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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2009), Pages 4575-5103

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Laser-Induced Silver Nanoparticles on Titanium Oxide for Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4707-4718; doi:10.3390/ijms10114707
Received: 28 August 2009 / Revised: 22 October 2009 / Accepted: 27 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles doped on titanium oxide (TiO2) were produced by laser-liquid interaction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) in isopropanol. Characteristics of Ag/TiO2 (Ag doped TiO2) nanoparticles produced by the methods presented in this article were investigated [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles doped on titanium oxide (TiO2) were produced by laser-liquid interaction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) in isopropanol. Characteristics of Ag/TiO2 (Ag doped TiO2) nanoparticles produced by the methods presented in this article were investigated by XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, and UV-Vis. From the UV-Vis measurements, the absorption of visible light of the Ag/TiO2 photocatalysts was improved (additional absorption at longer wavelength in visible light region) obviously. The photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/TiO2 was tested by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. A maximum of 82.3% MB degradation is achieved by 2.0 wt% Ag/TiO2 photocatalyst under 2 h illumination with a halogen lamp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle The Cladistic Basis for the Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) Measure Links Evolutionary Features to Environmental Gradients and Supports Broad Applications of Microbial Ecology’s “Phylogenetic Beta Diversity” Framework
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4723-4741; doi:10.3390/ijms10114723
Received: 23 July 2009 / Revised: 5 October 2009 / Accepted: 30 October 2009 / Published: 3 November 2009
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The PD measure of phylogenetic diversity interprets branch lengths cladistically to make inferences about feature diversity. PD calculations extend conventional specieslevel ecological indices to the features level. The “phylogenetic beta diversity” framework developed by microbial ecologists calculates PD-dissimilarities between community localities. Interpretation [...] Read more.
The PD measure of phylogenetic diversity interprets branch lengths cladistically to make inferences about feature diversity. PD calculations extend conventional specieslevel ecological indices to the features level. The “phylogenetic beta diversity” framework developed by microbial ecologists calculates PD-dissimilarities between community localities. Interpretation of these PD-dissimilarities at the feature level explains the framework’s success in producing ordinations revealing environmental gradients. An example gradients space using PD-dissimilarities illustrates how evolutionary features form unimodal response patterns to gradients. This features model supports new application of existing species-level methods that are robust to unimodal responses, plus novel applications relating to climate change, commercial products discovery, and community assembly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cladistic Analysis and Molecular Evolution)
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Open AccessArticle Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanolic Extracts of Glycine max (L.) Merr and Rhynchosia nulubilis Seeds
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4742-4753; doi:10.3390/ijms10114742
Received: 11 October 2009 / Revised: 2 November 2009 / Accepted: 4 November 2009 / Published: 4 November 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo potential of ethanolic extracts of Glycine max (L.) Merr. (SoRiTae) and Rhynchosia nulubilis (Yak-Kong) seeds as natural anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory agents. To assess the anti-nociceptive and antiinflammatory potential, the ethanolic extracts of SoRiTae and Yak-Kong seeds were tested in arachidonic acid-induced ear edema, carrageenan induced paw edema, formalin-induced licking time, acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice. The administration of ethanolic extracts of SoRiTae and Yak-Kong seeds evoked a significant effect of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities as compared to standards aminopyrine and indomethacin. The ear edema, paw edema, paw licking time, pain and writhes in mice were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) as compared to the control. The results obtained in this study indicate that both SoRiTae and Yak-Kong soybeans possesses potential anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Time-Resolved Soft X-ray Diffraction Reveals Transient Structural Distortions of Ternary Liquid Crystals
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4754-4771; doi:10.3390/ijms10114754
Received: 8 September 2009 / Revised: 24 October 2009 / Accepted: 2 November 2009 / Published: 4 November 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Home-based soft X-ray time-resolved scattering experiments with nanosecond time resolution (10 ns) and nanometer spatial resolution were carried out at a table top soft X-ray plasma source (2.2–5.2 nm). The investigated system was the lyotropic liquid crystal C16E7/paraffin/glycerol/formamide/IR [...] Read more.
