from data collected by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a nominal 1.1 km resolution at nadir. Three algorithms were used to estimate chlorophyll concentrations from MODIS data: one empirical - OC3MSAT, and two semi-analytical - Garver, Siegel, Maritorena version 01 (GSM01SAT), and CarderSAT. In the present work, MODIS, lidar and in situ above-water radiometry and fluorometry are briefly described and the estimated values of chlorophyll retrieved by these techniques are compared. The chlorophyll concentration in the study area was in the range 0.01 to 0.2 mg·m-3. In general, the empirical algorithms applied to the in situ radiometric and satellite data showed a tendency to overestimate CHL with a mean difference between estimated and measured values of as much as 0.17 mg/m3 (OC2v4RAD). The semi-analytical GSM01 algorithm applied to MODIS data performed better (rmse 0.28, rmse-L 0.08, mean diff. -0.01 mg/m3) than the Carder and the empirical OC3M algorithms (rmse 1.14 and 0.36, rmse-L 0.34 and 0.11, mean diff. 0.17 and 0.02 mg/m3, respectively). We find that rmsd values between MODIS relative to the in situ radiometric measurements are < 26%, i.e., there is a trend towards overestimation of RRS by MODIS for the stations considered in this work. Other authors have already reported over and under estimation of MODIS remotely sensed reflectance due to several errors in the bio-optical algorithm performance, in the satellite sensor calibration, and in the atmospheric-correction algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Retrieval of Surface Air Specific Humidity Over the Ocean Using AMSR-E Measurements
Sensors 2008, 8(12), 8016-8026; doi:10.3390/s8128016
Received: 7 October 2008 / Revised: 29 November 2008 / Accepted: 3 December 2008 / Published: 8 December 2008
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed a new algorithm to estimate the surface air specific humidity over the ocean from AMSR-E data. It should be noted that remarkably reduced random errors of the estimated surface air specific humidity result from using the surface air specific humidity
[...] Read more.
We have developed a new algorithm to estimate the surface air specific humidity over the ocean from AMSR-E data. It should be noted that remarkably reduced random errors of the estimated surface air specific humidity result from using the surface air specific humidity provided by reanalysis data. We validated our new algorithm using independent ship and buoy data. The bias, RMS error, and correlation coefficient of the products obtained using our algorithm for global buoys are 0.38 g/kg, 0.61 g/kg and 0.99, respectively. It should be noted that surface specific humidity having similar accuracy to the reanalysis data near in situ data could be derived from AMSR-E data by the present algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Coupling a Neural Network-Based forward Model and a Bayesian Inversion Approach to Retrieve Wind Field from Spaceborne Polarimetric Radiometers
Sensors 2008, 8(12), 7850-7865; doi:10.3390/s8127850
Received: 2 June 2008 / Revised: 29 October 2008 / Accepted: 21 November 2008 / Published: 3 December 2008
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simulation study to assess the potentiality of sea surface wind vector estimation based on the approximation of the forward model through Neural Networks and on the Bayesian theory of parameter estimation is presented. A polarimetric microwave radiometer has been considered and its
[...] Read more.
A simulation study to assess the potentiality of sea surface wind vector estimation based on the approximation of the forward model through Neural Networks and on the Bayesian theory of parameter estimation is presented. A polarimetric microwave radiometer has been considered and its observations have been simulated by means of the two scale model. To perform the simulations, the atmospheric and surface parameters have been derived from ECMWF analysis fields. To retrieve wind speed, Minimum Variance (MV) and Maximum Posterior Probability (MAP) criteria have been used while, for wind direction, a Maximum Likelihood (ML) criterion has been exploited. To minimize the cost function of MAP and ML, conventional Gradient Descent method, as well as Simulated Annealing optimization technique, have been employed. Results have shown that the standard deviation of the wind speed retrieval error is approximately 1.1 m/s for the best estimator. As for the wind direction, the standard deviation of the estimation error is less than 13° for wind speeds larger than 6 m/s. For lower wind velocities, the wind direction signal is too weak to ensure reliable retrievals. A method to deal with the non-uniqueness of the wind direction solution has been also developed. A test on a case study has yielded encouraging results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Remote Water Temperature Measurements Based on Brillouin Scattering with a Frequency Doubled Pulsed Yb:doped Fiber Amplifier
Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5820-5831; doi:10.3390/s8095820
Received: 14 August 2008 / Revised: 4 September 2008 / Accepted: 17 September 2008 / Published: 22 September 2008
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temperature profiles of the ocean are of interest for weather forecasts, climate studies and oceanography in general. Currently, mostly in situ techniques such as fixed buoys or bathythermographs deliver oceanic temperature profiles. A LIDAR method based on Brillouin scattering is an attractive alternative
[...] Read more.
