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Sensors, Volume 14, Issue 9 (September 2014), Pages 15641-17863

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Open AccessArticle In-Vivo Measurement of Muscle Tension: Dynamic Properties of the MC Sensor during Isometric Muscle Contraction
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17848-17863; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917848
Received: 3 July 2014 / Revised: 8 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue structure in our body and plays an essential role for producing motion through integrated action with bones, tendons, ligaments and joints, for stabilizing body position, for generation of heat through cell respiration and for blood glucose disposal.
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Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue structure in our body and plays an essential role for producing motion through integrated action with bones, tendons, ligaments and joints, for stabilizing body position, for generation of heat through cell respiration and for blood glucose disposal. A key function of skeletal muscle is force generation. Non-invasive and selective measurement of muscle contraction force in the field and in clinical settings has always been challenging. The aim of our work has been to develop a sensor that can overcome these difficulties and therefore enable measurement of muscle force during different contraction conditions. In this study, we tested the mechanical properties of a “Muscle Contraction” (MC) sensor during isometric muscle contraction in different length/tension conditions. The MC sensor is attached so that it indents the skin overlying a muscle group and detects varying degrees of tension during muscular contraction. We compared MC sensor readings over the biceps brachii (BB) muscle to dynamometric measurements of force of elbow flexion, together with recordings of surface EMG signal of BB during isometric contractions at 15° and 90° of elbow flexion. Statistical correlation between MC signal and force was very high at 15° (r = 0.976) and 90° (r = 0.966) across the complete time domain. Normalized SD or σN = σ/max(FMC) was used as a measure of linearity of MC signal and elbow flexion force in dynamic conditions. The average was 8.24% for an elbow angle of 90° and 10.01% for an elbow of angle 15°, which indicates high linearity and good dynamic properties of MC sensor signal when compared to elbow flexion force. The next step of testing MC sensor potential will be to measure tension of muscle-tendon complex in conditions when length and tension change simultaneously during human motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Data Fusion to Develop a Driver Drowsiness Detection System with Robustness to Signal Loss
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17832-17847; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917832
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes a drowsiness detection approach based on the combination of several different detection methods, with robustness to the input signal loss. Hence, if one of the methods fails for any reason, the whole system continues to work properly. To choose correct
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This study proposes a drowsiness detection approach based on the combination of several different detection methods, with robustness to the input signal loss. Hence, if one of the methods fails for any reason, the whole system continues to work properly. To choose correct combination of the available methods and to utilize the benefits of methods of different categories, an image processing-based technique as well as a method based on driver-vehicle interaction is used. In order to avoid driving distraction, any use of an intrusive method is prevented. A driving simulator is used to gather real data and then artificial neural networks are used in the structure of the designed system. Several tests were conducted on twelve volunteers while their sleeping situations during one day prior to the tests, were fully under control. Although the impact of the proposed system on the improvement of the detection accuracy is not remarkable, the results indicate the main advantages of the system are the reliability of the detections and robustness to the loss of the input signals. The high reliability of the drowsiness detection systems plays an important role to reduce drowsiness related road accidents and their associated costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessEditorial Fluorescent Sensors for Biological Applications
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17829-17831; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917829
Received: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 24 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
PDF Full-text (608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fluorescence is one of the most important analytical methods used in biological studies. In the past decade or two, instrumentation in this field has greatly advanced, and now it is possible to detect single photons or fluorescent molecules [1,2], or break the Abbe
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Fluorescence is one of the most important analytical methods used in biological studies. In the past decade or two, instrumentation in this field has greatly advanced, and now it is possible to detect single photons or fluorescent molecules [1,2], or break the Abbe diffraction limit to distinguish two points spaced less than 50 nm apart [3]. Concurrently, the development of improved fluorescent probes, which can be coupled with state-of-the-art instruments, has been equally important. This special issue on “fluorescent biosensors” in Sensors reports recent results from eight research groups in the field of sensor development. It includes three review articles, and six research articles reporting original results. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Gasohol Quality Control for Real Time Applications by Means of a Multimode Interference Fiber Sensor
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17817-17828; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917817
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol) blends using a multimode interference (MMI) fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive
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In this work we demonstrate efficient quality control of a variety of gasoline and ethanol (gasohol) blends using a multimode interference (MMI) fiber sensor. The operational principle relies on the fact that the addition of ethanol to the gasohol blend reduces the refractive index (RI) of the gasoline. Since MMI sensors are capable of detecting small RI changes, the ethanol content of the gasohol blend is easily determined by tracking the MMI peak wavelength response. Gasohol blends with ethanol contents ranging from 0% to 50% has been clearly identified using this device, which provides a linear response with a maximum sensitivity of 0.270 nm/% EtOH. The sensor can also distinguish when water incorporated in the blend has exceeded the maximum volume tolerated by the gasohol blend, which is responsible for phase separation of the ethanol and gasoline and could cause serious engine failures. Since the MMI sensor is straightforward to fabricate and does not require any special coating it is a cost effective solution for real time and in-situ monitoring of the quality of gasohol blends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Implementation of a Rotational Ultrasound Biomicroscopy System Equipped with a High-Frequency Angled Needle Transducer — Ex Vivo Ultrasound Imaging of Porcine Ocular Posterior Tissues
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17807-17816; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917807
Received: 16 June 2014 / Revised: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
PDF Full-text (3782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanical scanning of a single element transducer has been mostly utilized for high-frequency ultrasound imaging. However, it requires space for the mechanical motion of the transducer. In this paper, a rotational scanning ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) system equipped with a high-frequency angled needle
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The mechanical scanning of a single element transducer has been mostly utilized for high-frequency ultrasound imaging. However, it requires space for the mechanical motion of the transducer. In this paper, a rotational scanning ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) system equipped with a high-frequency angled needle transducer is designed and implemented in order to minimize the space required. It was applied to ex vivo ultrasound imaging of porcine posterior ocular tissues through a minimal incision hole of 1 mm in diameter. The retina and sclera for the one eye were visualized in the relative rotating angle range of 270° ~ 330° and at a distance range of 6 ~ 7 mm, whereas the tissues of the other eye were observed in relative angle range of 160° ~ 220° and at a distance range of 7.5 ~ 9 mm. The layer between retina and sclera seemed to be bent because the distance between the transducer tip and the layer was varied while the transducer was rotated. Certin features of the rotation system such as the optimal scanning angle, step angle and data length need to be improved for ensure higher accuracy and precision. Moreover, the focal length should be considered for the image quality. This implementation represents the first report of a rotational scanning UBM system. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Efficient Approach for Preprocessing Data from a Large-Scale Chemical Sensor Array
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17786-17806; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917786
Received: 8 July 2014 / Revised: 8 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, an artificial olfactory system (Electronic Nose) that mimics thebiological olfactory system is introduced. The device consists of a Large-Scale ChemicalSensor Array (16; 384 sensors, made of 24 different kinds of conducting polymer materials)that supplies data to software modules, which perform
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In this paper, an artificial olfactory system (Electronic Nose) that mimics thebiological olfactory system is introduced. The device consists of a Large-Scale ChemicalSensor Array (16; 384 sensors, made of 24 different kinds of conducting polymer materials)that supplies data to software modules, which perform advanced data processing. Inparticular, the paper concentrates on the software components consisting, at first, of acrucial step that normalizes the heterogeneous sensor data and reduces their inherent noise.Cleaned data are then supplied as input to a data reduction procedure that extracts the mostinformative and discriminant directions in order to get an efficient representation in a lowerdimensional space where it is possible to more easily find a robust mapping between theobserved outputs and the characteristics of the odors in input to the device. Experimentalqualitative proofs of the validity of the procedure are given by analyzing data acquired fortwo different pure analytes and their binary mixtures. Moreover, a classification task isperformed in order to explore the possibility of automatically recognizing pure compoundsand to predict binary mixture concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Voltammetric Electronic Tongue and Support Vector Machines for Identification of Selected Features in Mexican Coffee
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17770-17785; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917770
Received: 19 June 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper describes a new method based on a voltammetric electronic tongue (ET) for the recognition of distinctive features in coffee samples. An ET was directly applied to different samples from the main Mexican coffee regions without any pretreatment before the analysis. The
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This paper describes a new method based on a voltammetric electronic tongue (ET) for the recognition of distinctive features in coffee samples. An ET was directly applied to different samples from the main Mexican coffee regions without any pretreatment before the analysis. The resulting electrochemical information was modeled with two different mathematical tools, namely Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Growing conditions (i.e., organic or non-organic practices and altitude of crops) were considered for a first classification. LDA results showed an average discrimination rate of 88% ± 6.53% while SVM successfully accomplished an overall accuracy of 96.4% ± 3.50% for the same task. A second classification based on geographical origin of samples was carried out. Results showed an overall accuracy of 87.5% ± 7.79% for LDA and a superior performance of 97.5% ± 3.22% for SVM. Given the complexity of coffee samples, the high accuracy percentages achieved by ET coupled with SVM in both classification problems suggested a potential applicability of ET in the assessment of selected coffee features with a simpler and faster methodology along with a null sample pretreatment. In addition, the proposed method can be applied to authentication assessment while improving cost, time and accuracy of the general procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Wireless Computer Vision Instrument to Detect Biotic Stress in Wheat
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17753-17769; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917753