Home-based soft X-ray time-resolved scattering experiments with nanosecond time resolution (10 ns) and nanometer spatial resolution were carried out at a table top soft X-ray plasma source (2.2–5.2 nm). The investigated system was the lyotropic liquid crystal C16E7/paraffin/glycerol/formamide/IR 5. Usually, major changes in physical, chemical, and/or optical properties of the sample occur as a result of structural changes and shrinking morphology. Here, these effects occur as a consequence of the energy absorption in the sample upon optical laser excitation in the IR regime. The liquid crystal shows changes in the structural response within few hundred nanoseconds showing a time decay of 182 ns. A decrease of the Bragg peak diffracted intensity of 30% and a coherent macroscopic movement of the Bragg reflection are found as a response to the optical pump. The Bragg reflection movement is established to be isotropic and diffusion controlled (1 μs). Structural processes are analyzed in the Patterson analysis framework of the time-varying diffraction peaks revealing that the inter-lamellar distance increases by 2.7 Å resulting in an elongation of the coherently expanding lamella crystallite. The present studies emphasize the possibility of applying TR-SXRD techniques for studying the mechanical dynamics of nanosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Characterization and Texture Observations of Calamitic Liquid Crystalline Compounds
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4772-4788; doi:10.3390/ijms10114772
Received: 1 September 2009 / Revised: 1 October 2009 / Accepted: 19 October 2009 / Published: 4 November 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several divinylic mesogenic monomers were synthesized based on coupling the monomer 4-(4-pentenyloxy)benzoic acid with chlorohydroquinone, 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone, methylhydroquinone or 2-methoxyhydroquinone. This resulted in novel mesogens of phenylene esters with different lateral substituent groups. The effect of the lateral substituent group on the thermotropic [...] Read more.
Several divinylic mesogenic monomers were synthesized based on coupling the monomer 4-(4-pentenyloxy)benzoic acid with chlorohydroquinone, 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone, methylhydroquinone or 2-methoxyhydroquinone. This resulted in novel mesogens of phenylene esters with different lateral substituent groups. The effect of the lateral substituent group on the thermotropic phase behavior for these liquid crystalline compounds was investigated using DSC and optical polarized microscopy. All the mesogens proved to have a wide nematic liquid crystalline range. Only the phenylene ester, which has a methoxy lateral substituent, exhibited both nematic and smectic phases. Structural confirmation of all new derivatives was accomplished by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopic analysis, along with CH elemental analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Oxidative Neurodegeneration Is Prevented by UCP0045037, an Allosteric Modulator for the Reduced Form of DJ-1, a Wild-Type of Familial Parkinson’s Disease-Linked PARK7
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4789-4804; doi:10.3390/ijms10114789
Received: 17 September 2009 / Revised: 21 October 2009 / Accepted: 2 November 2009 / Published: 5 November 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although a loss-of-function mutation has been identified in familial Parkinson’s disease PARK7, the wild-type of DJ-1 is known to act as an oxidative stress sensor in neuronal cells. Recently, we identified UCP0045037 as a compound that bound to the reduced form of [...] Read more.
Although a loss-of-function mutation has been identified in familial Parkinson’s disease PARK7, the wild-type of DJ-1 is known to act as an oxidative stress sensor in neuronal cells. Recently, we identified UCP0045037 as a compound that bound to the reduced form of DJ-1 by in silico virtual screening. In this study, we determined the neuroprotective effects of UCP0045037 against focal cerebral ischemia-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by UCP0045037 in both rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and human normal SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, DJ-1-knockdown SH-SY5Y cells lost the protective activity of UCP0045037. These results suggest that UCP0045037 interacts with endogenous DJ-1 and produces a neuroprotective response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies (special issue))
Open AccessArticle Two-Stage Fungal Pre-Treatment for Improved Biogas Production from Sisal Leaf Decortication Residues
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4805-4815; doi:10.3390/ijms10114805
Received: 17 August 2009 / Revised: 1 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 6 November 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (72 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sisal leaf decortications residue (SLDR) is amongst the most abundant agroindustrial residues in Tanzania and is a good feedstock for biogas production. Pretreatment of the residue prior to its anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated using a twostage pre-treatment approach with two fungal [...] Read more.