Temperature profiles of the ocean are of interest for weather forecasts, climate studies and oceanography in general. Currently, mostly in situ techniques such as fixed buoys or bathythermographs deliver oceanic temperature profiles. A LIDAR method based on Brillouin scattering is an attractive alternative for remote sensing of such water temperature profiles. It makes it possible to deliver cost-effective on-line data covering an extended region of the ocean. The temperature measurement is based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering in water. In this contribution, we present the first water temperature measurements using a Yb:doped pulsed fiber amplifier. The fiber amplifier is a custom designed device which can be operated in a vibrational environment while emitting narrow bandwidth laser pulses. The device shows promising performance and demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Furthermore, the current status of the receiver is briefly discussed; it is based on an excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Estimation of Phytoplankton Responses to Hurricane Gonu over the Arabian Sea Based on Ocean Color Data
Sensors 2008, 8(8), 4878-4893; doi:10.3390/s8084878
Received: 11 June 2008 / Revised: 14 August 2008 / Accepted: 15 August 2008 / Published: 21 August 2008
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1079 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study the authors investigated phytoplankton variations in the Arabian Sea associated with Hurricane Gonu using remote-sensing data of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), sea surface temperature (SST) and winds. Additional data sets used for the study included the hurricane and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth
[...] Read more.
In this study the authors investigated phytoplankton variations in the Arabian Sea associated with Hurricane Gonu using remote-sensing data of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), sea surface temperature (SST) and winds. Additional data sets used for the study included the hurricane and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth data. Hurricane Gonu, presenting extremely powerful wind intensity, originated over the central Arabian Sea (near 67.7ºE, 15.1ºN) on June 2, 2007; it traveled along a northwestward direction and made landfall in Iran around June 7. Before Hurricane Gonu, Chl-a data indicated relatively low phytoplankton biomass (0.05-0.2 mg m-3), along with generally high SST (>28.5 ºC) and weak wind (<10 m s-1) in the Arabian Sea. Shortly after Gonu’s passage, two phytoplankton blooms were observed northeast of Oman (Chl-a of 3.5 mg m-3) and in the eastern central Arabian Sea (Chl-a of 0.4 mg m-3), with up to 10-fold increase in surface Chl-a concentrations, respectively. The Chl-a in the two post-hurricane blooms were 46% and 42% larger than those in June of other years, respectively. The two blooms may be attributed to the storm-induced nutrient uptake, since hurricane can influence intensively both dynamical and biological processes through vertical mixing and Ekman Pumping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle HF Radar Sea-echo from Shallow Water
Sensors 2008, 8(8), 4611-4635; doi:10.3390/s8084611
Received: 4 June 2008 / Revised: 21 July 2008 / Accepted: 23 July 2008 / Published: 6 August 2008
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo
[...] Read more.
HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo is strongest. In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor. Simulations are described which demonstrate the effect of shallow water on radar sea-echo. These are used to investigate limits on the existing theory and to define water depths at which shallow-water effects become significant. The second-order spectral energy increases relative to the first-order as the water depth decreases, resulting in spectral saturation when the waveheight exceeds a limit defined by the radar transmit frequency. This effect is particularly marked for lower radar transmit frequencies. The saturation limit on waveheight is less for shallow water. Shallow water affects second-order spectra (which gives wave information) far more than first-order (which gives information on current velocities), the latter being significantly affected only for the lowest radar transmit frequencies for extremely shallow water. We describe analysis of radar echo from shallow water measured by a Rutgers University HF radar system to give ocean wave spectral estimates. Radar-derived wave height, period and direction are compared with simultaneous shallow-water in-situ measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Water Quality Monitoring for Lake Constance with a Physically Based Algorithm for MERIS Data
Sensors 2008, 8(8), 4582-4599; doi:10.3390/s8084582
Received: 11 June 2008 / Revised: 30 July 2008 / Accepted: 31 July 2008 / Published: 5 August 2008
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A physically based algorithm is used for automatic processing of MERIS level 1B full resolution data. The algorithm is originally used with input variables for optimization with different sensors (i.e. channel recalibration and weighting), aquatic regions (i.e. specific inherent optical properties) or atmospheric
[...] Read more.