Received: 21 June 2014 / Revised: 9 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Knowledge of crop abiotic and biotic stress is important for optimal irrigation management. While spectral reflectance and infrared thermometry provide a means to quantify crop stress remotely, these measurements can be cumbersome. Computer vision offers an inexpensive way to remotely detect crop stress
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Knowledge of crop abiotic and biotic stress is important for optimal irrigation management. While spectral reflectance and infrared thermometry provide a means to quantify crop stress remotely, these measurements can be cumbersome. Computer vision offers an inexpensive way to remotely detect crop stress independent of vegetation cover. This paper presents a technique using computer vision to detect disease stress in wheat. Digital images of differentially stressed wheat were segmented into soil and vegetation pixels using expectation maximization (EM). In the first season, the algorithm to segment vegetation from soil and distinguish between healthy and stressed wheat was developed and tested using digital images taken in the field and later processed on a desktop computer. In the second season, a wireless camera with near real-time computer vision capabilities was tested in conjunction with the conventional camera and desktop computer. For wheat irrigated at different levels and inoculated with wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vegetation hue determined by the EM algorithm showed significant effects from irrigation level and infection. Unstressed wheat had a higher hue (118.32) than stressed wheat (111.34). In the second season, the hue and cover measured by the wireless computer vision sensor showed significant effects from infection (p = 0.0014), as did the conventional camera (p < 0.0001). Vegetation hue obtained through a wireless computer vision system in this study is a viable option for determining biotic crop stress in irrigation scheduling. Such a low-cost system could be suitable for use in the field in automated irrigation scheduling applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture and Forestry: Sensors, Technologies and Procedures)
Open AccessReview Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17725-17752; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917725
Received: 28 April 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (1720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent
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Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent developments in the analysis of algal biomass with the main focus on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and partly Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma techniques. The advantages of the selected laser-based analytical techniques are revealed and their fields of use are discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Optical Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Theoretical Accuracy of Along-Track Displacement Measurements from Multiple-Aperture Interferometry (MAI)
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17703-17724; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917703
Received: 12 July 2014 / Revised: 11 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (8936 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The measurement of precise along-track displacements has been made with the multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI). The empirical accuracies of the MAI measurements are about 6.3 and 3.57 cm for ERS and ALOS data, respectively. However, the estimated empirical accuracies cannot be generalized to any
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The measurement of precise along-track displacements has been made with the multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI). The empirical accuracies of the MAI measurements are about 6.3 and 3.57 cm for ERS and ALOS data, respectively. However, the estimated empirical accuracies cannot be generalized to any interferometric pair because they largely depend on the processing parameters and coherence of the used SAR data. A theoretical formula is given to calculate an expected MAI measurement accuracy according to the system and processing parameters and interferometric coherence. In this paper, we have investigated the expected MAI measurement accuracy on the basis of the theoretical formula for the existing X-, C- and L-band satellite SAR systems. The similarity between the expected and empirical MAI measurement accuracies has been tested as well. The expected accuracies of about 2–3 cm and 3–4 cm (γ = 0.8) are calculated for the X- and L-band SAR systems, respectively. For the C-band systems, the expected accuracy of Radarsat-2 ultra-fine is about 3–4 cm and that of Sentinel-1 IW is about 27 cm (γ = 0.8). The results indicate that the expected MAI measurement accuracy of a given interferometric pair can be easily calculated by using the theoretical formula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessReview Development of Clinically Relevant Implantable Pressure Sensors: Perspectives and Challenges
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17686-17702; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917686
Received: 7 July 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 22 September 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review describes different aspects to consider when developing implantable pressure sensor systems. Measurement of pressure is in general highly important in clinical practice and medical research. Due to the small size, light weight and low energy consumption Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
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This review describes different aspects to consider when developing implantable pressure sensor systems. Measurement of pressure is in general highly important in clinical practice and medical research. Due to the small size, light weight and low energy consumption Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology represents new possibilities for monitoring of physiological parameters inside the human body. Development of clinical relevant sensors requires close collaboration between technological experts and medical clinicians. Site of operation, size restrictions, patient safety, and required measurement range and resolution, are only some conditions that must be taken into account. An implantable device has to operate under very hostile conditions. Long-term in vivo pressure measurements are particularly demanding because the pressure sensitive part of the sensor must be in direct or indirect physical contact with the medium for which we want to detect the pressure. New sensor packaging concepts are demanded and must be developed through combined effort between scientists in MEMS technology, material science, and biology. Before launching a new medical device on the market, clinical studies must be performed. Regulatory documents and international standards set the premises for how such studies shall be conducted and reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implantable Sensors)