Sisal leaf decortications residue (SLDR) is amongst the most abundant agroindustrial residues in Tanzania and is a good feedstock for biogas production. Pretreatment of the residue prior to its anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated using a twostage pre-treatment approach with two fungal strains, CCHT-1 and Trichoderma reesei in succession in anaerobic batch bioreactors. AD of the pre-treated residue with CCTH-1 at 10% (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) inoculum concentration incubated for four days followed by incubation for eight days with 25% (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) of T. reesei gave a methane yield of 0.292 ± 0.04 m3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS)added. On reversing the pre-treatment succession of the fungal inocula using the same parameters followed by AD, methane yield decreased by about 55%. Generally, an increment in the range of 30–101% in methane yield in comparison to the un-treated SLDR was obtained. The results confirmed the potential of CCHT-1 followed by Trichoderma reesei fungi pre-treatment prior to AD to achieve significant improvement in biogas production from SLDR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Peanut Skin Color: A Biomarker for Total Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidative Capacities of Peanut Cultivars
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4941-4952; doi:10.3390/ijms10114941
Received: 23 September 2009 / Revised: 4 November 2009 / Accepted: 5 November 2009 / Published: 11 November 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Attempts to establish a relationship between peanut skin color (PSC) and total flavonoid (TF) content have produced inconclusive results. This study investigated the potential of PSC as a biomarker for polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Peanut cultivars were objectively evaluated for their [...] Read more.
Attempts to establish a relationship between peanut skin color (PSC) and total flavonoid (TF) content have produced inconclusive results. This study investigated the potential of PSC as a biomarker for polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Peanut cultivars were objectively evaluated for their skin color, total phenolic (TP), flavonoid (TF), proanthocyanidin (TPC) contents and antioxidant capacities (AC). Their relationship was determined by Pearson’s correlation analyses. TP had stronger correlations with CIE a*, hue angle and AC (r2 = 0.77, 0.82 and 0.80, respectively) compared to TF. Therefore, hue angle of peanut skin may be used as a biomarker for TP content rather than TF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Hydraulic Activity on Crystallization of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) for Eco-Friendly Paper
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4954-4962; doi:10.3390/ijms10114954
Received: 29 October 2009 / Revised: 8 November 2009 / Accepted: 11 November 2009 / Published: 11 November 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wt% of aragonite, a CaCO3 polymorph, increased with higher hydraulic activity (°C) of limestone in precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) from the lime-soda process (Ca(OH)2-NaOH-Na2CO3). Only calcite, the most stable polymorph, was crystallized at hydraulic activity [...] Read more.
Wt% of aragonite, a CaCO3 polymorph, increased with higher hydraulic activity (°C) of limestone in precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) from the lime-soda process (Ca(OH)2-NaOH-Na2CO3). Only calcite, the most stable polymorph, was crystallized at hydraulic activity under 10 °C, whereas aragonite also started to crystallize over 10 °C. The crystallization of PCC is more dependent on the hydraulic activity of limestone than CaO content, a factor commonly used to classify limestone ores according to quality. The results could be effectively applied to the determination of polymorphs in synthetic PCC for eco-friendly paper manufacture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle Heat Shock-Induced Three-Dimensional-Like Proliferation of Normal Human Fibroblasts Mediated by Pressed Silk
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4963-4976; doi:10.3390/ijms10114963
Received: 30 September 2009 / Accepted: 30 October 2009 / Published: 12 November 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the optimal heat treatment conditions for enhancement of pressed silk-mediated 3D-like proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts, as well as to determine the responses to heat shock of cells and intracellular signaling pathways. The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the optimal heat treatment conditions for enhancement of pressed silk-mediated 3D-like proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts, as well as to determine the responses to heat shock of cells and intracellular signaling pathways. The beginning of 3D-like pattern formation of cells was observed in the second week after the start of the experiment. The mean rates of beginning of 3D-like pattern formation by cells heat-treated at 40 ºC and 43 ºC for 10 min were significantly higher (3.2- and 8.6-fold, respectively) than that of untreated cells. We found that apoptosis had occurred in 7.5% and 50.0% of the cells at one week after heat treatment for 10 min at 43 ºC and 45 ºC, respectively. Western blot analysis demonstrated that phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and that of Hsp27 were markedly increased by heat treatment at 43 ºC for 10 min. The results of an experiment using a p38 MAPK inhibitor and Hsp27 inhibitor suggest that activation of p38 MAPK by heat shock is associated with 3D-like cell proliferation and that Hsp27 contributes to the inhibition of apoptosis. The results of this study should be useful for further studies aimed at elucidation of the physiologic mechanisms underlying thermotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Modification of Different Zirconium Propoxide Precursors by Diethanolamine. Is There a Shelf Stability Issue for Sol-Gel Applications?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4977-4989; doi:10.3390/ijms10114977
Received: 12 October 2009 / Revised: 28 October 2009 / Accepted: 9 November 2009 / Published: 13 November 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (943 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modification of different zirconium propoxide precursors with H2dea was investigated by characterization of the isolated modified species. Upon modification of zirconium n-propoxide and [Zr(OnPr)(OiPr)3(iPrOH)]2 with ½ a mol equivalent of [...] Read more.