A physically based algorithm is used for automatic processing of MERIS level 1B full resolution data. The algorithm is originally used with input variables for optimization with different sensors (i.e. channel recalibration and weighting), aquatic regions (i.e. specific inherent optical properties) or atmospheric conditions (i.e. aerosol models). For operational use, however, a lake-specific parameterization is required, representing an approximation of the spatio-temporal variation in atmospheric and hydrooptic conditions, and accounting for sensor properties. The algorithm performs atmospheric correction with a LUT for at-sensor radiance, and a downhill simplex inversion of chl-a, sm and y from subsurface irradiance reflectance. These outputs are enhanced by a selective filter, which makes use of the retrieval residuals. Regular chl-a sampling measurements by the Lake’s protection authority coinciding with MERIS acquisitions were used for parameterization, training and validation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Short-term Influences on Suspended Particulate Matter Distribution in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Satellite and Model Observations
Sensors 2008, 8(7), 4249-4264; doi:10.3390/s8074249
Received: 23 May 2008 / Revised: 29 June 2008 / Accepted: 7 July 2008 / Published: 15 July 2008
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (954 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energetic meteorological events such as frontal passages and hurricanes often impact coastal regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico that influence geochemical processes in the region. Satellite remote sensing data such as winds from QuikSCAT, suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations derived from SeaWiFS
[...] Read more.
Energetic meteorological events such as frontal passages and hurricanes often impact coastal regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico that influence geochemical processes in the region. Satellite remote sensing data such as winds from QuikSCAT, suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations derived from SeaWiFS and the outputs (sea level and surface ocean currents) of a nested navy coastal ocean model (NCOM) were combined to assess the effects of frontal passages between 23-28 March 2005 on the physical properties and the SPM characteristics in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Typical changes in wind speed and direction associated with frontal passages were observed in the latest 12.5 km wind product from QuikSCAT with easterly winds before the frontal passage undergoing systematic shifts in direction and speed and turning northerly, northwesterly during a weak and a strong front on 23 and 27 March, respectively. A quantitative comparison of model sea level results with tide gauge observations suggest better correlations near the delta than in the western part of the Gulf with elevated sea levels along the coast before the frontal passage and a large drop in sea level following the frontal passage on 27 March. Model results of surface currents suggested strong response to wind forcing with westward and onshore currents before the frontal passage reversing into eastward, southeastward direction over a six day period from 23 to 28 March 2005. Surface SPM distribution derived from SeaWiFS ocean color data for two clear days on 23 and 28 March 2005 indicated SPM plumes to be oriented with the current field with increasing concentrations in nearshore waters due to resuspension and discharge from the rivers and bays and its seaward transport following the frontal passage. The backscattering spectral slope γ, a parameter sensitive to particle size distribution also indicated lower γ values (larger particles) in nearshore waters that decreased offshore (smaller particles). The use of both satellite and model results revealed the strong interactions between physical processes and the surface particulate field in response to the frontal passage in a large riverdominated coastal margin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
Sensors 2008, 8(7), 4135-4150; doi:10.3390/s8074135
Received: 5 June 2008 / Revised: 18 June 2008 / Accepted: 6 July 2008 / Published: 10 July 2008
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (3823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color sensor aboard the
[...] Read more.