Open AccessReview Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Spintronics
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17655-17685; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917655
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 22 September 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the end of Moore’s law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current
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With the end of Moore’s law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR) effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT), which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Sensing and Molecular Electronics)
Open AccessArticle MIROS: A Hybrid Real-Time Energy-Efficient Operating System for the Resource-Constrained Wireless Sensor Nodes
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17621-17654; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917621
Received: 7 June 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 September 2014 / Published: 22 September 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Operating system (OS) technology is significant for the proliferation of the wireless sensor network (WSN). With an outstanding OS; the constrained WSN resources (processor; memory and energy) can be utilized efficiently. Moreover; the user application development can be served soundly. In this article;
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Operating system (OS) technology is significant for the proliferation of the wireless sensor network (WSN). With an outstanding OS; the constrained WSN resources (processor; memory and energy) can be utilized efficiently. Moreover; the user application development can be served soundly. In this article; a new hybrid; real-time; memory-efficient; energy-efficient; user-friendly and fault-tolerant WSN OS MIROS is designed and implemented. MIROS implements the hybrid scheduler and the dynamic memory allocator. Real-time scheduling can thus be achieved with low memory consumption. In addition; it implements a mid-layer software EMIDE (Efficient Mid-layer Software for User-Friendly Application Development Environment) to decouple the WSN application from the low-level system. The application programming process can consequently be simplified and the application reprogramming performance improved. Moreover; it combines both the software and the multi-core hardware techniques to conserve the energy resources; improve the node reliability; as well as achieve a new debugging method. To evaluate the performance of MIROS; it is compared with the other WSN OSes (TinyOS; Contiki; SOS; openWSN and mantisOS) from different OS concerns. The final evaluation results prove that MIROS is suitable to be used even on the tight resource-constrained WSN nodes. It can support the real-time WSN applications. Furthermore; it is energy efficient; user friendly and fault tolerant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things)
Open AccessArticle Autonomous Navigation System Using a Fuzzy Adaptive Nonlinear H∞ Filter
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17600-17620; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917600
Received: 6 May 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 12 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although nonlinear H∞ (NH∞) filters offer good performance without requiring assumptions concerning the characteristics of process and/or measurement noises, they still require additional tuning parameters that remain fixed and that need to be determined through trial and error. To address issues associated with
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Although nonlinear H∞ (NH∞) filters offer good performance without requiring assumptions concerning the characteristics of process and/or measurement noises, they still require additional tuning parameters that remain fixed and that need to be determined through trial and error. To address issues associated with NH∞ filters, a new SINS/GPS sensor fusion scheme known as the Fuzzy Adaptive Nonlinear H∞ (FANH∞) filter is proposed for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) localization problem. Based on a real-time Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), the FANH∞ filter continually adjusts the higher order of the Taylor development thorough adaptive bounds and adaptive disturbance attenuation , which significantly increases the UAV localization performance. The results obtained using the FANH∞ navigation filter are compared to the NH∞ navigation filter results and are validated using a 3D UAV flight scenario. The comparison proves the efficiency and robustness of the UAV localization process using the FANH∞ filter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Gyroscopes and Navigation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Wearable and Wireless Ring-Type Pulse Oximeter with Multi-Detectors
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17586-17599; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140917586
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 9 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (6961 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pulse oximeter is a popular instrument to monitor the arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2). Although a fingertip-type pulse oximeter is the mainstream one on the market at present, it is still inconvenient for long-term monitoring, in particular, with respect to motion.
[...] Read more.
The pulse oximeter is a popular instrument to monitor the arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2). Although a fingertip-type pulse oximeter is the mainstream one on the market at present, it is still inconvenient for long-term monitoring, in particular, with respect to motion. Therefore, the development of a wearable pulse oximeter, such as a finger base-type pulse oximeter, can effectively solve the above issue. However, the tissue structure of the finger base is complex, and there is lack of detailed information on the effect of the light source and detector placement on measuring SPO2. In this study, the practicability of a ring-type pulse oximeter with a multi-detector was investigated by optical human tissue simulation. The optimal design of a ring-type pulse oximeter that can provide the best efficiency of measuring SPO2 was discussed. The efficiency of ring-type pulse oximeters with a single detector and a multi-detector was also discussed. Finally, a wearable and wireless ring-type pulse oximeter was also implemented to validate the simulation results and was compared with the commercial fingertip-type pulse oximeter. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
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