Modification of different zirconium propoxide precursors with H2dea was investigated by characterization of the isolated modified species. Upon modification of zirconium n-propoxide and [Zr(OnPr)(OiPr)3(iPrOH)]2 with ½ a mol equivalent of H2dea the complexes [Zr2(OnPr)6(OCH2CH2)2NH]2 (1) and [Zr2(OnPr)2(OiPr)4(OCH2CH2)2NH]2 (2) were obtained. However, 1H-NMR studies of these tetranuclear compounds showed that these are not time-stable either in solution or solid form. The effect of this time instability on material properties is demonstrated by light scattering and TEM experiments. Modification of zirconium isopropoxide with either ½ or 1 equivalent mol of H2dea results in formation of the trinuclear complex, Zr{η3μ2-NH(C2H4O)2}3[Zr(OiPr)3]2(iPrOH)2 (3) countering a unique nona-coordinated central zirconium atom. This complex 3 is one of the first modified zirconium propoxide precursors shown to be stable in solution for long periods of time. The particle size and morphology of the products of sol-gel synthesis are strongly dependent on the time factor and eventual heat treatment of the precursor solution. Reproducible sol-gel synthesis requires the use of solution stable precursors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sol-Gel Technique)
Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Screening and Polyphenolic Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Crude Leaf Extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4990-5001; doi:10.3390/ijms10114990
Received: 10 October 2009 / Revised: 9 November 2009 / Accepted: 12 November 2009 / Published: 13 November 2009
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We evaluated the in vitro antioxidant property and phytochemical constituents of the aqueous crude leaf extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum. The scavenging activity on superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS; and the reducing power were determined, as [...] Read more.
We evaluated the in vitro antioxidant property and phytochemical constituents of the aqueous crude leaf extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum. The scavenging activity on superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS; and the reducing power were determined, as well as the flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract. The extract exhibited scavenging activity towards all radicals tested due to the presence of relatively high total phenol and flavonoids contents. Our findings suggest that H. pedunculatum is endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals and could serve as a base for future drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
Open AccessArticle C18:1 Methyl Ester Metathesis in [bmim][X] Type Ionic Liquids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 5020-5030; doi:10.3390/ijms10115020
Received: 11 September 2009 / Revised: 1 October 2009 / Accepted: 30 October 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The efficacyof [bmim][X] ionic liquids (ILs) (X = PF6, BF4 and NTf2) as reaction media for methyl oleate metathesis was compared with that of conventional organic solvents (PhCl, PhMe, DCM and DCE) using the [...] Read more.
The efficacyof [bmim][X] ionic liquids (ILs) (X = PF6, BF4 and NTf2) as reaction media for methyl oleate metathesis was compared with that of conventional organic solvents (PhCl, PhMe, DCM and DCE) using the well-defined first and second generation Grubbs precatalysts, RuCl2(PCy3)(L)(=CHPh) (L = PCy3 or H2IMes). Best catalytic performance, with excellent selectivity (>98%) at moderate reaction temperatures, was achieved in [bmim][X] ILs compared to conventional solvents. The effects of anion, reaction temperature, solvent polarity, solvent viscosity, and ligand-anion interaction on the reaction are also addressed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dendronized Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups and Their Application for Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 5031-5053; doi:10.3390/ijms10115031
Received: 7 September 2009 / Revised: 11 November 2009 / Accepted: 18 November 2009 / Published: 19 November 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy)-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxy)benzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with [...] Read more.
Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy)-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxy)benzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with conventional tetracarboxylic dianhydride monomers such as benzophenone tertracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). The two-step polymerizations in NMP that is a general method for the synthesis of soluble polyimides is difficult; however, the expected dendritic polyimides can be obtained in aromatic polar solvents such as m-cresol and pyridine. The solubility of these dendoronized polyimides is characteristic; soluble in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene and THF. These dendronized polyimides exhibited high glass transition temperatures and good thermal stability in both air and under nitrogen. Their application as alignment layers for LCDs was investigated, and it was found that these polyimides having dendritic side chains were applicable for the vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays (VAN-LCDs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Mycoflora and Co-Occurrence of Fumonisins and Aflatoxins in Freshly Harvested Corn in Different Regions of Brazil
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 5090-5103; doi:10.3390/ijms10115090
Received: 11 September 2009 / Revised: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 12 November 2009 / Published: 24 November 2009
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (79 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural mycoflora and co-occurrence of fumonisins (FB1, FB2) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) in freshly harvested corn grain samples from four regions of Brazil were investigated. Fusarium verticillioides was [...] Read more.
Natural mycoflora and co-occurrence of fumonisins (FB1, FB2) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) in freshly harvested corn grain samples from four regions of Brazil were investigated. Fusarium verticillioides was predominant in all samples. Analysis of fumonisins showed that 98% of the samples were contaminated with FB1 and 74.5% with FB1 + FB2, with toxin levels ranging from 0.015 to 9.67 μg/g for FB1 and from 0.015 to 3.16 μg/g for FB2. Twenty-one (10.5%) samples were contaminated with AFB1, seven (3.5%) with AFB2 and only one (0.5%) with AFG1 and AFG2. Co-contamination with aflatoxins and fumonisins was observed in 7% of the samples. The highest contamination of fumonisins and aflatoxins was observed in Nova Odessa (SP) and Várzea Grande (MT), respectively. The lowest contamination of these mycotoxins was found in Várzea Grande and Nova Odessa, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on the Principles and Materials of Photosynthesis: Mechanisms of Suppression and Enhancement of Photocurrent and Conversion Efficiency
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4575-4622; doi:10.3390/ijms10114575
Received: 20 August 2009 / Revised: 8 September 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Attempts have been made to develop dye-sensitized solar cells based on the principles and materials of photosynthesis: We first tested photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids (Cars), chlorophylls (Chls) and their derivatives, to find sensitizers showing reasonable performance (photocurrent and conversion efficiency). We then tried [...] Read more.
Attempts have been made to develop dye-sensitized solar cells based on the principles and materials of photosynthesis: We first tested photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids (Cars), chlorophylls (Chls) and their derivatives, to find sensitizers showing reasonable performance (photocurrent and conversion efficiency). We then tried to introduce the principles of photosynthesis, including electron transfer and energy transfer from Car to Phe a. Also, we tried co-sensitization using the pheophorbide (Phe) a and Chl c2 pair which further enhanced the performance of the component sensitizers as follows: Jsc = 9.0 + 13.8 → 14.0 mA cm–2 and η = 3.4 + 4.6 → 5.4%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Cells)
Open AccessReview Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4623-4637; doi:10.3390/ijms10114623
Received: 8 October 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 63 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF) strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into [...] Read more.
Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF) strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants) as well as the perspectives for future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Antifouling)
Open AccessReview Molecular Momentum Transport at Fluid-Solid Interfaces in MEMS/NEMS: A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4638-4706; doi:10.3390/ijms10114638
Received: 28 August 2009 / Revised: 17 October 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
Cited by 106 | PDF Full-text (676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review is focused on molecular momentum transport at fluid-solid interfaces mainly related to microfluidics and nanofluidics in micro-/nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). This broad subject covers molecular dynamics behaviors, boundary conditions, molecular momentum accommodations, theoretical and phenomenological models in terms of gas-solid and [...] Read more.
This review is focused on molecular momentum transport at fluid-solid interfaces mainly related to microfluidics and nanofluidics in micro-/nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). This broad subject covers molecular dynamics behaviors, boundary conditions, molecular momentum accommodations, theoretical and phenomenological models in terms of gas-solid and liquid-solid interfaces affected by various physical factors, such as fluid and solid species, surface roughness, surface patterns, wettability, temperature, pressure, fluid viscosity and polarity. This review offers an overview of the major achievements, including experiments, theories and molecular dynamics simulations, in the field with particular emphasis on the effects on microfluidics and nanofluidics in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In Section 1 we present a brief introduction on the backgrounds, history and concepts. Sections 2 and 3 are focused on molecular momentum transport at gas-solid and liquid-solid interfaces, respectively. Summary and conclusions are finally presented in Section 4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology for the 21st Century - Materials and Devices)
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Open AccessReview Path Integrals for Electronic Densities, Reactivity Indices, and Localization Functions in Quantum Systems
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4816-4940; doi:10.3390/ijms10114816
Received: 3 September 2009 / Revised: 23 October 2009 / Accepted: 2 November 2009 / Published: 10 November 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (887 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI) development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism [...] Read more.
