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Sensors 2008, 8(6), 3733-3743; doi:10.3390/s8063733

A Spatial-Spectral Approach for Visualization of Vegetation Stress Resulting from Pipeline Leakage

1, 1,* , 2, 1,3 and 4
1 International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Department of Earth Systems Analysis, P.O.Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede, The Netherlands 2 DHV BV, P.O.Box 685, 9700 AR, Groningen, The Netherlands 3 Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences. P.O.Box 80.021, 3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands 4 Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.V., P.O.Box 28.000, 9400 HH, Assen, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2008 / Revised: 25 May 2008 / Accepted: 26 May 2008 / Published: 4 June 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Natural Resources and the Environment)
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Hydrocarbon leakage into the environment has large economic and environmental impact. Traditional methods for investigating seepages and their resulting pollution, such as drilling, are destructive, time consuming and expensive. Remote sensing is an efficient tool that offers a non-destructive investigation method. Optical remote sensing has been extensively tested for exploration of onshore hydrocarbon reservoirs and detection of hydrocarbons at the Earth’s surface. In this research, we investigate indirect manifestations of pipeline leakage by way of visualizing vegetation anomalies in airborne hyperspectral imagery. Agricultural land-use causes a heterogeneous landcover; variation in red edge position between fields was much larger than infield red edge position variation that could be related to hydrocarbon pollution. A moving and growing kernel procedure was developed to normalzie red edge values relative to values of neighbouring pixels to enhance pollution related anomalies in the image. Comparison of the spatial distribution of anomalies with geochemical data obtained by drilling showed that 8 out of 10 polluted sites were predicted correctly while 2 out of 30 sites that were predicted clean were actually polluted.
Keywords: pipeline; hydrocarbon; vegetation stress; hyperspectral; spatial pipeline; hydrocarbon; vegetation stress; hyperspectral; spatial
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Van derWerff, H.; Van der Meijde, M.; Jansma, F.; Van der Meer, F.; Groothuis, G.J. A Spatial-Spectral Approach for Visualization of Vegetation Stress Resulting from Pipeline Leakage. Sensors 2008, 8, 3733-3743.

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