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Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17770-17785; doi:10.3390/s140917770

Voltammetric Electronic Tongue and Support Vector Machines for Identification of Selected Features in Mexican Coffee

Bioelectronics Section, Electrical Engineering Department, CINVESTAV, 07360 Mexico D.F., Mexico
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Received: 19 June 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

This paper describes a new method based on a voltammetric electronic tongue (ET) for the recognition of distinctive features in coffee samples. An ET was directly applied to different samples from the main Mexican coffee regions without any pretreatment before the analysis. The resulting electrochemical information was modeled with two different mathematical tools, namely Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Growing conditions (i.e., organic or non-organic practices and altitude of crops) were considered for a first classification. LDA results showed an average discrimination rate of 88% ± 6.53% while SVM successfully accomplished an overall accuracy of 96.4% ± 3.50% for the same task. A second classification based on geographical origin of samples was carried out. Results showed an overall accuracy of 87.5% ± 7.79% for LDA and a superior performance of 97.5% ± 3.22% for SVM. Given the complexity of coffee samples, the high accuracy percentages achieved by ET coupled with SVM in both classification problems suggested a potential applicability of ET in the assessment of selected coffee features with a simpler and faster methodology along with a null sample pretreatment. In addition, the proposed method can be applied to authentication assessment while improving cost, time and accuracy of the general procedure. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; electronic tongue; support vector machine; organic; geographical origin coffee; electronic tongue; support vector machine; organic; geographical origin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Domínguez, R.B.; Moreno-Barón, L.; Muñoz, R.; Gutiérrez, J.M. Voltammetric Electronic Tongue and Support Vector Machines for Identification of Selected Features in Mexican Coffee. Sensors 2014, 14, 17770-17785.

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