The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS Aqua true color imagery revealed high turbidity levels in shelf waters immediately following the storms indicative of intense resuspension. However, imagery following the landfall of Katrina showed relatively rapid return of shelf water mass properties to pre-storm conditions. Indeed, MODIS Aqua-derived estimates of diffuse attenuation at 490 nm (K_490) and chlorophyll (chlor_a) from mid-August prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina were comparable to those observed in mid-September following the storm. Regions of elevated K_490 and chlor_a were evident in offshore waters and appeared to be associated with cyclonic circulation (cold-core eddies) identified on the basis of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA). Imagery acquired shortly after Hurricane Rita made landfall showed increased water column turbidity extending over a large area of the shelf off Louisiana and Texas, consistent with intense resuspension and sediment disturbance. An interannual comparison of satellite-derived estimates of K_490 for late September and early October revealed relatively lower levels in 2005, compared to the mean for the prior three years, in the vicinity of the Mississippi River birdfoot delta. In contrast, levels above the previous three year mean were observed off Texas and Louisiana 7-10 d after the passage of Rita. The lower values of K_490 near the delta could be attributed to relatively low river discharge during the preceding months of the 2005 season. The elevated levels off Texas and Louisiana were speculated to be due to the presence of fine grain sediment or dissolved materials that remained in the water column following the storm, and may also have been associated with enhanced phytoplankton biomass stimulated by the intense vertical mixing and offshore delivery of shelf water and associated nutrients. This latter view was supported by observations of high chlor_a in association with regions of cyclonic circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Sea Surface Slicks on the Doppler Spectrum Width of a Backscattered Microwave Signal
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3780-3801; doi:10.3390/s8063780
Received: 12 March 2008 / Revised: 31 May 2008 / Accepted: 2 June 2008 / Published: 6 June 2008
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (780 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of a surface-active substance (SAS) film on the Doppler spectrum width at small incidence angles is theoretically investigated for the first time for microwave radars with narrow-beam and knife-beam antenna patterns. It is shown that the requirements specified for the antenna
[...] Read more.
The influence of a surface-active substance (SAS) film on the Doppler spectrum width at small incidence angles is theoretically investigated for the first time for microwave radars with narrow-beam and knife-beam antenna patterns. It is shown that the requirements specified for the antenna system depend on the radar motion velocity. A narrow-beam antenna pattern should be used to detect slicks by an immobile radar, whereas radar with a knife-beam antenna pattern is needed for diagnostics from a moving platform. The study has revealed that the slick contrast in the Doppler spectrum width increases as the radar wavelength diminishes, thus it is preferable to utilize wavelengths not larger than 2 cm for solving diagnostic problems. The contrast in the Doppler spectrum width is generally weaker than that in the radar backscattering cross section; however, spatial and temporal fluctuations of the Doppler spectrum width are much weaker than those of the reflected signal power. This enables one to consider the Doppler spectrum as a promising indicator of slicks on water surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Validation and Variation of Upper Layer Thickness in South China Sea from Satellite Altimeter Data
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3802-3818; doi:10.3390/s8063802
Received: 20 May 2008 / Revised: 3 June 2008 / Accepted: 3 June 2008 / Published: 6 June 2008
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Satellite altimeter data from 1993 to 2005 has been used to analyze the seasonal variation and the interannual variability of upper layer thickness (ULT) in the South China Sea (SCS). Base on in-situ measurements, the ULT is defined as the thickness from the
[...] Read more.
Satellite altimeter data from 1993 to 2005 has been used to analyze the seasonal variation and the interannual variability of upper layer thickness (ULT) in the South China Sea (SCS). Base on in-situ measurements, the ULT is defined as the thickness from the sea surface to the depth of 16°C isotherm which is used to validate the result derived from satellite altimeter data. In comparison with altimeter and in-situ derived ULTs yields a correlation coefficient of 0.92 with a slope of 0.95 and an intercept of 6 m. The basin averaged ULT derived from altimeter is 160 m in winter and 171 m in summer which is similar to the in-situ measurements of 159 m in winter and 175 m in summer. Both results also show similar spatial patterns. It suggests that the sea surface height data derived from satellite sensors are usable for study the variation of ULT in the semi-closed SCS. Furthermore, we also use satellite derived ULT to detect the development of eddy. Interannual variability of two meso-scale cyclonic eddies and one anticyclonic eddy are strongly influenced by El Niño events. In most cases, there are highly positive correlations between ULT and sea surface temperature except the periods of El Niño. During the onset of El Niño event, ULT is deeper when sea surface temperature is lower. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Free and Forced Rossby Waves in the Western South China Sea Inferred from Jason-1 Satellite Altimetry Data
Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3633-3642; doi:10.3390/s8063633
Received: 24 January 2008 / Revised: 23 May 2008 / Accepted: 23 May 2008 / Published: 1 June 2008
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data from a subsurface mooring deployed in the western South China Sea shows clear intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) at the period of 40~70 days. Analysis of remotelysensed sea surface height (SSH) anomalies in the same area indicates that these ISO signals propagate both eastward
[...] Read more.