The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI) development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr’s quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions – all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving) many-electronic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Density Functional Theory)
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Open AccessReview Methylation of Dietary Flavones Increases Their Metabolic Stability and Chemopreventive Effects
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 5002-5019; doi:10.3390/ijms10115002
Received: 30 October 2009 / Accepted: 16 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary flavones have promising chemoprotective properties, in particular with regard to cancer, but problems with low oral bioavailability and sometimes unacceptable toxicity have made their use as protective additives to normal diets questionable. However, methylation of free phenolic hydroxyl groups leads to [...] Read more.
Dietary flavones have promising chemoprotective properties, in particular with regard to cancer, but problems with low oral bioavailability and sometimes unacceptable toxicity have made their use as protective additives to normal diets questionable. However, methylation of free phenolic hydroxyl groups leads to derivatives not susceptible to glucuronic acid or sulfate conjugation, resulting in increased metabolic stability. Methylation also leads to greatly improved transport through biological membranes, such as in intestinal absorption, and much increased oral bioavailability. Recent studies also indicate that methylation results in derivatives with increasing potency to kill cancer cells. They also show high potency towards inhibition of hormone-regulating enzymes, e.g., aromatase, important in the causation of breast cancer. Methylation of the flavones may also result in derivatives with diminished toxic side-effects and improved aqueous solubility. In conclusion, it appears that methylation of dietary flavones as well as of other food products may produce derivatives with much improved health effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
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Open AccessReview Combined Molecular Algorithms for the Generation, Equilibration and Topological Analysis of Entangled Polymers: Methodology and Performance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 5054-5089; doi:10.3390/ijms10115054
Received: 6 October 2009 / Revised: 17 November 2009 / Accepted: 20 November 2009 / Published: 23 November 2009
Cited by 52 | PDF Full-text (11671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review the methodology, algorithmic implementation and performance characteristics of a hierarchical modeling scheme for the generation, equilibration and topological analysis of polymer systems at various levels of molecular description: from atomistic polyethylene samples to random packings of freely-jointed chains of tangent [...] Read more.
We review the methodology, algorithmic implementation and performance characteristics of a hierarchical modeling scheme for the generation, equilibration and topological analysis of polymer systems at various levels of molecular description: from atomistic polyethylene samples to random packings of freely-jointed chains of tangent hard spheres of uniform size. Our analysis focuses on hitherto less discussed algorithmic details of the implementation of both, the Monte Carlo (MC) procedure for the system generation and equilibration, and a postprocessing step, where we identify the underlying topological structure of the simulated systems in the form of primitive paths. In order to demonstrate our arguments, we study how molecular length and packing density (volume fraction) affect the performance of the MC scheme built around chain-connectivity altering moves. In parallel, we quantify the effect of finite system size, of polydispersity, and of the definition of the number of entanglements (and related entanglement molecular weight) on the results about the primitive path network. Along these lines we approve main concepts which had been previously proposed in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Molecular Sciences)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Hunt, R.W. et al. Electromagnetic Biostimulation of Living Cultures for Biotechnology, Biofuel and Bioenergy Applications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 4515-4558
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4719-4722; doi:10.3390/ijms10114719
Received: 30 October 2009 / Published: 30 October 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract We found some errors in the paper published in International Journal of Molecular Sciences [1]. [...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Zhou, Z.-B. et al. Receptor-Mediated Vascular Smooth Muscle Migration Induced by LPA Involves p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Activation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 3194-3208
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(11), 4953; doi:10.3390/ijms10114953
Received: 10 November 2009 / Published: 11 November 2009
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Abstract Due to personal reasons, I left the research group. In accordance with the regulations of the funding institution, Xiamen Health Administration, China, I hereby declare a withdrawal of my signature, Zhi-Jun Zhang, from this paper. [...] Full article

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