Data from a subsurface mooring deployed in the western South China Sea shows clear intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) at the period of 40~70 days. Analysis of remotelysensed sea surface height (SSH) anomalies in the same area indicates that these ISO signals propagate both eastward and westward. Time-longitude diagrams of ISO signals in SSH anomalies and wind-stress curl indicate that the eastward propagating SSH anomalies is forced by wind-stress curl. This is also confirmed by lag correlation between SSH anomalies and the wind-stress-curl index (wind stress curl averaged over 109.5ºE -115ºE and 12ºN -13.5ºN). Lag correlation of SSH anomaly suggests that the westward propagating signals are free Rossby waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A SAR Observation and Numerical Study on Ocean Surface Imprints of Atmospheric Vortex Streets
Sensors 2008, 8(5), 3321-3334; doi:10.3390/s8053321
Received: 31 March 2008 / Accepted: 19 May 2008 / Published: 21 May 2008
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (5302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sea surface imprints of Atmospheric Vortex Street (AVS) off Aleutian Volcanic Islands, Alaska were observed in two RADARSAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images separated by about 11 hours. In both images, three pairs of distinctive vortices shedding in the lee side of
[...] Read more.
The sea surface imprints of Atmospheric Vortex Street (AVS) off Aleutian Volcanic Islands, Alaska were observed in two RADARSAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images separated by about 11 hours. In both images, three pairs of distinctive vortices shedding in the lee side of two volcanic mountains can be clearly seen. The length and width of the vortex street are about 60-70 km and 20 km, respectively. Although the AVS’s in the two SAR images have similar shapes, the structure of vortices within the AVS is highly asymmetrical. The sea surface wind speed is estimated from the SAR images with wind direction input from Navy NOGAPS model. In this paper we present a complete MM5 model simulation of the observed AVS. The surface wind simulated from the MM5 model is in good agreement with SAR-derived wind. The vortex shedding rate calculated from the model run is about 1 hour and 50 minutes. Other basic characteristics of the AVS including propagation speed of the vortex, Strouhal and Reynolds numbers favorable for AVS generation are also derived. The wind associated with AVS modifies the cloud structure in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. The AVS cloud pattern is also observed on a MODIS visible band image taken between the two RADARSAT SAR images. An ENVISAT advance SAR image taken 4 hours after the second RADARSAT SAR image shows that the AVS has almost vanished. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Using SPOT-5 HRG Data in Panchromatic Mode for Operational Detection of Small Ships in Tropical Area
Sensors 2008, 8(5), 2959-2973; doi:10.3390/s8052959
Received: 18 January 2008 / Accepted: 30 April 2008 / Published: 6 May 2008
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, there is a growing interest in applications of space remote sensing systems for maritime surveillance which includes among others traffic surveillance, maritime security, illegal fisheries survey, oil discharge and sea pollution monitoring. Within the framework of several French and European projects, an
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is a growing interest in applications of space remote sensing systems for maritime surveillance which includes among others traffic surveillance, maritime security, illegal fisheries survey, oil discharge and sea pollution monitoring. Within the framework of several French and European projects, an algorithm for automatic ship detection from SPOT-5 HRG data was developed to complement existing fishery control measures, in particular the Vessel Monitoring System. The algorithm focused on feature-based analysis of satellite imagery. Genetic algorithms and Neural Networks were used to deal with the feature-borne information. Based on the described approach, a first prototype was designed to classify small targets such as shrimp boats and tested on panchromatic SPOT-5, 5-m resolution product taking into account the environmental and fishing context. The ability to detect shrimp boats with satisfactory detection rates is an indicator of the robustness of the algorithm. Still, the benchmark revealed problems related to increased false alarm rates on particular types of images with a high percentage of cloud cover and a sea cluttered background. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Ocean Color Inferred from Radiometers on Low-Flying Aircraft
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 860-876; doi:10.3390/s8020860
Received: 16 November 2007 / Accepted: 5 February 2008 / Published: 8 February 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The color of sunlight reflected from the ocean to orbiting visible radiometers hasprovided a great deal of information about the global ocean, after suitable corrections aremade for atmospheric effects. Similar ocean-color measurements can be made from a lowflyingaircraft to get higher spatial resolution
[...] Read more.
The color of sunlight reflected from the ocean to orbiting visible radiometers hasprovided a great deal of information about the global ocean, after suitable corrections aremade for atmospheric effects. Similar ocean-color measurements can be made from a lowflyingaircraft to get higher spatial resolution and to obtain measurements under clouds.A different set of corrections is required in this case, and we describe algorithms to correctfor clouds and sea-surface effects. An example is presented and errors in the correctionsdiscussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Determination of Primary Spectral Bands for Remote Sensing of Aquatic Environments
Sensors 2007, 7(12), 3428-3441; doi:10.3390/s7123428
Received: 5 November 2007 / Accepted: 17 December 2007 / Published: 20 December 2007
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
About 30 years ago, NASA launched the first ocean-color observing satellite:the Coastal Zone Color Scanner. CZCS had 5 bands in the visible-infrared domain with anobjective to detect changes of phytoplankton (measured by concentration of chlorophyll) inthe oceans. Twenty years later, for the same
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About 30 years ago, NASA launched the first ocean-color observing satellite:the Coastal Zone Color Scanner. CZCS had 5 bands in the visible-infrared domain with anobjective to detect changes of phytoplankton (measured by concentration of chlorophyll) inthe oceans. Twenty years later, for the same objective but with advanced technology, theSea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, 7 bands), the Moderate-ResolutionImaging Spectrometer (MODIS, 8 bands), and the Medium Resolution ImagingSpectrometer (MERIS, 12 bands) were launched. The selection of the number of bands andtheir positions was based on experimental and theoretical results achieved before thedesign of these satellite sensors. Recently, Lee and Carder (2002) demonstrated that foradequate derivation of major properties (phytoplankton biomass, colored dissolved organicmatter, suspended sediments, and bottom properties) in both oceanic and coastalenvironments from observation of water color, it is better for a sensor to have ~15 bands inthe 400 – 800 nm range. In that study, however, it did not provide detailed analysesregarding the spectral locations of the 15 bands. Here, from nearly 400 hyperspectral (~ 3-nm resolution) measurements of remote-sensing reflectance (a measure of water color)taken in both coastal and oceanic waters covering both optically deep and optically shallowwaters, first- and second-order derivatives were calculated after interpolating themeasurements to 1-nm resolution. From these derivatives, the frequency of zero values foreach wavelength was accounted for, and the distribution spectrum of such frequencies wasobtained. Furthermore, the wavelengths that have the highest appearance of zeros wereidentified. Because these spectral locations indicate extrema (a local maximum orminimum) of the reflectance spectrum or inflections of the spectral curvature, placing the bands of a sensor at these wavelengths maximizes the potential of capturing (and then restoring) the spectral curve, and thus maximizes the potential of accurately deriving properties of the water column and/or bottom of various aquatic environments with a multi-band sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Lidar-based Studies of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Coastal Areas
Sensors 2007, 7(12), 3347-3365; doi:10.3390/s7123347
Received: 1 November 2007 / Accepted: 17 December 2007 / Published: 19 December 2007
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aerosol size distribution and concentration strongly depend on wind speed,direction, and measuring point location in the marine boundary layer over coastal areas.The marine aerosol particles which are found over the sea waves in high wind conditionsaffect visible and near infrared propagation for paths
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Aerosol size distribution and concentration strongly depend on wind speed,direction, and measuring point location in the marine boundary layer over coastal areas.The marine aerosol particles which are found over the sea waves in high wind conditionsaffect visible and near infrared propagation for paths that pass very close to the surface aswell as the remote sensing measurements of the sea surface. These particles are producedby various air sea interactions. This paper presents the results of measurements taken atnumerous coastal stations between 1992 and 2006 using an FLS-12 lidar system togetherwith other supporting instrumentation. The investigations demonstrated that near-waterlayers in coastal areas differ significantly from those over open seas both in terms ofstructure and physical properties. Taking into consideration the above mentioned factors,aerosol concentrations and optical properties were determined in the marine boundary layeras a function of offshore distance and altitude at various coastal sites in two seasons. Thelidar results show that the remote sensing algorithms used currently in coastal areas needverification and are not fully reliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Remote Sensing)

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